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1.  Irritable Bowel Syndrome in a Bangladeshi Urban Community: Prevalence and Health Care Seeking Pattern 
Background/Aims:
Although irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal disorder, its prevalence is unknown, especially in the urban population of Bangladesh. This community-based study aimed to find out the prevalence of IBS and healthcare-seeking patterns using the Rome-II definition.
Materials and Methods:
A population-based cross-sectional survey of 1503 persons aged 15 years and above was carried out in an urban community of Bangladesh. The subjects were interviewed using a valid questionnaire based on Rome-II criteria in a home setting. Statistical analysis was performed with Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) Programmers and the level of significance was set at P ≤ 0.05.
Results:
A response rate of 97.2% yielded 1503 questionnaires for analysis. The prevalence of IBS was found to be 7.7% (n = 116) with a male to female ratio of 1:1.36 (49 vs. 67). “Diarrhoea-predominant IBS” (50%, n = 58) was the predominant IBS subgroup. Symptoms of abdominal pain associated with a change in stool frequency (100%) and consistency (88.8%) were quite common. All IBS symptoms were more prevalent among women (P < 0.000). In the past one year, 65.5% (n = 76) IBS subjects had consulted a physician with a slightly higher rate of women consulters (68.6 vs. 61.2%). The main predictor for healthcare-seeking was the presence of multiple dyspeptic symptoms.
Conclusions:
The prevalence of IBS in the urban community was found to be similar to that in rural communities. A higher rate of consultation was found among urban IBS subjects than in the rural subjects, with sex not seen to be a discriminator to seek consultation.
doi:10.4103/1319-3767.56099
PMCID: PMC2981840  PMID: 19794269
Healthcare-seeking; irritable bowel syndrome prevalence; Rome-II; urban Bangladesh
3.  A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the effect of repeated oral doses of pazopanib on cardiac conduction in patients with solid tumors 
Purpose
As tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been associated with cardiotoxicity, we evaluated the effect of pazopanib, an inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, platelet-derived growth factor receptor, and c-Kit, on electrocardiographic parameters in patients with cancer.
Methods
This double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study randomized patients (N = 96) to moxifloxacin (positive control) or placebo on Day 1 followed by pazopanib or placebo 800 mg/day (fasted) on Days 2–8 and 1,600 mg (with food) on Day 9. Treatment effects were evaluated by baseline-adjusted, time-matched, serial Holter electrocardiograms.
Results
Sixty-five patients were evaluable for preplanned analyses. On Day 1, the maximum mean difference in baseline-adjusted, time-matched Fridericia-corrected QT (QTcF) interval in moxifloxacin-treated patients versus placebo was 10.6 ms (90 % confidence interval [CI]: 4.2, 17.0). The administration scheme increased plasma pazopanib concentrations approximately 1.3- to 1.4-fold versus the recommended 800 mg once-daily dose. Pazopanib caused clinically significant increases from baseline in blood pressure, an anticipated class effect, and an unexpected reduction in heart rate from baseline that correlated with pazopanib exposure. On Day 9, the maximum mean difference in baseline-adjusted, time-matched QTcF interval in pazopanib-treated patients versus placebo was 4.4 ms (90 % CI: −2.4, 11.2). Mixed-effects modeling indicated no significant concentration-dependent effect of pazopanib or its metabolites on QTcF interval.
Conclusions
Pazopanib as administered in this study achieved supratherapeutic concentrations, produced a concentration-dependent decrease in heart rate, and caused a small, concentration-independent prolongation of the QTcF interval.
doi:10.1007/s00280-012-2030-8
PMCID: PMC3899892  PMID: 23344712
Moxifloxacin; Pazopanib; Pharmacokinetics; QTc; Safety; Tyrosine kinase inhibitor
4.  Pretreatment of Gymnema sylvestre revealed the protection against acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in rats 
Background
Overproduction of free radicals and decreased antioxidant capacity are well-known risk factors for inflammatory bowel diseases. Gymnema sylvestre (GS) leaves extract is distinguished for its anti-diabetic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Present study is designed to evaluate the preventative activities of GS against acetic acid (AA)-induced ulcerative colitis in Wistar rats.
Methods
Experimentally ulcerative colitis (UC) was induced by AA in animals pretreated with three different doses of GS leaves extract (50, 100, 200 mg/kg/day) and a single dose of mesalazine (MES, 300 mg/kg/day) for seven days. Twenty four hours later, animals were sacrificed and the colonic tissues were collected. Colonic mucus content was determined using Alcian blue dye binding technique. Levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total glutathione sulfhydryl group (T-GSH) and non-protein sulfhydryl group (NPSH) as well as the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were estimated in colon tissues. Colonic nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and total protein (TP) concentrations were also determined. Levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) as well as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO) were estimated in colonic tissues. The histopathological changes of the colonic tissues were also observed.
