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1.  Cardiopulmonary arrest in pregnancy with schizophrenia: a case report 
BMC Research Notes  2014;7(1):821.
Background
Cardiopulmonary arrest in pregnancy has a very high maternal and fetal mortality rate. We report a case of successful maternal and neonatal survival in association with emergency cesarean section of a schizophrenic pregnant patient. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of cardiopulmonary arrest in a pregnant woman with schizophrenia.
Case presentation
The parents were Japanese. The mother was 39 years old and had no history of prior pregnancy. Her admission to our hospital at 36 weeks and 4 days of pregnancy was due to deterioration of schizophrenia. On the first day of hospitalization, she collapsed after a seizure and vomiting, and an emergency resuscitation team was called immediately. The team identified apparent aspiration and successfully resuscitated the patient after 11 minutes of cardiopulmonary arrest. An emergency cesarean section was performed in the operating room. The newborn male infant received bag and mask ventilation at birth, and his Apgar scores were 5 at 1 minute and 8 at 5 minutes. He had a myoclonic seizure on the 2nd day of life: however, he experienced no further seizures on anticonvulsant medication after that episode. On the 18th day of life, magnetic resonance imaging of his brain revealed bilateral small hyperintensities on T1-weighted images in the basal ganglia. The mother and her newborn were discharged from our hospital without neurological disorders.
Conclusion
We speculate that the cause of cardiopulmonary arrest was aspiration due to seizure, and it is possible that a neurological response was evoked by administration of antipsychotic drugs and/or by eclampsia. Medical staff must be aware of the possibility of cardiopulmonary arrest in pregnant women with schizophrenia.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-7-821
PMCID: PMC4246523  PMID: 25409709
Cardiopulmonary arrest; Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy; Multidisciplinary approach; Resuscitation; Schizophrenia
2.  Brain White Matter Abnormality in a Newborn Infant with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia 
Several studies have described brain white matter abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in children and adults with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), while the brain MRI findings of newborn infants with CAH have not been clarified. We report a newborn boy with CAH who presented brain white matter abnormality on MRI. He was diagnosed as having salt-wasting CAH with a high 17-OHP level at neonatal screening and was initially treated with hydrocortisone at 8 days of age. On day 11 after birth, he had a generalized tonic seizure. No evidence of serum electrolyte abnormalities was observed. Brain MRI revealed white matter abnormalities that consisted of bilateral small diffuse hyperintensities on T1-weighted images with slightly low intensity on T2-weighted images in the watershed area. Several factors associated with brain white matter abnormalities in adults with CAH, such as increasing age, hypertension, diabetes and corticosteroid replacement, were not applicable. Although the cause of the phenomenon in this case is unclear, brain white matter abnormality could be observed in newborn infants with CAH as well as in adult patients.
doi:10.1297/cpe.22.77
PMCID: PMC3809734  PMID: 24170965
aldosterone; brain white matter; congenital adrenal hyperplasia; magnetic resonance imaging; newborn infant
3.  Development of icterus gravis in a preterm infant with G71R UGT1A1 polymorphism 
BMC Research Notes  2013;6:51.
Background
Uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) gene family is involved in the detoxification of biomaterials and drugs in the liver. Among the UGT gene family members, only UGT1A1 is involved in bilirubin conjugation. As a result, deficient UGT1A1 activity causes jaundice. One disease that is characterized by reduced UGT1A1 activity is Gilbert’s syndrome. Two prevalent UGT1A1 polymorphisms responsible for Gilbert’s syndrome have been identified: G71R in exon 1 and A(TA)7TAA in the TATA box of the promoter region. Recently, the G71R polymorphism has been associated with breastfeeding jaundice and neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in term infants. However, its association with jaundice in very low birth weight infants (VLBWIs) has never been reported.
Case presentation
The patient was a female born at 28 weeks, 4 days gestation with a birth weight of 1172 g. On day 21, intense yellowing of the skin and eyes was noted, and the patient’s total bilirubin level was 23.7 mg/dL (her direct bilirubin level was 2.1 mg/dL). Therefore, an exchange transfusion was conducted. She had neither blood type incompatibility nor a family history of constitutional jaundice. Metabolic screens for amino and organic acids were negative. No elevation of any of the examined antibody titers was noted, and no evidence of an inflammatory reaction was observed. In addition, no hematological abnormalities were detected. The direct/indirect Coombs test, irregular antibody test and red blood cell antibody dissociation test were all negative, and her thyroid function was normal. We performed sequence analysis of the UGT1A1 gene after the patient’s parents provided written informed consent. Exon 1 of the UGT1 gene on chromosome 2 was analyzed by direct sequencing. A heterozygous substitution from G to A (211G→A: G71R) in base 211 was noted.
Conclusion
We speculated that this preterm infant with carrying the G71R polymorphism reduced UGT1A1 activity and developed severe jaundice that was likely triggered by factors such as breast feeding and medications. The polymorphism appears at some frequency among VLBWIs, which would necessitate adequate care of severe jaundice even after the acute phase.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-6-51
PMCID: PMC3639837  PMID: 23388413
Gilbert’s syndrome; G71R; Icterus gravis; Preterm infant; Uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase
4.  Intestinal malrotation with suspected cow’s milk allergy: a case report 
BMC Research Notes  2012;5:481.
Background
Intestinal malrotation is an incomplete rotation of the intestine. Failure to rotate leads to abnormalities in intestinal positioning and attachment that leave obstructing bands across the duodenum and a narrow pedicle for the midgut loop, thus making it susceptible to volvulus. One of the important differential diagnoses for malrotation is an allergy to cow’s milk. Several studies have described infants with surgical gastrointestinal diseases and cow’s milk allergy. However, to our knowledge, no study has reported infants with intestinal malrotation who have been symptomatic before surgery was performed and have been examined by allergen-specific lymphocyte stimulation test and food challenge tests with long-term follow-up.
Case presentation
The patient was a Japanese male born at 39 weeks of gestation. He was breast-fed and received commercial cow’s milk supplementation starting the day of birth and was admitted to our hospital at 6 days of age due to bilious vomiting. Plain abdominal radiography showed a paucity of gas in the distal bowel. Because we demonstrated malpositioning of the intestine by barium enema, we repositioned the bowel in a normal position by laparotomy. The patient was re-started on only breast milk 2 days post surgery because we suspected the presence of a cow’s milk allergy, and the results of an allergen-specific lymphocyte stimulation test showed a marked increase in lymphocyte response to kappa-casein. At 5 months of age, the patient was subjected to a cow’s milk challenge test. After the patient began feeding on cow’s milk, he had no symptoms and his laboratory investigations showed no abnormality. In addition, because the patient showed good weight gain and no symptoms with increased cow’s milk intake after discharge, we concluded that the present case was not the result of a cow’s milk allergy. At 1 year, the patient showed favorable growth and development, and serum allergy investigations revealed no reaction to cow’s milk.
Conclusion
When physicians encounter infants with surgical gastrointestinal disease, including intestinal malrotation, they should consider cow’s milk allergy as a differential diagnosis or complication and should utilize food challenge tests for a definitive diagnosis.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-5-481
PMCID: PMC3490812  PMID: 22943656
Allergen-specific lymphocyte stimulation test; Cow’s milk allergy; Food challenge test; Infant; Intestinal malrotation

Results 1-4 (4)