PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-4 (4)
 

Clipboard (0)
None

Select a Filter Below

Journals
Authors
Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  Perceived risks and benefits of cigarette smoking among Nepalese adolescents: a population-based cross-sectional study 
BMC Public Health  2013;13:187.
Background
The perceived risks and benefits of smoking may play an important role in determining adolescents’ susceptibility to initiating smoking. Our study examined the perceived risks and benefits of smoking among adolescents who demonstrated susceptibility or non susceptibility to smoking initiation.
Methods
In October–November 2011, we conducted a population-based cross-sectional study in Jhaukhel and Duwakot Villages in Nepal. Located in the mid-hills of Bhaktapur District, 13 kilometers east of Kathmandu, Jhaukhel and Duwakot represent the prototypical urbanizing villages that surround Nepal’s major urban centers, where young people have easy access to tobacco products and are influenced by advertising. Jhaukhel and Duwakot had a total population of 13,669, of which 15% were smokers. Trained enumerators used a semi-structured questionnaire to interview 352 randomly selected 14- to 16-year-old adolescents. The enumerators asked the adolescents to estimate their likelihood (0%–100%) of experiencing various smoking-related risks and benefits in a hypothetical scenario.
Results
Principal component analysis extracted four perceived risk and benefit components, excluding addiction risk: (i) physical risk I (lung cancer, heart disease, wrinkles, bad colds); (ii) physical risk II (bad cough, bad breath, trouble breathing); (iii) social risk (getting into trouble, smelling like an ashtray); and (iv) social benefit (looking cool, feeling relaxed, becoming popular, and feeling grown-up). The adjusted odds ratio of susceptibility increased 1.20-fold with each increased quartile in perception of physical Risk I. Susceptibility to smoking was 0.27- and 0.90-fold less among adolescents who provided the highest estimates of physical Risk II and social risk, respectively. Similarly, susceptibility was 2.16-fold greater among adolescents who provided the highest estimates of addiction risk. Physical risk I, addiction risk, and social benefits of cigarette smoking related positively, and physical risk II and social risk related negatively, with susceptibility to smoking.
Conclusion
To discourage or prevent adolescents from initiating smoking, future intervention programs should focus on communicating not only the health risks but also the social and addiction risks as well as counteract the social benefits of smoking.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-187
PMCID: PMC3599383  PMID: 23452549
Susceptibility to smoking; Physical risks; Social risks; Addiction risk; Social benefits
2.  Establishing a health demographic surveillance site in Bhaktapur district, Nepal: initial experiences and findings 
BMC Research Notes  2012;5:489.
Background
A health demographic surveillance system (HDSS) provides longitudinal data regarding health and demography in countries with coverage error and poor quality data on vital registration systems due to lack of public awareness, inadequate legal basis and limited use of data in health planning. The health system in Nepal, a low-income country, does not focus primarily on health registration, and does not conduct regular health data collection. This study aimed to initiate and establish the first HDSS in Nepal.
Results
We conducted a baseline survey in Jhaukhel and Duwakot, two villages in Bhaktapur district. The study surveyed 2,712 households comprising a total population of 13,669. The sex ratio in the study area was 101 males per 100 females and the average household size was 5. The crude birth and death rates were 9.7 and 3.9/1,000 population/year, respectively. About 11% of births occurred at home, and we found no mortality in infants and children less than 5 years of age. Various health problems were found commonly and some of them include respiratory problems (41.9%); headache, vertigo and dizziness (16.7%); bone and joint pain (14.4%); gastrointestinal problems (13.9%); heart disease, including hypertension (8.8%); accidents and injuries (2.9%); and diabetes mellitus (2.6%). The prevalence of non-communicable disease (NCD) was 4.3% (95% CI: 3.83; 4.86) among individuals older than 30 years. Age-adjusted odds ratios showed that risk factors, such as sex, ethnic group, occupation and education, associated with NCD.
Conclusion
Our baseline survey demonstrated that it is possible to collect accurate and reliable data in a village setting in Nepal, and this study successfully established an HDSS site. We determined that both maternal and child health are better in the surveillance site compared to the entire country. Risk factors associated with NCDs dominated morbidity and mortality patterns.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-5-489
