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1.  Recent outbreak of cutaneous anthrax in Bangladesh: clinico-demographic profile and treatment outcome of cases attended at Rajshahi Medical College Hospital 
BMC Research Notes  2012;5:464.
Background
Human cutaneous anthrax results from skin exposure to B. anthracis, primarily due to occupational exposure. Bangladesh has experienced a number of outbreaks of cutaneous anthrax in recent years. The last episode occurred from April to August, 2011 and created mass havoc due to its dreadful clinical outcome and socio-cultural consequences. We report here the clinico-demographic profile and treatment outcome of 15 cutaneous anthrax cases attended at the Dermatology Outpatient Department of Rajshahi Medical College Hospital, Bangladesh between April and August, 2011 with an aim to create awareness for early case detection and management.
Findings
Anthrax was suspected primarily based on cutaneous manifestations of typical non-tender ulcer with black eschar, with or without oedema, and a history of butchering, or dressing/washing of cattle/goat or their meat. Diagnosis was established by demonstration of large gram-positive rods, typically resembling B. anthracis under light microscope where possible and also by ascertaining therapeutic success. The mean age of cases was 21.4 years (ranging from 3 to 46 years), 7 (46.7%) being males and 8 (53.3%) females. The majority of cases were from lower middle socioeconomic status. Types of exposures included butchering (20%), contact with raw meat (46.7%), and live animals (33.3%). Malignant pustule was present in upper extremity, both extremities, face, and trunk at frequencies of 11 (73.3%), 2 (13.3%), 1 (6.7%) and 1 (6.7%) respectively. Eight (53.3%) patients presented with fever, 7 (46.7%) had localized oedema and 5 (33.3%) had regional lymphadenopathy. Anthrax was confirmed in 13 (86.7%) cases by demonstration of gram-positive rods. All cases were cured with 2 months oral ciprofloxacin combined with flucoxacillin for 2 weeks.
Conclusions
We present the findings from this series of cases to reinforce the criteria for clinical diagnosis and to urge prompt therapeutic measures to treat cutaneous anthrax successfully to eliminate the unnecessary panic of anthrax.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-5-464
PMCID: PMC3493280  PMID: 22929128
Cutaneous anthrax; Clinico-demographic profile; Therapeutic response; Bangladesh
2.  Analysis of Immune Responses and Serological Cross Reactivities among Vibrio cholerae O1, Shigella flexneri 2a and Haemophilus influenzae b 
Antigenic determinants expressed on the bacterial cell surface are of importance in the serological characterization and microbiological diagnosis. The bacterial strains carrying these identical or similar antigenic epitopes might react with antibodies produced against other strains. In this study, strong immunogenicity and antigenic cross reactivity were demonstrated among V. cholerae O1, S. flexnerii 2a and H. influenzae b surface components. The enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) results were supported by Western blot analysis, where at least 20 antigenic bands, were obtained in each of the reactions, when the surface components were reacted with the homologous antisera. The indirect ELISA results also demonstrated high degree of antigenic relatedness between the surface components of these species, where each surface component was reacted with the heterologous antisera. Western blot analysis also revealed cross reactions between the surface components suggesting common distribution of antigens/epitopes in these bacterial species. This study, thus, gave a clear idea of the level of antigenic sharing and variations among the pathogenic V. cholerae O1, S. flexneri 2a and H. influenzae b strains, which in future, may help in selecting a proper candidate for vaccines and immunodiagnostics development.
doi:10.1038/cmi.2008.49
PMCID: PMC4072396  PMID: 18954564
V. cholerae O1; S. flexnerii 2a; H. influenzae b; cross antigen

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