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1.  Recurrent somatic alterations of FGFR1 and NTRK2 in pilocytic astrocytoma 
Jones, David T.W. | Hutter, Barbara | Jäger, Natalie | Korshunov, Andrey | Kool, Marcel | Warnatz, Hans-Jörg | Zichner, Thomas | Lambert, Sally R. | Ryzhova, Marina | Quang, Dong Anh Khuong | Fontebasso, Adam M. | Stütz, Adrian M. | Hutter, Sonja | Zuckermann, Marc | Sturm, Dominik | Gronych, Jan | Lasitschka, Bärbel | Schmidt, Sabine | Şeker-Cin, Huriye | Witt, Hendrik | Sultan, Marc | Ralser, Meryem | Northcott, Paul A. | Hovestadt, Volker | Bender, Sebastian | Pfaff, Elke | Stark, Sebastian | Faury, Damien | Schwartzentruber, Jeremy | Majewski, Jacek | Weber, Ursula D. | Zapatka, Marc | Raeder, Benjamin | Schlesner, Matthias | Worth, Catherine L. | Bartholomae, Cynthia C. | von Kalle, Christof | Imbusch, Charles D. | Radomski, Sylwester | Lawerenz, Chris | van Sluis, Peter | Koster, Jan | Volckmann, Richard | Versteeg, Rogier | Lehrach, Hans | Monoranu, Camelia | Winkler, Beate | Unterberg, Andreas | Herold-Mende, Christel | Milde, Till | Kulozik, Andreas E. | Ebinger, Martin | Schuhmann, Martin U. | Cho, Yoon-Jae | Pomeroy, Scott L. | von Deimling, Andreas | Witt, Olaf | Taylor, Michael D. | Wolf, Stephan | Karajannis, Matthias A. | Eberhart, Charles G. | Scheurlen, Wolfram | Hasselblatt, Martin | Ligon, Keith L. | Kieran, Mark W. | Korbel, Jan O. | Yaspo, Marie-Laure | Brors, Benedikt | Felsberg, Jörg | Reifenberger, Guido | Collins, V. Peter | Jabado, Nada | Eils, Roland | Lichter, Peter | Pfister, Stefan M.
Nature genetics  2013;45(8):927-932.
Pilocytic astrocytoma, the most common childhood brain tumor1, is typically associated with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway alterations2. Surgically inaccessible midline tumors are therapeutically challenging, showing sustained tendency for progression3 and often becoming a chronic disease with substantial morbidities4.
Here we describe whole-genome sequencing of 96 pilocytic astrocytomas, with matched RNA sequencing (n=73), conducted by the International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) PedBrain Tumor Project. We identified recurrent activating mutations in FGFR1 and PTPN11 and novel NTRK2 fusion genes in non-cerebellar tumors. New BRAF activating changes were also observed. MAPK pathway alterations affected 100% of tumors analyzed, with no other significant mutations, indicating pilocytic astrocytoma as predominantly a single-pathway disease.
Notably, we identified the same FGFR1 mutations in a subset of H3F3A-mutated pediatric glioblastoma with additional alterations in NF15. Our findings thus identify new potential therapeutic targets in distinct subsets of pilocytic astrocytoma and childhood glioblastoma.