Results
In AA administered group TBARS levels were increased, while colonic mucus content, T-GSH and NP-SH, SOD and CAT were reduced in colon. Pretreatment with GS inhibited TBARS elevation as well as mucus content, T-GSH and NP-SH reduction. Enzymatic activities of SOD and CAT were brought back to their normal levels in GS pretreated group. A significant reduction in DNA, RNA and TP levels was seen following AA administration and this inhibition was significantly eliminated by GS treatment. GS pretreatment also inhibited AA-induced elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, PGE2 and NO levels in colon. The apparent UC protection was further confirmed by the histopathological screening.
Conclusion
The GS leaves extract showed significant amelioration of experimentally induced colitis, which may be attributed to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant property.
doi:10.1186/1472-6882-14-49
PMCID: PMC3922996  PMID: 24507431
Gymnema sylvestre; Inflammatory bowel diseases; Oxidative stress; Ulcerative colitis
5.  Multiple introductions of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses into Bangladesh 
Highly pathogenic H5N1 and low pathogenic H9N2 influenza viruses are endemic to poultry markets in Bangladesh and have cocirculated since 2008. H9N2 influenza viruses circulated constantly in the poultry markets, whereas highly pathogenic H5N1 viruses occurred sporadically, with peaks of activity in cooler months. Thirty highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses isolated from poultry were characterized by antigenic, molecular, and phylogenetic analyses. Highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses from clades 2.2.2 and 2.3.2.1 were isolated from live bird markets only. Phylogenetic analysis of the 30 H5N1 isolates revealed multiple introductions of H5N1 influenza viruses in Bangladesh. There was no reassortment between the local H9N2 influenza viruses and H5N1 genotype, despite their prolonged cocirculation. However, we detected two reassortant H5N1 viruses, carrying the M gene from the Chinese H9N2 lineage, which briefly circulated in the Bangladesh poultry markets and then disappeared. On the other hand, interclade reassortment occurred within H5N1 lineages and played a role in the genesis of the currently dominant H5N1 viruses in Bangladesh. Few ‘human-like' mutations in H5N1 may account for the limited number of human cases. Antigenically, clade 2.3.2.1 H5N1 viruses in Bangladesh have evolved since their introduction and are currently mainly homogenous, and show evidence of recent antigenic drift. Although reassortants containing H9N2 genes were detected in live poultry markets in Bangladesh, these reassortants failed to supplant the dominant H5N1 lineage.
doi:10.1038/emi.2014.11
PMCID: PMC3944120
Bangladesh; clades; H5N1; H9N2; live bird markets; phylogenetic tree; reassortment
6.  Nitrophenol Chemi-Sensor and Active Solar Photocatalyst Based on Spinel Hetaerolite Nanoparticles 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(1):e85290.
In this contribution, a significant catalyst based on spinel ZnMn2O4 composite nanoparticles has been developed for electro-catalysis of nitrophenol and photo-catalysis of brilliant cresyl blue. ZnMn2O4 composite (hetaerolite) nanoparticles were prepared by easy low temperature hydrothermal procedure and structurally characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and UV-visible spectroscopy which illustrate that the prepared material is optical active and composed of well crystalline body-centered tetragonal nanoparticles with average size of ∼38±10 nm. Hetaerolite nanoparticles were applied for the advancement of a nitrophenol sensor which exhibited high sensitivity (1.500 µAcm−2 mM−1), stability, repeatability and lower limit of detection (20.0 µM) in short response time (10 sec). Moreover, hetaerolite nanoparticles executed high solar photo-catalytic degradation when applied to brilliant cresyl blue under visible light.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0085290
PMCID: PMC3897427  PMID: 24465525
7.  Oral Rehabilitation of Parkinson's Disease Patient: A Review and Case Report 
Case Reports in Dentistry  2014;2014:432475.
Parkinson's disease is usually seen in adults in their middle and late ages. Most people with this disease are less likely to opt for dental treatments unless it is an acute condition. Tremors caused by Parkinson's disease can make dental appointments, especially prolonged treatments, a challenge. The case presented here was successfully treated with an immediate denture for the partially edentulous maxillary and mandibular arches. Early morning brief appointments were given for the procedure. Patient was instructed to take the prescribed parkinsonism medications 60 to 90 minutes before the appointment to utilize the advantage of its peak response. Sympathetic and caring approach towards the patient was employed to reduce his anxiety during the procedures. Some modification of technics and materials was adopted to suit the special situation.
doi:10.1155/2014/432475
PMCID: PMC3914341  PMID: 24551462
8.  OncomiRdbB: a comprehensive database of microRNAs and their targets in breast cancer 
BMC Bioinformatics  2014;15:15.
