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1.  Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer: assessment of point mutations and copy number variations in Brazilian patients 
BMC Medical Genetics  2014;15:55.
Background
Germ line mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) and other susceptibility genes have been identified as genetic causes of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC). To identify the disease-causing mutations in a cohort of 120 Brazilian women fulfilling criteria for HBOC, we carried out a comprehensive screening of BRCA1/2, TP53 R337H, CHEK2 1100delC, followed by an analysis of copy number variations in 14 additional breast cancer susceptibility genes (PTEN, ATM, NBN, RAD50, RAD51, BRIP1, PALB2, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, TP53, CDKN2A, CDH1 and CTNNB1).
Methods
Capillary sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) were used for detecting point mutations and copy number variations (CNVs), respectively, for the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes; capillary sequencing was used for point mutation for both variants TP53 R337H and CHEK2 1100delC, and finally array comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) was used for identifying CNVs in the 14 additional genes.
Results
The positive detection rate in our series was 26%. BRCA1 pathogenic mutations were found in 20 cases, including two cases with CNVs, whereas BRCA2 mutations were found in 7 cases. We also found three patients with the TP53 R337H mutation and one patient with the CHEK2 1100delC mutation. Seven (25%) pathogenic mutations in BRCA1/2 were firstly described, including a splice-site BRCA1 mutation for which pathogenicity was confirmed by the presence of an aberrant transcript showing the loss of the last 62 bp of exon 7. Microdeletions of exon 4 in ATM and exon 2 in PTEN were identified in BRCA2-mutated and BRCA1/2-negative patients, respectively.
Conclusions
In summary, our results showed a high frequency of BRCA1/2 mutations and a higher prevalence of BRCA1 (64.5%) gene. Moreover, the detection of the TP53 R337H variant in our series and the fact that this variant has a founder effect in our population prompted us to suggest that all female breast cancer patients with clinical criteria for HBOC and negative for BRCA1/2 genes should be tested for the TP53 R337H variant. Furthermore, the presence of genomic structural rearrangement resulting in CNVs in other genes that predispose breast cancer in conjunction with BRCA2 point mutations demonstrated a highly complex genetic etiology in Brazilian breast cancer families.
doi:10.1186/1471-2350-15-55
PMCID: PMC4038072  PMID: 24884479
Breast cancer; Mutation; BRCA1; BRCA2; HBOC; CHEK 1100delC; TP53 R337H
2.  Mutational spectrum of the APC and MUTYH genes and genotype–phenotype correlations in Brazilian FAP, AFAP, and MAP patients 
Background
Patients with multiple colorectal adenomas are currently screened for germline mutations in two genes, APC and MUTYH. APC-mutated patients present classic or attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP/AFAP), while patients carrying biallelic MUTYH mutations exhibit MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP). The spectrum of mutations as well as the genotype-phenotype correlations in polyposis syndromes present clinical impact and can be population specific, making important to obtain genetic and clinical data from different populations.
Methods
DNA sequencing of the complete coding region of the APC and MUTYH genes was performed in 23 unrelated Brazilian polyposis patients. In addition, mutation-negative patients were screened for large genomic rearrangements by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, array-comparative genomic hybridization, and duplex quantitative PCR. Biallelic MUTYH mutations were confirmed by allele-specific PCR. Clinical data of the index cases and their affected relatives were used to assess genotype–phenotype correlations.
Results
Pathogenic mutations were identified in 20 of the 23 probands (87%): 14 in the APC gene and six in the MUTYH gene; six of them (30%) were described for the first time in this series. Genotype-phenotype correlations revealed divergent results compared with those described in other studies, particularly regarding the extent of polyposis and the occurrence of desmoid tumors in families with mutations before codon 1444 (6/8 families with desmoid).
Conclusions
This first comprehensive investigation of the APC and MUTYH mutation spectrum in Brazilian polyposis patients showed a high detection rate and identified novel pathogenic mutations. Notably, a significant number of APC-positive families were not consistent with the predicted genotype-phenotype correlations from other populations.
doi:10.1186/1750-1172-8-54
PMCID: PMC3623842  PMID: 23561487
APC; MUTYH; Genotype-phenotype; Mutation screening; Polyposis
4.  A novel SYBR-based duplex qPCR for the detection of gene dosage: detection of an APC large deletion in a familial adenomatous polyposis patient with an unusual phenotype 
BMC Medical Genetics  2012;13:55.