doi:10.1038/ng.2682
PMCID: PMC3951336  PMID: 23817572
2.  Subgroup specific structural variation across 1,000 medulloblastoma genomes 
Northcott, Paul A | Shih, David JH | Peacock, John | Garzia, Livia | Morrissy, Sorana | Zichner, Thomas | Stütz, Adrian M | Korshunov, Andrey | Reimand, Juri | Schumacher, Steven E | Beroukhim, Rameen | Ellison, David W | Marshall, Christian R | Lionel, Anath C | Mack, Stephen | Dubuc, Adrian | Yao, Yuan | Ramaswamy, Vijay | Luu, Betty | Rolider, Adi | Cavalli, Florence | Wang, Xin | Remke, Marc | Wu, Xiaochong | Chiu, Readman YB | Chu, Andy | Chuah, Eric | Corbett, Richard D | Hoad, Gemma R | Jackman, Shaun D | Li, Yisu | Lo, Allan | Mungall, Karen L | Nip, Ka Ming | Qian, Jenny Q | Raymond, Anthony GJ | Thiessen, Nina | Varhol, Richard J | Birol, Inanc | Moore, Richard A | Mungall, Andrew J | Holt, Robert | Kawauchi, Daisuke | Roussel, Martine F | Kool, Marcel | Jones, David TW | Witt, Hendrick | Fernandez-L, Africa | Kenney, Anna M | Wechsler-Reya, Robert J | Dirks, Peter | Aviv, Tzvi | Grajkowska, Wieslawa A | Perek-Polnik, Marta | Haberler, Christine C | Delattre, Olivier | Reynaud, Stéphanie S | Doz, François F | Pernet-Fattet, Sarah S | Cho, Byung-Kyu | Kim, Seung-Ki | Wang, Kyu-Chang | Scheurlen, Wolfram | Eberhart, Charles G | Fèvre-Montange, Michelle | Jouvet, Anne | Pollack, Ian F | Fan, Xing | Muraszko, Karin M | Gillespie, G. Yancey | Di Rocco, Concezio | Massimi, Luca | Michiels, Erna MC | Kloosterhof, Nanne K | French, Pim J | Kros, Johan M | Olson, James M | Ellenbogen, Richard G | Zitterbart, Karel | Kren, Leos | Thompson, Reid C | Cooper, Michael K | Lach, Boleslaw | McLendon, Roger E | Bigner, Darell D | Fontebasso, Adam | Albrecht, Steffen | Jabado, Nada | Lindsey, Janet C | Bailey, Simon | Gupta, Nalin | Weiss, William A | Bognár, László | Klekner, Almos | Van Meter, Timothy E | Kumabe, Toshihiro | Tominaga, Teiji | Elbabaa, Samer K | Leonard, Jeffrey R | Rubin, Joshua B | Liau, Linda M | Van Meir, Erwin G | Fouladi, Maryam | Nakamura, Hideo | Cinalli, Giuseppe | Garami, Miklós | Hauser, Peter | Saad, Ali G | Iolascon, Achille | Jung, Shin | Carlotti, Carlos G | Vibhakar, Rajeev | Ra, Young Shin | Robinson, Shenandoah | Zollo, Massimo | Faria, Claudia C | Chan, Jennifer A | Levy, Michael L | Sorensen, Poul HB | Meyerson, Matthew | Pomeroy, Scott L | Cho, Yoon-Jae | Bader, Gary D | Tabori, Uri | Hawkins, Cynthia E | Bouffet, Eric | Scherer, Stephen W | Rutka, James T | Malkin, David | Clifford, Steven C | Jones, Steven JM | Korbel, Jan O | Pfister, Stefan M | Marra, Marco A | Taylor, Michael D
Nature  2012;488(7409):49-56.
Summary
Medulloblastoma, the most common malignant pediatric brain tumour, is currently treated with non-specific cytotoxic therapies including surgery, whole brain radiation, and aggressive chemotherapy. As medulloblastoma exhibits marked intertumoural heterogeneity, with at least four distinct molecular variants, prior attempts to identify targets for therapy have been underpowered due to small samples sizes. Here we report somatic copy number aberrations (SCNAs) in 1087 unique medulloblastomas. SCNAs are common in medulloblastoma, and are predominantly subgroup enriched. The most common region of focal copy number gain is a tandem duplication of the Parkinson’s disease gene SNCAIP, which is exquisitely restricted to Group 4α. Recurrent translocations of PVT1, including PVT1-MYC and PVT1-NDRG1 that arise through chromothripsis are restricted to Group 3. Numerous targetable SCNAs, including recurrent events targeting TGFβ signaling in Group 3, and NF-κB signaling in Group 4 suggest future avenues for rational, targeted therapy.