Background
Given the estimate that 30% of our genes are controlled by microRNAs, it is essential that we understand the precise relationship between microRNAs and their targets. OncomiRs are microRNAs (miRNAs) that have been frequently shown to be deregulated in cancer. However, although several oncomiRs have been identified and characterized, there is as yet no comprehensive compilation of this data which has rendered it underutilized by cancer biologists. There is therefore an unmet need in generating bioinformatic platforms to speed the identification of novel therapeutic targets.
Description
We describe here OncomiRdbB, a comprehensive database of oncomiRs mined from different existing databases for mouse and humans along with novel oncomiRs that we have validated in human breast cancer samples. The database also lists their respective predicted targets, identified using miRanda, along with their IDs, sequences, chromosome location and detailed description. This database facilitates querying by search strings including microRNA name, sequence, accession number, target genes and organisms. The microRNA networks and their hubs with respective targets at 3'UTR, 5'UTR and exons of different pathway genes were also deciphered using the 'R' algorithm.
Conclusion
OncomiRdbB is a comprehensive and integrated database of oncomiRs and their targets in breast cancer with multiple query options which will help enhance both understanding of the biology of breast cancer and the development of new and innovative microRNA based diagnostic tools and targets of therapeutic significance. OncomiRdbB is freely available for download through the URL link http://tdb.ccmb.res.in/OncomiRdbB/index.htm.
doi:10.1186/1471-2105-15-15
PMCID: PMC3926854  PMID: 24428888
MicroRNAs; Breast cancer; Targets; 3'UTR; miRanda; TLDA
9.  Fabrication of Smart Chemical Sensors Based on Transition-Doped-Semiconductor Nanostructure Materials with µ-Chips 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(1):e85036.
Transition metal doped semiconductor nanostructure materials (Sb2O3 doped ZnO microflowers, MFs) are deposited onto tiny µ-chip (surface area, ∼0.02217 cm2) to fabricate a smart chemical sensor for toxic ethanol in phosphate buffer solution (0.1 M PBS). The fabricated chemi-sensor is also exhibited higher sensitivity, large-dynamic concentration ranges, long-term stability, and improved electrochemical performances towards ethanol. The calibration plot is linear (r2 = 0.9989) over the large ethanol concentration ranges (0.17 mM to 0.85 M). The sensitivity and detection limit is ∼5.845 µAcm−2mM−1 and ∼0.11±0.02 mM (signal-to-noise ratio, at a SNR of 3) respectively. Here, doped MFs are prepared by a wet-chemical process using reducing agents in alkaline medium, which characterized by UV/vis., FT-IR, Raman, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) etc. The fabricated ethanol chemical sensor using Sb2O3-ZnO MFs is simple, reliable, low-sample volume (<70.0 µL), easy of integration, high sensitivity, and excellent stability for the fabrication of efficient I–V sensors on μ-chips.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0085036
PMCID: PMC3890290  PMID: 24454785
10.  ALTERED BLOOD SPHINGOLIPIDOMICS AND ELEVATED PLASMA INFLAMMATORY CYTOKINES IN COMBAT VETERANS WITH POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER 
Patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have greater risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). While chronically elevated plasma cholesterol and pro-inflammatory cytokines levels increase CVD risk, several studies have shown that cholesterol reduction does not reduce CVD risk. Acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) activation has been implicated in both CVD and major depressive disorder. We investigated plasma pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, ASMase activity, and changes in sphingolipids in PTSD patients compared to healthy controls. Levels of interleukin 6, interleukin 10, interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α were higher in PTSD patients than controls. Plasma ASMase activity and sphingosine 1-phosphate were higher in the PTSD group (1.6-fold and 2-fold, respectively; p<0.05). The results suggest that CVD risk factors in PTSD patients remain high despite cholesterol reduction.
PMCID: PMC3882130  PMID: 24403911
11.  Aberrant p16INK4A methylation: Relation to viral related chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma 
Background:
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is currently the fifth most common solid tumor worldwide and the third leading cause of cancer related deaths. Several studies have shown that the tumor suppressor gene p16INK4A is frequently downregulated by aberrant methylation of the 5’-cytosine-phosphoguanine island within the promoter region.