Background
Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a hereditary colorectal cancer syndrome caused by a loss of function of the APC gene. Large deletions in APC are a common cause of FAP; despite the existence of a variety of gene dosage detection methodologies, most are labor intensive and time and resource consuming.
Methods
We describe a new duplex qPCR method for gene dosage analysis based on the coamplification of a target and a reference gene in a SYBR Green reaction, followed by a comparison of the ratio between the target and the reference peaks of the melting curve for the test (patient) and control samples. The reliability of the described duplex qPCR was validated for several genes (APC, HPRT1, ATM, PTEN and BRCA1).
Results
Using this novel gene dosage method, we have identified an APC gene deletion in a FAP patient undergoing genetic testing. Comparative genomic hybridization based on microarrays (aCGH) was used to confirm and map the extent of the deletion, revealing a 5.2 MB rearrangement (5q21.3-q22.3) encompassing the entire APC and 19 additional genes.
Conclusion
The novel assay accurately detected losses and gains of one copy of the target sequences, representing a reliable and flexible alternative to other gene dosage techniques. In addition, we described a FAP patient harboring a gross deletion at 5q21.3-q22.3 with an unusual phenotype of the absence of mental impairment and dysmorphic features.
doi:10.1186/1471-2350-13-55
PMCID: PMC3458979  PMID: 22799487
Gene dosage; Quantitative PCR; Familial adenomatous polyposis; APC whole gene deletion
5.  Breakpoint characterization of a novel large intragenic deletion of MUTYH detected in a MAP patient: Case report 
BMC Medical Genetics  2011;12:128.
Background
MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP) is a recessive, hereditary, colorectal cancer-predisposing syndrome caused by biallelic mutations in the MUTYH gene. Most MUTYH pathogenic variants are missense mutations, and until recently no gross genomic deletions had been described.
Case Presentation
We have identified a large deletion in the MUTYH gene: a > 4.2 kb deletion encompassing exons 4-16. This is the second description of this rearrangement, which has been recently described as the first large deletion in this gene. The clinically suspected MAP patient was homozygous for this mutation and presented with no amplification products for 14 exons of MUTYH on initial screening. Deletion breakpoints were refined to base pair level through array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis followed by sequencing. The identified breakpoints were located within intron 3 and 146 bp downstream of the 3' end of the gene, with the presence of an AluJr element adjacent to the distal breakpoint. The presence of a 2 bp insertion at the junction suggests the involvement of the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) repair mechanism, possibly facilitated by rearrangement-promoting elements. Examination of the MUTYH locus revealed a high Alu density that may make this region prone to rearrangements.
Conclusion
Large deletions are a possible mechanism for loss of function of the MUTYH gene, and investigation of such mutations may be important in identifying causative mutations in MAP patients.
doi:10.1186/1471-2350-12-128
PMCID: PMC3203034  PMID: 21962078
6.  Recurrent somatic mutation in DROSHA induces microRNA profile changes in Wilms tumour 
Nature Communications  2014;5:4039.
Wilms tumour (WT) is an embryonal kidney neoplasia for which very few driver genes have been identified. Here we identify DROSHA mutations in 12% of WT samples (26/222) using whole-exome sequencing and targeted sequencing of 10 microRNA (miRNA)-processing genes. A recurrent mutation (E1147K) affecting a metal-binding residue of the RNase IIIb domain is detected in 81% of the DROSHA-mutated tumours. In addition, we identify non-recurrent mutations in other genes of this pathway (DGCR8, DICER1, XPO5 and TARBP2). By assessing the miRNA expression pattern of the DROSHA-E1147K-mutated tumours and cell lines expressing this mutation, we determine that this variant leads to a predominant downregulation of a subset of miRNAs. We confirm that the downregulation occurs exclusively in mature miRNAs and not in primary miRNA transcripts, suggesting that the DROSHA E1147K mutation affects processing of primary miRNAs. Our data underscore the pivotal role of the miRNA biogenesis pathway in WT tumorigenesis, particularly the major miRNA-processing gene DROSHA.
Wilms tumour (WT) is the most common paediatric kidney cancer and few driver genes related to its development have been identified. Here, the authors identify DROSHA mutations that may contribute to WT tumorigenesis through their effect on primary microRNA processing.
doi:10.1038/ncomms5039
PMCID: PMC4062040  PMID: 24909261

Results 1-6 (6)