doi:10.1038/nature11327
PMCID: PMC3683624  PMID: 22832581
3.  ICGC PedBrain: Dissecting the genomic complexity underlying medulloblastoma 
Jones, David TW | Jäger, Natalie | Kool, Marcel | Zichner, Thomas | Hutter, Barbara | Sultan, Marc | Cho, Yoon-Jae | Pugh, Trevor J | Hovestadt, Volker | Stütz, Adrian M | Rausch, Tobias | Warnatz, Hans-Jörg | Ryzhova, Marina | Bender, Sebastian | Sturm, Dominik | Pleier, Sabrina | Cin, Huriye | Pfaff, Elke | Sieber, Laura | Wittmann, Andrea | Remke, Marc | Witt, Hendrik | Hutter, Sonja | Tzaridis, Theophilos | Weischenfeldt, Joachim | Raeder, Benjamin | Avci, Meryem | Amstislavskiy, Vyacheslav | Zapatka, Marc | Weber, Ursula D | Wang, Qi | Lasitschka, Bärbel | Bartholomae, Cynthia C | Schmidt, Manfred | von Kalle, Christof | Ast, Volker | Lawerenz, Chris | Eils, Jürgen | Kabbe, Rolf | Benes, Vladimir | van Sluis, Peter | Koster, Jan | Volckmann, Richard | Shih, David | Betts, Matthew J | Russell, Robert B | Coco, Simona | Tonini, Gian Paolo | Schüller, Ulrich | Hans, Volkmar | Graf, Norbert | Kim, Yoo-Jin | Monoranu, Camelia | Roggendorf, Wolfgang | Unterberg, Andreas | Herold-Mende, Christel | Milde, Till | Kulozik, Andreas E | von Deimling, Andreas | Witt, Olaf | Maass, Eberhard | Rössler, Jochen | Ebinger, Martin | Schuhmann, Martin U | Frühwald, Michael C | Hasselblatt, Martin | Jabado, Nada | Rutkowski, Stefan | von Bueren, André O | Williamson, Dan | Clifford, Steven C | McCabe, Martin G | Collins, V. Peter | Wolf, Stephan | Wiemann, Stefan | Lehrach, Hans | Brors, Benedikt | Scheurlen, Wolfram | Felsberg, Jörg | Reifenberger, Guido | Northcott, Paul A | Taylor, Michael D | Meyerson, Matthew | Pomeroy, Scott L | Yaspo, Marie-Laure | Korbel, Jan O | Korshunov, Andrey | Eils, Roland | Pfister, Stefan M | Lichter, Peter
Nature  2012;488(7409):100-105.
Summary
Medulloblastoma is an aggressively-growing tumour, arising in the cerebellum or medulla/brain stem. It is the most common malignant brain tumour in children, and displays tremendous biological and clinical heterogeneity1. Despite recent treatment advances, approximately 40% of children experience tumour recurrence, and 30% will die from their disease. Those who survive often have a significantly reduced quality of life.
Four tumour subgroups with distinct clinical, biological and genetic profiles are currently discriminated2,3. WNT tumours, displaying activated wingless pathway signalling, carry a favourable prognosis under current treatment regimens4. SHH tumours show hedgehog pathway activation, and have an intermediate prognosis2. Group 3 & 4 tumours are molecularly less well-characterised, and also present the greatest clinical challenges2,3,5. The full repertoire of genetic events driving this distinction, however, remains unclear.
Here we describe an integrative deep-sequencing analysis of 125 tumour-normal pairs. Tetraploidy was identified as a frequent early event in Group 3 & 4 tumours, and a positive correlation between patient age and mutation rate was observed. Several recurrent mutations were identified, both in known medulloblastoma-related genes (CTNNB1, PTCH1, MLL2, SMARCA4) and in genes not previously linked to this tumour (DDX3X, CTDNEP1, KDM6A, TBR1), often in subgroup-specific patterns. RNA-sequencing confirmed these alterations, and revealed the expression of the first medulloblastoma fusion genes. Chromatin modifiers were frequently altered across all subgroups.