Aim:
To find out the frequency of methylated p16INK4A in the peripheral blood of HCC and cirrhotic patients and to evaluate its role in hepatocarcinogenesis.
Patients and Methods:
This study was performed on 58 subjects: 30 HCC patients, 20 cirrhotic patients, and eight healthy volunteers. Methylation of p16INK4A was examined using methylation specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (MSP). Comparison of quantitative variables between the study groups was done using Mann-Whitney U test for independent samples when not normally distributed. For comparing categorical data, Chi-square (χ2) test was performed. Exact test was used instead when the expected frequency was less than 5.
Results:
Methylation of p16INK4A was found in 6.7% of HCC patients, 5% of liver cirrhosis (LC) patients, and none of the healthy volunteers; 66.67% of the p16INK4A-methylated cases (2/3) were positive for anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies (one of them had HCC). All HCC cases with aberrant p16INK4A methylation show very high serum alpha fetoprotein (AFP) level (9,080; 30,000 μg/mL). There were no significant associations between the status of p16INK4A methylation and tumor size.
Conclusion:
Hypermethylation of p16INK4A was found to be infrequent among Egyptian patients with HCC.
doi:10.4103/2278-330X.126498
PMCID: PMC3961859  PMID: 24665436
Hepatocellular carcinoma; methylation; p16INK4A
12.  Former Mucinous Bronchioloalveolar Carcinoma Revisited 
Case Reports in Medicine  2013;2013:284323.
This is a brief case report of invasive multicentric mucinous adenocarcinoma presented at a rather young age with bronchorrhea and persistent consolidation that ended up with the patient demise; nevertheless, we demonstrate relevant radiological and pathological features with emphasis on the new classification of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, a term that should no longer be in use.
doi:10.1155/2013/284323
PMCID: PMC3863513  PMID: 24369471
13.  Epidemiology of Antituberculosis Drug Resistance in Saudi Arabia: Findings of the First National Survey 
The real magnitude of antituberculosis (anti-TB) drug resistance in Saudi Arabia is still unknown because the available data are based on retrospective laboratory studies that were limited to hospitals or cities. A representative national survey was therefore conducted to investigate the levels and patterns of anti-TB drug resistance and explore risk factors. Between August 2009 and July 2010, all culture-positive TB patients diagnosed in any of the tuberculosis reference laboratories of the country were enrolled. Isolates obtained from each patient were tested for susceptibility to first-line anti-TB drugs by the automated Bactec MGIT 960 method. Of the 2,235 patients enrolled, 75 cases (3.4%) were lost due to culture contamination and 256 (11.5%) yielded nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Finally, 1,904 patients (85.2% of those enrolled) had available drug susceptibility testing results. Monoresistance to streptomycin (8.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.2 to 9.1), isoniazid (5.4%; 95% CI, 4.7 to 6.2), rifampin (1%; 95% CI, 0.7 to 1.3) and ethambutol (0.8%; 95% CI, 0.5 to 1.2) were observed. Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) was found in 1.8% (95% CI, 1.4 to 2.4) and 15.9% (95% CI, 15.4 to 16.5) of new and previously treated TB cases, respectively. A treatment history of active TB, being foreign-born, having pulmonary TB, and living in the Western part of the country were the strongest independent predictors of MDR-TB. Results from the first representative national anti-TB drug resistance survey in Saudi Arabia suggest that the proportion of MDR-TB is relatively low, though there is a higher primary drug resistance. A strengthened continuous surveillance system to monitor trends over time and second-line anti-TB drug resistance as well as implementation of innovative control measures, particularly among immigrants, is warranted.
doi:10.1128/AAC.02403-12
PMCID: PMC3632946  PMID: 23459478
14.  Interaction of HIF-1α and Notch3 Is Required for the Expression of Carbonic Anhydrase 9 in Breast Carcinoma Cells 
Genes & Cancer  2013;4(11-12):513-523.