PMCID: PMC3494612  PMID: 22950751
3.  Do non-communicable diseases such as hypertension and diabetes associate with primary open-angle glaucoma? Insights from a case–control study in Nepal 
Global Health Action  2013;6:10.3402/gha.v6i0.22636.
Background
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as hypertension and diabetes are rapidly emerging public health problems worldwide, and they associate with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). POAG is the most common cause of irreversible blindness. The most effective ways to prevent glaucoma blindness involve identifying high-risk populations and conducting routine screening for early case detection. This study investigated whether POAG associates with hypertension and diabetes in a Nepalese population.
Methods
To explore the history of systemic illness, our hospital-based case–control study used non-random consecutive sampling in the general eye clinics in three hospitals across Nepal to enroll patients newly diagnosed with POAG and controls without POAG. The study protocol included history taking, ocular examination, and interviews with 173 POAG cases and 510 controls. Data analysis comprised descriptive and inferential statistics. Descriptive statistics computed the percentage, mean, and standard deviation (SD); inferential statistics used McNemar's test to measure associations between diseases.
Results
POAG affected males more frequently than females. The odds of members of the Gurung ethnic group having POAG were 2.05 times higher than for other ethnic groups. Hypertension and diabetes were strongly associated with POAG. The overall odds of POAG increased 2.72-fold among hypertensive and 3.50-fold among diabetic patients.
Conclusion
POAG associates significantly with hypertension and diabetes in Nepal. Thus, periodic glaucoma screening for hypertension and diabetes patients in addition to opportunistic screening at eye clinics may aid in detecting more POAG cases at an early stage and hence in reducing avoidable blindness.
doi:10.3402/gha.v6i0.22636
PMCID: PMC3818480  PMID: 24192283
non-communicable disease (NCD); hypertension; diabetes mellitus; blindness; primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG)
4.  Cardiovascular health knowledge, attitude and practice/behaviour in an urbanising community of Nepal: a population-based cross-sectional study from Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site 
BMJ Open  2013;3(10):e002976.
Objectives
This study determined the knowledge, attitude and practice/behaviour of cardiovascular health in residents of a semiurban community of Nepal.
Design
To increase the understanding of knowledge, attitude and practice/behaviour towards cardiovascular health, we conducted in-home interviews using a questionnaire based on the WHO STEPwise approach to surveillance and other resources, scoring all responses. We also recorded blood pressure and took anthropometric measurements.
Setting
Our study was conducted as part of the Heart-Health-Associated Research and Dissemination in the Community project in the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site in two urbanising villages near Kathmandu.
Participants
The study population included 777 respondents from six randomly selected clusters in both villages.
Results
Seventy per cent of all participants were women and 26.9% lacked formal education. The burden of cardiovascular risk factors was high; 20.1% were current smokers, 43.3% exhibited low physical activity and 21.6% were hypertensive. Participants showed only poor knowledge of heart disease causes; 29.7% identified hypertension and 11% identified overweight and physical activity as causes, whereas only 2.2% identified high blood sugar as causative. Around 60% of respondents did not know any heart attack symptoms compared with 20% who knew 2–4 symptoms. Median percentage scores for knowledge, attitude and practice/behaviour were 79.3, 74.3 and 48, respectively. Nearly 44% of respondents had insufficient knowledge and less than 20% had highly satisfactory knowledge. Among those with highly satisfactory knowledge, only 14.7% had a highly satisfactory attitude and 19.5% and 13.9% had satisfactory and highly satisfactory practices, respectively.
Conclusions
Our study demonstrates a gap between cardiovascular health knowledge, attitude and practice/behaviour in a semiurban community in a low-income nation, even among those already affected by cardiovascular disease.
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2013-002976
PMCID: PMC3808775  PMID: 24157816
Public Health; Preventive Medicine; Epidemiology

Results 1-4 (4)