These findings enhance our understanding of the genomic complexity and heterogeneity underlying medulloblastoma, and provide several potential targets for new therapeutics, especially for Group 3 & 4 patients.
doi:10.1038/nature11284
PMCID: PMC3662966  PMID: 22832583
4.  The Genomic and Transcriptomic Landscape of a HeLa Cell Line 
G3: Genes|Genomes|Genetics  2013;3(8):1213-1224.
HeLa is the most widely used model cell line for studying human cellular and molecular biology. To date, no genomic reference for this cell line has been released, and experiments have relied on the human reference genome. Effective design and interpretation of molecular genetic studies performed using HeLa cells require accurate genomic information. Here we present a detailed genomic and transcriptomic characterization of a HeLa cell line. We performed DNA and RNA sequencing of a HeLa Kyoto cell line and analyzed its mutational portfolio and gene expression profile. Segmentation of the genome according to copy number revealed a remarkably high level of aneuploidy and numerous large structural variants at unprecedented resolution. Some of the extensive genomic rearrangements are indicative of catastrophic chromosome shattering, known as chromothripsis. Our analysis of the HeLa gene expression profile revealed that several pathways, including cell cycle and DNA repair, exhibit significantly different expression patterns from those in normal human tissues. Our results provide the first detailed account of genomic variants in the HeLa genome, yielding insight into their impact on gene expression and cellular function as well as their origins. This study underscores the importance of accounting for the strikingly aberrant characteristics of HeLa cells when designing and interpreting experiments, and has implications for the use of HeLa as a model of human biology.
doi:10.1534/g3.113.005777
PMCID: PMC3737162  PMID: 23550136
genomics; transcriptomics; HeLa cell line; resource; variation
5.  Genome Sequencing of Pediatric Medulloblastoma Links Catastrophic DNA Rearrangements with TP53 Mutations 
Cell  2012;148(1-2):59-71.
SUMMARY
Genomic rearrangements are thought to occur progressively during tumor development. Recent findings, however, suggest an alternative mechanism, involving massive chromosome rearrangements in a one-step catastrophic event termed chromothripsis. We report the whole-genome sequencing-based analysis of a Sonic-Hedgehog medulloblastoma (SHH-MB) brain tumor from a patient with a germline TP53 mutation (Li-Fraumeni syndrome), uncovering massive, complex chromosome rearrangements. Integrating TP53 status with microarray and deep sequencing-based DNA rearrangement data in additional patients reveals a striking association between TP53 mutation and chromothripsis in SHH-MBs. Analysis of additional tumor entities substantiates a link between TP53 mutation and chromothripsis, and indicates a context-specific role for p53 in catastrophic DNA rearrangements. Among these, we observed a strong association between somatic TP53 mutations and chromothripsis in acute myeloid leukemia. These findings connect p53 status and chromothripsis in specific tumor types, providing a genetic basis for understanding particularly aggressive subtypes of cancer.
doi:10.1016/j.cell.2011.12.013
PMCID: PMC3332216  PMID: 22265402
7.  DELLY: structural variant discovery by integrated paired-end and split-read analysis 
Bioinformatics  2012;28(18):i333-i339.
Motivation: The discovery of genomic structural variants (SVs) at high sensitivity and specificity is an essential requirement for characterizing naturally occurring variation and for understanding pathological somatic rearrangements in personal genome sequencing data. Of particular interest are integrated methods that accurately identify simple and complex rearrangements in heterogeneous sequencing datasets at single-nucleotide resolution, as an optimal basis for investigating the formation mechanisms and functional consequences of SVs.
Results: We have developed an SV discovery method, called DELLY, that integrates short insert paired-ends, long-range mate-pairs and split-read alignments to accurately delineate genomic rearrangements at single-nucleotide resolution. DELLY is suitable for detecting copy-number variable deletion and tandem duplication events as well as balanced rearrangements such as inversions or reciprocal translocations. DELLY, thus, enables to ascertain the full spectrum of genomic rearrangements, including complex events. On simulated data, DELLY compares favorably to other SV prediction methods across a wide range of sequencing parameters. On real data, DELLY reliably uncovers SVs from the 1000 Genomes Project and cancer genomes, and validation experiments of randomly selected deletion loci show a high specificity.