Expression of carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9) is associated with poor prognosis and increased tumor aggressiveness and does not always correlate with HIF-1α expression. Presently, we analyzed the regulation of CA9 expression during hypoxia by HIF-1α, Notch3, and the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) in breast carcinoma cells. Both HIF-1α and Notch3 were absolutely required for the expression of CA9 mRNA, protein, and reporter. Reciprocal co-immunoprecipitation of HIF-1α, Notch3 intracellular domain (NICD3), and pVHL demonstrated their association. The presence of common consensus prolyl hydroxylation and pVHL binding motifs (L(XY)LAP);LLPLAP2191 suggested an oxygen-dependent regulation for NICD3. However, unlike the HIF-1α protein, NICD3 protein levels were not modulated with hypoxia or hypoxia-mimetic agents. Surprisingly, mutations of the common prolyl hydroxylation and pVHL binding domain lead to the loss of CA9 mRNA, protein, and reporter activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated the association of NICD3, HIF-1α, and pVHL at the CA9 promoter. Further, the NICD3 mutant defective in prolyl hydroxylation and subsequent pVHL binding caused a reduction in cell proliferation of breast carcinoma cells. We show here for the first time that the interaction of HIF-1α with NICD3 is important for the regulation of CA9 expression. These findings suggest that although CA9 is a hypoxia-responsive gene, its expression is modulated by the interaction of HIF-1α, Notch3, and VHL proteins. Targeting the expression of CA9 by targeting upstream regulators could be useful in cancer/stem cell therapy.
doi:10.1177/1947601913481670
PMCID: PMC3877659  PMID: 24386511
hypoxia; Notch3; CA9; PBX1; VHL
15.  Microstructural Evolution during DPRM Process of Semisolid Ledeburitic D2 Tool Steel 
The Scientific World Journal  2013;2013:828926.
Semisolid metal processing is a relatively new technology that offers several advantages over liquid processing and solid processing because of the unique behaviour and characteristic microstructure of metals in this state. With the aim of finding a minimum process chain for the manufacture of high-quality production at minimal cost for forming, the microstructural evolution of the ledeburitic AISI D2 tool steel in the semisolid state was studied experimentally. The potential of the direct partial remelting (DPRM) process for the production of AISI D2 with a uniform globular microstructure was revealed. The liquid fraction was determined using differential scanning calorimetry. The microstructures of the samples were investigated using an optical microscope and a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive spectroscopy analyser, while X-ray phase analysis was performed to identify the phase evolution and the type of carbides. Mechanical characterisation was completed by hardness measurements. The typical microstructure after DPRM consists of metastable austenite which was located particularly in the globular grains (average grain size about 50 μm), while the remaining interspaces were filled by precipitated eutectic carbides on the grain boundaries and lamellar network.
doi:10.1155/2013/828926
PMCID: PMC3808712  PMID: 24223510
16.  A PEPTIDE ANTAGONIST DISRUPTS NATURAL KILLER CELL INHIBITORY SYNAPSE FORMATION1 
Productive engagement of MHC Class I by inhibitory NK cell receptors depends on the peptide bound by the MHC class I molecule. Peptide:MHC complexes that bind weakly to killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) can antagonize the inhibition mediated by high affinity peptide:MHC complexes and cause NK cell activation. We show that low affinity peptide:MHC complexes stall inhibitory signalling at the step of SHP-1 recruitment and do not go on to form the KIR microclusters induced by high affinity peptide:MHC, which are associated with Vav dephosphorylation and downstream signalling. Furthermore the low affinity peptide:MHC complexes prevented the formation of KIR microclusters by high affinity peptide:MHC. Thus peptide antagonism of NK cells is an active phenomenon of inhibitory synapse disruption.
doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1201032
PMCID: PMC3672982  PMID: 23382564
17.  Protective effect of naringenin on acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in rats 
AIM: To evaluate the ameliorative effect of naringenin (NG) during ulcerative colitis (UC) in rats.
METHODS: Rats were treated with three different doses (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg per day) of NG and a single dose of mesalazine (MES, 300 mg/kg per day) for seven days prior to ulcerative colitis induction by 4% acetic acid (AA). Twenty four hours after AA rectal administration, animals were scarified and the colonic tissues were dissected. Colonic mucus content was estimated using Alcian blue dye binding technique. In colon tissues, levels of total glutathione sulphadryls (T-GSH), non-protein sulphadryls (NP-SH) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were evaluated. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes, catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured. Concentrations of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and total protein were also estimated in colon tissues. Colonic levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO) were estimated. In cross section of colitis tissue the histopathological changes were observed.
