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1.  Mouse mammary tumour‐like virus gene sequences and specific breast cancer morphology 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  2006;60(9):1071.
doi:10.1136/jcp.2006.044487
PMCID: PMC1972429  PMID: 17158634
mouse mammary tumour virus; breast cancer; histology
2.  Epstein-Barr Virus, Human Papillomavirus and Mouse Mammary Tumour Virus as Multiple Viruses in Breast Cancer 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(11):e48788.
Background
The purpose of this investigation is to determine if Epstein Barr virus (EBV), high risk human papillomavirus (HPV), and mouse mammary tumour viruses (MMTV) co-exist in some breast cancers.
Materials and Methods
All the specimens were from women residing in Australia. For investigations based on standard PCR, we used fresh frozen DNA extracts from 50 unselected invasive breast cancers. For normal breast specimens, we used DNA extracts from epithelial cells from milk donated by 40 lactating women. For investigations based on in situ PCR we used 27 unselected archival formalin fixed breast cancer specimens and 18 unselected archival formalin fixed normal breast specimens from women who had breast reduction surgery. Thirteen of these fixed breast cancer specimens were ductal carcinoma in situ (dcis) and 14 were predominantly invasive ductal carcinomas (idc).
Results
EBV sequences were identified in 68%, high risk HPV sequences in 50%, and MMTV sequences in 78% of DNA extracted from 50 invasive breast cancer specimens. These same viruses were identified in selected normal and breast cancer specimens by in situ PCR. Sequences from more than one viral type were identified in 72% of the same breast cancer specimens. Normal controls showed these viruses were also present in epithelial cells in human milk – EBV (35%), HPV, 20%) and MMTV (32%) of 40 milk samples from normal lactating women, with multiple viruses being identified in 13% of the same milk samples.
Conclusions
We conclude that (i) EBV, HPV and MMTV gene sequences are present and co-exist in many human breast cancers, (ii) the presence of these viruses in breast cancer is associated with young age of diagnosis and possibly an increased grade of breast cancer.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048788
PMCID: PMC3501510  PMID: 23183846
3.  High risk human papillomavirus and Epstein Barr virus in human breast milk 
BMC Research Notes  2012;5:477.
Background
Multiple viruses, including human immunodeficiency virus, Epstein Barr virus (EBV) and mouse mammary tumour virus have been identified in human milk. High risk human papillomavirus (HPV) sequences have been identified in breast cancer. The aim of this study is to determine if viral sequences are present in human milk from normal lactating women.
Findings
Standard (liquid) and in situ polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques were used to identify HPV and EBV in human milk samples from normal lactating Australian women who had no history of breast cancer.
High risk human papillomavirus was identified in milk samples of 6 of 40 (15%) from normal lactating women - sequencing on four samples showed three were HPV 16 and one was HPV 18. Epstein Barr virus was identified in fourteen samples (33%).
Conclusion
The presence of high risk HPV and EBV in human milk suggests the possibility of milk transmission of these viruses. However, given the rarity of viral associated malignancies in young people, it is possible but unlikely, that such transmission is associated with breast or other cancers.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-5-477
PMCID: PMC3492016  PMID: 22937830
Human papillomavirus; Epstein barr virus; Human milk
4.  Breastfeeding, breast milk and viruses 
BMC Women's Health  2007;7:17.
Background
There is seemingly consistent and compelling evidence that there is no association between breastfeeding and breast cancer. An assumption follows that milk borne viruses cannot be associated with human breast cancer.
We challenge this evidence because past breastfeeding studies did not determine "exposure" of newborn infants to colostrum and breast milk.
Methods
We conducted a prospective review of 100 consecutive births of infants in the same centre to determine the proportion of newborn infants who were "exposed" to colostrum or breast milk, as distinct from being fully breast fed. We also report a review of the breastfeeding practices of mothers of over 87,000 newborn infants in the Australian State of New South Wales.
This study was approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of the University of New South Wales (Sydney, Australia). Approval 05063, 29 September 2005.
Results
Virtually all (97 of 100) newborn infants in this centre were "exposed" to colostrum or breast milk whether or not they were fully breast fed. Between 82.2% to 98.7% of 87,000 newborn infants were "exposed" to colostrum or breast milk.
Conclusion
In some Western communities there is near universal exposure of new born infants to colostrum and breast milk. Accordingly it is possible for the transmission of human milk borne viruses. This is contrary to the widespread assumption that human milk borne viruses cannot be associated with breast cancer.
doi:10.1186/1472-6874-7-17
PMCID: PMC2148035  PMID: 17919341

Results 1-4 (4)