Availability: DELLY is available at www.korbel.embl.de/software.html
Contact: tobias.rausch@embl.de
doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/bts378
PMCID: PMC3436805  PMID: 22962449
8.  An Improved Protocol for Sequencing of Repetitive Genomic Regions and Structural Variations Using Mutagenesis and Next Generation Sequencing 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(8):e43359.
The rise of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies has transformed de novo genome sequencing into an accessible research tool, but obtaining high quality eukaryotic genome assemblies remains a challenge, mostly due to the abundance of repetitive elements. These also make it difficult to study nucleotide polymorphism in repetitive regions, including certain types of structural variations. One solution proposed for resolving such regions is Sequence Assembly aided by Mutagenesis (SAM), which relies on the fact that introducing enough random mutations breaks the repetitive structure, making assembly possible. Sequencing many different mutated copies permits the sequence of the repetitive region to be inferred by consensus methods. However, this approach relies on molecular cloning in order to isolate and amplify individual mutant copies, making it hard to scale-up the approach for use in conjunction with high-throughput sequencing technologies. To address this problem, we propose NG-SAM, a modified version of the SAM protocol that relies on PCR and dilution steps only, coupled to a NGS workflow. NG-SAM therefore has the potential to be scaled-up, e.g. using emerging microfluidics technologies. We built a realistic simulation pipeline to study the feasibility of NG-SAM, and our results suggest that under appropriate experimental conditions the approach might be successfully put into practice. Moreover, our simulations suggest that NG-SAM is capable of reconstructing robustly a wide range of potential target sequences of varying lengths and repetitive structures.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0043359
PMCID: PMC3422288  PMID: 22912860
9.  Molecular Mechanisms for Activation of the Agouti-Related Protein and Stimulation of Appetite 
Diabetes  2010;60(1):97-106.
OBJECTIVE
The agouti-related protein (Agrp) is a powerful orexigenic peptide, but little is known about its transcriptional regulation. The objective of this study was to determine molecular mechanisms for the activation of hypothalamic Agrp and identify compounds that stimulate appetite.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
We used promoter analyses methods, hypothalamic cell culture and transfection, immunohistochemistry, luciferase-expressing transgenic mice, in vivo bioluminescence, anitisense RNA, mouse feeding studies, indirect calorimetry, real-time PCR, and Western blots.
RESULTS
We found that the Krüppel-like factor 4 (Klf4) is a potent activator of Agrp by binding to a specific CACCC-box in its minimal promoter. We also found that an extract of tarragon, termed PMI-5011, activated hypothalamic Klf4 and Agrp. In vivo, PMI-5011 increased Agrp promoter activity in luciferase-expressing transgenic mice, increased hypothalamic Klf4 and Agrp expression, increased hypothalamic Orexin and melanin-concentrating hormone, increased food intake, reduced circulating insulin and leptin levels, attenuated energy expenditure, and enhanced body weight but only when using a high-fat diet.
CONCLUSIONS
These data show that Klf4 augmented hypothalamic Agrp by binding to a specific CACCC-box onto its minimal promoter. In addition, the tarragon extract PMI-5011 activated Klf4 and orexigenic neuropeptides and reduced peripheral insulin and leptin levels leading to positive energy balance.
doi:10.2337/db10-0172
PMCID: PMC3012203  PMID: 20980461
10.  Systematic Inference of Copy-Number Genotypes from Personal Genome Sequencing Data Reveals Extensive Olfactory Receptor Gene Content Diversity 
PLoS Computational Biology  2010;6(11):e1000988.