RESULTS: Colonic mucus content was decreased in AA compared to controls (587.09 ± 65.59 mg/kg vs 941.78 ± 68.41 mg/kg, P < 0.001). AA administration markedly reduced T-GSH (5.25 ± 0.37 nmol/L vs 3.04 ± 0.24 nmol/L, P < 0.01), NP-SH (3.16 ± 0.04 nmol/L vs 2.16 ± 0.30 nmol/L, P < 0.01), CAT (6.77 ± 0.40 U/mg vs 3.04 ± 0.2 U/mg, P < 0.01) and SOD (3.10 ± 0.11 U/mg vs 1.77 ± 0.18 U/mg, P < 0.01) while TBARS, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, PGE2 and NO levels (15.09 ± 3.84 nmol/L vs 59.90 ± 16.34 nmol/L, P < 0.01; 113.56 ± 1.91 pg/mg vs 134.24 ± 4.77 pg/mg, P < 0.01; 209.20 ± 36.38 pg/mg vs 422.19 ± 31.47 pg/mg, P < 0.01; 250.83 ± 25.09 pg/mg vs 638.58 ± 115.9 pg/mg, P < 0.01; 248.19 ± 36.98 pg/mg vs 541.74 ± 58.34 pg/mg, P < 0.01 and 81.26 ± 2.98 mmol/g vs 101.90 ± 10.73 mmol/g, P < 0.001) were increased in colon of rats with UC compared controls respectively.Naringenin supplementation, significantly and dose dependently increased the colonic mucus content. The elevated TBARS levels were significantly decreased (39.35 ± 5.86 nmol/L, P < 0.05; 26.74 ± 3.17 nmol/L, P < 0.01 nmol/L and 17.74 ± 2.69 nmol/L, P < 0.01) compared to AA (59.90 ± 16.34 nmol/L) group while the decreased levels of T-GSH and NP-SH and activities of CAT and SOD found increased by NG treatments in dose dependent manner. The decreased values of nucleic acids and total protein in AA group were also significantly (P < 0.01) increased in all three NG supplemented groups respectively. NG pretreatment inhibited the TNF-α levels (123.76 ± 3.76 pg/mg, 122.62 ± 3.41 pg/mg and 121.51 ± 2.61 pg/mg vs 134.24 ± 4.78 pg/mg, P < 0.05) compared to AA group, respectively. Interleukins, IL-1β and IL-6 levels were also decreased in NG50 + AA (314.37 ± 16.31 pg/mg and 292.58 ± 23.68 pg/mg, P < 0.05) and NG100 + AA (416.72 ± 49.62 pg/mg and 407.96 ± 43.87 pg/mg, P < 0.05) when compared to AA (352.46 ± 8.58 pg/mg and 638.58 ± 115.98 pg/mg) group. Similar decrease (P < 0.05) was seen in PGE2 and NO values when compared to AA group. The group pretreated with MES, as a reference drug, showed significant (P < 0.01) protection against the changes induced in colon tissue by AA administration respectively.
CONCLUSION: In present study, NG produced antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects demonstrating protective effect in inflammatory bowel disease.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v19.i34.5633
PMCID: PMC3769899  PMID: 24039355
Naringenin; Ulcerative colitis; Inflammatory bowel disease; Oxidative stress
18.  Semisolid Metal Processing Techniques for Nondendritic Feedstock Production 
The Scientific World Journal  2013;2013:752175.
Semisolid metal (SSM) processing or thixoforming is widely known as a technology that involves the formation of metal alloys between solidus and liquidus temperatures. For the procedure to operate successfully, the microstructure of the starting material must consist of solid near-globular grains surrounded by a liquid matrix and a wide solidus-to-liquidus transition area. Currently, this process is industrially successful, generating a variety of products with high quality parts in various industrial sectors. Throughout the years since its inception, a number of technologies to produce the appropriate globular microstructure have been developed and applied worldwide. The main aim of this paper is to classify the presently available SSM technologies and present a comprehensive review of the potential mechanisms that lead to microstructural alterations during the preparation of feedstock materials for SSM processing.
doi:10.1155/2013/752175
PMCID: PMC3782119  PMID: 24194689
19.  Green material: ecological importance of imperative and sensitive chemi-sensor based on Ag/Ag2O3/ZnO composite nanorods 
Nanoscale Research Letters  2013;8(1):380.
In this report, we illustrate a simple, easy, and low-temperature growth of Ag/Ag2O3/ZnO composite nanorods with high purity and crystallinity. The composite nanorods were structurally characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy which confirmed that synthesized product have rod-like morphology having an average cross section of approximately 300 nm. Nanorods are made of silver, silver oxide, and zinc oxide and are optically active having absorption band at 375 nm. The composite nanorods exhibited high sensitivity (1.5823 μA.cm−2.mM−1) and lower limit of detection (0.5 μM) when applied for the recognition of phenyl hydrazine utilizing I-V technique. Thus, Ag/Ag2O3/ZnO composite nanorods can be utilized as a redox mediator for the development of highly proficient phenyl hydrazine sensor.
doi:10.1186/1556-276X-8-380
PMCID: PMC3846800  PMID: 24011288
Composite nanorods; Structural properties; Optical properties; Phenyl hydrazine sensing
20.  Meis1 regulates Foxn4 expression during retinal progenitor cell differentiation 
Biology Open  2013;2(11):1125-1136.
