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1.  IRS1, TCF7L2, ADRB1, PPARG, and HHEX Polymorphisms Associated with Atherogenic Risk in Mexican Population 
BioMed Research International  2013;2013:394523.
Objective. We aimed to explore the association between polymorphisms of IRS1 (rs1801278), TCF7L2 (rs7903146 and rs12255372), ADRB1 (rs1801253), PPARG (rs1801282), and HHEX (rs5015480) genes with atherogenic risk (AI = Total cholesterol/HDL) in MetS, T2D, and healthy populations from the Mexican Social Security Institute. Methodology and Results. Four hundred thirty-five MetS, 517 T2D, and 547 healthy individuals were selected. The association between the SNPs and the atherogenic index was evaluated by multiple linear regression and multinomial logistic regression models. The ADRB1 gene showed a statistically significant association with high-risk atherogenic index, OR = 2.94 (IC 95% 1.64–5.24; P < 0.0001) for the Arg/Gly variant, under the dominant model an OR = 2.96 (IC 95% 1.67–5.25; P < 0.0001), and under the Log additive model an OR = 2.52 (IC 95% 1.54–4.15; P < 0.0001). Conclusions. The Arg389Gly polymorphism of the ADRB1 gene may be a worthy biological marker to predict the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases given a high-risk atherogenic index.
PMCID: PMC3859263  PMID: 24371822
3.  Molecular Mechanism and Potential Targets for Blocking HPV-Induced Lesion Development 
Journal of Oncology  2011;2012:278312.
Persistent infection with high-risk HPV is the etiologic agent associated with the development of cervical cancer (CC) development. However, environmental, social, epidemiological, genetic, and host factors may have a joint influence on the risk of disease progression. Cervical lesions caused by HPV infection can be removed naturally by the host immune response and only a small percentage may progress to cancer; thus, the immune response is essential for the control of precursor lesions and CC. We present a review of recent research on the molecular mechanisms that allow HPV-infected cells to evade immune surveillance and potential targets of molecular therapy to inhibit tumor immune escape.
PMCID: PMC3246776  PMID: 22220169
4.  Pathogenesis of tuberculosis in mice exposed to low and high doses of an environmental mycobacterial saprophyte before infection. 
Infection and Immunity  1997;65(8):3317-3327.
Mycobacteria are ubiquitous in the environment, but they are not part of the normal human microbial flora. It has been suggested that variable contact with mycobacteria can influence susceptibility to mycobacterial pathogens and the efficacy of subsequent Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccination. To test this, mice were immunized with high or low doses of an environmental saprophyte, M. vaccae, that is intensely immunogenic as an autoclaved preparation. Two months later, they received an intratracheal challenge with M. tuberculosis H37Rv. Recipients of a low Th1-inducing dose (10(7) organisms) were partially protected and maintained a high ratio of interleukin 2 (IL-2)-positive to IL-4-positive cells in the perivascular, peribronchial, and granulomatous areas of the lung, whereas in unimmunized controls the IL-4-positive cells increased markedly between days 21 and 28. In contrast, recipients of the high dose (10(9) organisms), which primes Th2 as well as Th1 cytokine production, died more rapidly than unimmunized controls and showed massive pneumonia from day 7. The ratio of IL-2-positive to IL-4-positive cells in all compartments of the lung rapidly fell to 1 by day 14 for these animals. These events correlated with cytokine mRNA profiles and with increases in the local toxicity of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), demonstrable only when a major Th2 component was present. These data indicate that cross-reactive epitopes present in an environmental saprophyte can evoke either protective responses or responses that increase susceptibility to M. tuberculosis. The latter are associated with the presence of a Th2 component and increased sensitivity to TNF-alpha.
PMCID: PMC175470  PMID: 9234793

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