Copy-number variations (CNVs) are widespread in the human genome, but comprehensive assignments of integer locus copy-numbers (i.e., copy-number genotypes) that, for example, enable discrimination of homozygous from heterozygous CNVs, have remained challenging. Here we present CopySeq, a novel computational approach with an underlying statistical framework that analyzes the depth-of-coverage of high-throughput DNA sequencing reads, and can incorporate paired-end and breakpoint junction analysis based CNV-analysis approaches, to infer locus copy-number genotypes. We benchmarked CopySeq by genotyping 500 chromosome 1 CNV regions in 150 personal genomes sequenced at low-coverage. The assessed copy-number genotypes were highly concordant with our performed qPCR experiments (Pearson correlation coefficient 0.94), and with the published results of two microarray platforms (95–99% concordance). We further demonstrated the utility of CopySeq for analyzing gene regions enriched for segmental duplications by comprehensively inferring copy-number genotypes in the CNV-enriched >800 olfactory receptor (OR) human gene and pseudogene loci. CopySeq revealed that OR loci display an extensive range of locus copy-numbers across individuals, with zero to two copies in some OR loci, and two to nine copies in others. Among genetic variants affecting OR loci we identified deleterious variants including CNVs and SNPs affecting ∼15% and ∼20% of the human OR gene repertoire, respectively, implying that genetic variants with a possible impact on smell perception are widespread. Finally, we found that for several OR loci the reference genome appears to represent a minor-frequency variant, implying a necessary revision of the OR repertoire for future functional studies. CopySeq can ascertain genomic structural variation in specific gene families as well as at a genome-wide scale, where it may enable the quantitative evaluation of CNVs in genome-wide association studies involving high-throughput sequencing.
Author Summary
Human individual genome sequencing has recently become affordable, enabling highly detailed genetic sequence comparisons. While the identification and genotyping of single-nucleotide polymorphisms has already been successfully established for different sequencing platforms, the detection, quantification and genotyping of large-scale copy-number variants (CNVs), i.e., losses or gains of long genomic segments, has remained challenging. We present a computational approach that enables detecting CNVs in sequencing data and accurately identifies the actual copy-number at which DNA segments of interest occur in an individual genome. This approach enabled us to obtain novel insights into the largest human gene family – the olfactory receptors (ORs) – involved in smell perception. While previous studies reported an abundance of CNVs in ORs, our approach enabled us to globally identify absolute differences in OR gene counts that exist between humans. While several OR genes have very high gene counts, other ORs are found only once or are missing entirely in some individuals. The latter have a particularly high probability of influencing individual differences in the perception of smell, a question that future experimental efforts can now address. Furthermore, we observed differences in OR gene counts between populations, pointing at ORs that might contribute to population-specific differences in smell.
doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000988
PMCID: PMC2978733  PMID: 21085617
11.  Nucleotide-resolution analysis of structural variants using BreakSeq and a breakpoint library 
Nature biotechnology  2009;28(1):47-55.
Structural variants (SVs) are a major source of human genomic variation; however, characterizing them at nucleotide resolution remains challenging. Here we assemble a library of breakpoints at nucleotide resolution from collating and standardizing ~2,000 published SVs. For each breakpoint, we infer its ancestral state (through comparison to primate genomes) and its mechanism of formation (e.g., non-allelic homologous recombination, NAHR). We characterize breakpoint sequences with respect to genomic landmarks, chromosomal location, sequence motifs and physical properties, finding that the occurrence of insertions and deletions is more balanced than previously reported and that NAHR-formed breakpoints are associated with relatively rigid, stable DNA helices. Finally, we demonstrate an approach, BreakSeq, for scanning the reads from short-read sequenced genomes against our breakpoint library to accurately identify previously overlooked SVs, which we then validate by PCR. As new data become available, we expect our BreakSeq approach will become more sensitive and facilitate rapid SV genotyping of personal genomes.
doi:10.1038/nbt.1600
PMCID: PMC2951730  PMID: 20037582
12.  Functional identification of the promoter of SLC4A5, a gene associated with cardiovascular and metabolic phenotypes in the HERITAGE Family Study 
The sodium bicarbonate cotransporter gene SLC4A5, previously associated with cardiovascular phenotypes, was tested for associations in the HERITAGE Family Study, and possible mechanisms were investigated. Twelve tag-single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering the SLC4A5 gene were analyzed in 276 Black and 503 White healthy, sedentary subjects. Associations were tested using a variance components-based (QTDT) method with data adjusted for age, sex and body size. In Whites, rs6731545 and rs7571842 were significantly associated with resting and submaximal exercise pulse pressure (0.0004
doi:10.1038/ejhg.2009.64
PMCID: PMC2766005  PMID: 19384345
NBC4; hypertension; gene structure; SNP; exercise
European Journal of Human Genetics  2009;17(11):1481-1489.