Summary
The transcription factor forkhead box N4 (Foxn4) is a key regulator in a variety of biological processes during development. In particular, Foxn4 plays an essential role in the genesis of horizontal and amacrine neurons from neural progenitors in the vertebrate retina. Although the functions of Foxn4 have been well established, the transcriptional regulation of Foxn4 expression during progenitor cell differentiation remains unclear. Here, we report that an evolutionarily conserved 129 bp noncoding DNA fragment (Foxn4CR4.2 or CR4.2), located ∼26 kb upstream of Foxn4 transcription start site, functions as a cis-element for Foxn4 regulation. CR4.2 directs gene expression in Foxn4-positive cells, primarily in progenitors, differentiating horizontal and amacrine cells. We further determined that the gene regulatory activity of CR4.2 is modulated by Meis1 binding motif, which is bound and activated by Meis1 transcription factor. Deletion of the Meis1 binding motif or knockdown of Meis1 expression abolishes the gene regulatory activity of CR4.2. In addition, knockdown of Meis1 expression diminishes the endogenous Foxn4 expression and affects cell lineage development. Together, we demonstrate that CR4.2 and its interacting Meis1 transcription factor play important roles in regulating Foxn4 expression during early retinogenesis. These findings provide new insights into molecular mechanisms that govern gene regulation in retinal progenitors and specific cell lineage development.
doi:10.1242/bio.20132279
PMCID: PMC3828759  PMID: 24244849
Enhancer; Foxn4; Meis1; Retinal progenitor; Horizontal cell; Amacrine cell
21.  An assessment of zinc oxide nanosheets as a selective adsorbent for cadmium 
Nanoscale Research Letters  2013;8(1):377.
Zinc oxide nanosheet is assessed as a selective adsorbent for the detection and adsorption of cadmium using simple eco-friendly extraction method. Pure zinc oxide nanosheet powders were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The zinc oxide nanosheets were applied to different metal ions, including Cd(II), Cu(II), Hg(II), La(III), Mn(II), Pb(II), Pd(II), and Y(III). Zinc oxide nanosheets were found to be selective for cadmium among these metal ions when determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. Moreover, adsorption isotherm data provided that the adsorption process was mainly monolayer on zinc oxide nanosheets.
doi:10.1186/1556-276X-8-377
PMCID: PMC3848733  PMID: 24011201
Zinc oxide; Nanosheets; Metal uptake; Cd(II); Environmental applications
22.  Antigenic and Molecular Characterization of Avian Influenza A(H9N2) Viruses, Bangladesh 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2013;19(9):1393-1402.
Human infection with avian influenza A(H9N2) virus was identified in Bangladesh in 2011. Surveillance for influenza viruses in apparently healthy poultry in live-bird markets in Bangladesh during 2008–2011 showed that subtype H9N2 viruses are isolated year-round, whereas highly pathogenic subtype H5N1 viruses are co-isolated with subtype H9N2 primarily during the winter months. Phylogenetic analysis of the subtype H9N2 viruses showed that they are reassortants possessing 3 gene segments related to subtype H7N3; the remaining gene segments were from the subtype H9N2 G1 clade. We detected no reassortment with subtype H5N1 viruses. Serologic analyses of subtype H9N2 viruses from chickens revealed antigenic conservation, whereas analyses of viruses from quail showed antigenic drift. Molecular analysis showed that multiple mammalian-specific mutations have become fixed in the subtype H9N2 viruses, including changes in the hemagglutinin, matrix, and polymerase proteins. Our results indicate that these viruses could mutate to be transmissible from birds to mammals, including humans.
doi:10.3201/eid1909.130336
PMCID: PMC3810925  PMID: 23968540
influenza; avian influenza A(H9N2) viruses; viruses; H9N2; H5N1; H7N3; molecular characterization; reassortants; Bangladesh; zoonoses; transmission; avian influenza; respiratory infections
23.  Phenyl 1,2,3-Triazole-Thymidine Ligands Stabilize G-Quadruplex DNA, Inhibit DNA Synthesis and Potentially Reduce Tumor Cell Proliferation over 3′-Azido Deoxythymidine 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(8):e70798.
Triazoles are known for their non-toxicity, higher stability and therapeutic activity. Few nucleoside (L1, L2 and L3) and non-nucleoside 1,2,3-triazoles (L4–L14) were synthesised using click chemistry and they were screened for tumor cell cytotoxicity and proliferation. Among these triazole ligands studied, nucleoside ligands exhibited higher potential than non-nucleoside ligands. The nucleoside triazole analogues, 3′-Phenyl-1,2,3- triazole-thymidine (L2) and 3′-4-Chlorophenyl-1,2,3-triazole-thymidine (L3), demonstrated higher cytotoxicity in tumor cells than in normal cells. The IC50 value for L3 was lowest (50 µM) among the ligands studied. L3 terminated cell cycle at S, G2/M phases and enhanced sub-G1 populations, manifesting induction of apoptosis in tumor cells. Confocal studies indicated that nucleoside triazole ligands (L2/L3) cause higher DNA fragmentation than other ligands. Preclinical experiments with tumor-induced mice showed greater reduction in tumor size with L3. In vitro DNA synthesis reaction with L3 exhibited higher DNA synthesis inhibition with quadruplex forming DNA (QF DNA) than non quadruplex forming DNA (NQF DNA). Tm of quadruplex DNA increased in the presence of L3, indicating its ability to enhance stability of quadruplex DNA at elevated temperature and the results indicate that it had higher affinity towards quadruplex DNA than the other forms of DNA (like dsDNA and ssDNA). From western blot experiment, it was noticed that telomerase expression levels in the tissues of tumor-induced mice were found to be reduced on L3 treatment. Microcalorimetry results emphasise that two nucleoside triazole ligands (L2/L3) interact with quadruplex DNA with significantly higher affinity (Kd≈10−7 M). Interestingly the addition of an electronegative moiety to the phenyl group of L2 enhanced its anti-proliferative activity. Though IC50 values are not significantly low with L3, the studies on series of synthetic 1,2,3-triazole ligands are useful for improving and building potential pro-apoptotic ligands.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0070798
PMCID: PMC3747139  PMID: 23976957
24.  Improved Recovery of Bacillus Spores from Nonporous Surfaces with Cotton Swabs over Foam, Nylon, or Polyester, and the Role of Hydrophilicity of Cotton in Governing the Recovery Efficiency 
Evaluating different swabbing materials for spore recovery efficiency (RE) from steel surfaces, we recorded the maximum RE (71%) of 107 Bacillus subtilis spores with Tulips cotton buds, followed by Johnson's cotton buds and standard Hi-Media cotton, polyester, nylon, and foam (23%) swabs. Among cotton swabs, instant water-absorbing capacity or the hydrophilicity index appeared to be the major indicator of RE, as determined by testing three more brands. Tulips swabs worked efficiently across diverse nonporous surfaces and on different Bacillus spp., registering 65 to 77% RE.
doi:10.1128/AEM.02626-12
PMCID: PMC3536098  PMID: 23087040
25.  Naturally Acquired Picornavirus Infections in Primates at the Dhaka Zoo 
Journal of Virology  2013;87(1):572-580.
The conditions in densely populated Bangladesh favor picornavirus transmission, resulting in a high rate of infection in the human population. Data suggest that nonhuman primates (NHP) may play a role in the maintenance and transmission of diverse picornaviruses in Bangladesh. At the Dhaka Zoo, multiple NHP species are caged in close proximity. Their proximity to other species and to humans, both zoo workers and visitors, provides the potential for cross-species transmission. To investigate possible interspecies and intraspecies transmission of picornaviruses among NHP, we collected fecal specimens from nine NHP taxa at the Dhaka Zoo at three time points, August 2007, January 2008, and June 2008. Specimens were screened using real-time PCR for the genera Enterovirus, Parechovirus, and Sapelovirus, and positive samples were typed by VP1 sequencing. Fifty-two picornaviruses comprising 10 distinct serotypes were detected in 83 fecal samples. Four of these serotypes, simian virus 19 (SV19), baboon enterovirus (BaEV), enterovirus 112 (EV112), and EV115, have been solely associated with infection in NHP. EV112, EV115, and SV19 accounted for 88% of all picornaviruses detected. Over 80% of samples from cages housing rhesus macaques, olive baboons, or hamadryas baboons were positive for a picornavirus, while no picornaviruses were detected in samples from capped langurs or vervet monkeys. In contrast to our findings among synanthropic NHP in Bangladesh where 100% of the picornaviruses detected were of human serotypes, in the zoo population, only 15% of picornaviruses detected in NHP were of human origin. Specific serotypes tended to persist over time, suggesting either persistent infection of individuals or cycles of reinfection.
doi:10.1128/JVI.00838-12
PMCID: PMC3536375  PMID: 23097447

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