The sodium bicarbonate cotransporter gene SLC4A5, associated earlier with cardiovascular phenotypes, was tested for associations in the HERITAGE Family Study, and possible mechanisms were investigated. Twelve tag-single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering the SLC4A5 gene were analyzed in 276 Black and 503 White healthy, sedentary subjects. Associations were tested using a variance components-based (QTDT) method with data adjusted for age, sex and body size. In Whites, rs6731545 and rs7571842 were significantly associated with resting and submaximal exercise pulse pressure (PP) (0.0004
doi:10.1038/ejhg.2009.64
PMCID: PMC2766005  PMID: 19384345
NBC4; hypertension; gene structure; SNP; exercise
PLoS Genetics  2011;7(8):e1002236.
As a consequence of the accumulation of insertion events over evolutionary time, mobile elements now comprise nearly half of the human genome. The Alu, L1, and SVA mobile element families are still duplicating, generating variation between individual genomes. Mobile element insertions (MEI) have been identified as causes for genetic diseases, including hemophilia, neurofibromatosis, and various cancers. Here we present a comprehensive map of 7,380 MEI polymorphisms from the 1000 Genomes Project whole-genome sequencing data of 185 samples in three major populations detected with two detection methods. This catalog enables us to systematically study mutation rates, population segregation, genomic distribution, and functional properties of MEI polymorphisms and to compare MEI to SNP variation from the same individuals. Population allele frequencies of MEI and SNPs are described, broadly, by the same neutral ancestral processes despite vastly different mutation mechanisms and rates, except in coding regions where MEI are virtually absent, presumably due to strong negative selection. A direct comparison of MEI and SNP diversity levels suggests a differential mobile element insertion rate among populations.
Author Summary
We embarked on this study to explore the 1000 Genomes Project (1000GP) pilot dataset as a substrate for Mobile Element Insertion (MEI) discovery and analysis. MEI is already well known as a significant component of genetic variation in the human population. However the full extent and effects of MEI can only be assessed by accurate detection in large whole-genome sequencing efforts such as the 1000GP. In this study we identified 7,380 distinct genomic locations of variant MEI and carried out rigorous validation experiments that confirmed the high accuracy of the detected events. We were able to measure the frequency of each variant in three continental population groups and found that inherited MEI variants propagate through populations in much the same way as single nucleotide polymorphisms, except that MEI are more strongly suppressed in protein coding parts of the genome. We also found evidence that the MEI mutation rate has not been constant over human population history, rather that different populations appear to have different characteristic MEI mutation rates.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1002236
PMCID: PMC3158055  PMID: 21876680
Nature  2011;470(7332):59-65.
Summary
Genomic structural variants (SVs) are abundant in humans, differing from other variation classes in extent, origin, and functional impact. Despite progress in SV characterization, the nucleotide resolution architecture of most SVs remains unknown. We constructed a map of unbalanced SVs (i.e., copy number variants) based on whole genome DNA sequencing data from 185 human genomes, integrating evidence from complementary SV discovery approaches with extensive experimental validations. Our map encompassed 22,025 deletions and 6,000 additional SVs, including insertions and tandem duplications. Most SVs (53%) were mapped to nucleotide resolution, which facilitated analyzing their origin and functional impact. We examined numerous whole and partial gene deletions with a genotyping approach and observed a depletion of gene disruptions amongst high frequency deletions. Furthermore, we observed differences in the size spectra of SVs originating from distinct formation mechanisms, and constructed a map constructed a map of SV hotspots formed by common mechanisms. Our analytical framework and SV map serves as a resource for sequencing-based association studies.
doi:10.1038/nature09708
PMCID: PMC3077050  PMID: 21293372

Results 1-15 (15)