We introduce a simple, versatile and robust one-step technique that enables real-time imaging of multiple intracellular caspase activities in living cells without the need for complicated synthetic protocols. Conventional fluorogenic probes or recently reported activatable probes have been designed to target various proteases but are limited to extracellular molecules. Only a few have been applied to image intracellular proteases in living cells because most of these probes have limited cell-permeability. Our platform does not need complicated synthetic processes; instead it involves a straightforward peptide synthesis and a simple mixing step with a commercial transfection agent. The transfection agent efficiently delivered the highly quenched fluorogenic probes, comprised of distinctive pairs of dyes and quenchers, to the initiator caspase-8 and the effector caspase-3 in MDA-MB-435 cells, allowing dual-imaging of the activities of both caspases during the apoptotic process induced by TNF-related apoptosis induced ligand (TRAIL). With the combination of multiple fluorogenic probes, this simple platform can be applied to multiplexed imaging of selected intracellular proteases to study apoptotic processes in pathologies or for cell-based high throughput screening systems for drug discovery.
caspase; activatable probe; fluorescence imaging; peptide; transfection agent
microRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding small RNAs (sRNAs) capable of negatively regulating gene expression. Recently, microRNA-like small RNAs (milRNAs) were discovered in several filamentous fungi but not yet in Trichoderma reesei, an industrial filamentous fungus that can secrete abundant hydrolases. To explore the presence of milRNA in T. reesei and evaluate their expression under induction of cellulose, two T. reesei sRNA libraries of cellulose induction (IN) and non-induction (CON) were generated and sequenced using Solexa sequencing technology. A total of 726 and 631 sRNAs were obtained from the IN and CON samples, respectively. Global expression analysis showed an extensively differential expression of sRNAs in T. reesei under the two conditions. Thirteen predicted milRNAs were identified in T. reesei based on the short hairpin structure analysis. The milRNA profiles obtained in deep sequencing were further validated by RT-qPCR assay. Computational analysis predicted a number of potential targets relating to many processes including regulation of enzyme expression. The presence and differential expression of T. reesei milRNAs imply that milRNA might play a role in T. reesei growth and cellulase induction. This work lays foundation for further functional study of fungal milRNAs and their industrial application.
The precise role of apoptosis in the pathogenesis of intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) remains to be elucidated. We analyzed degenerative nucleus pulposus (NP) cells and found that the expression of miR-27a was increased. The overexpression of miR-27a was further verified using real-time RT-PCR. Bioinformatics target prediction identified phosphoinositide-3 kinases (PI3K) as putative targets of miR-27a. Furthermore, miR-27a inhibited PI3K expression by directly targeting their 3’-UTRs, and this inhibition was abolished by mutation of the miR-27a binding sites. Various cellular processes including cell growth, proliferation, migration and adhesion are regulated by activation of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, and nucleus pulposus cells are known to strongly express the phosphorylated survival protein AKT. Our results identify PI3K as a novel target of miR-27a. Upregulation of miR-27a thus targets PI3K, initiating apoptosis of nucleus pulposus cells. This present study revealed that downregulated miR-27a might develop a novel intervention for IDD treatment through the prevention of apoptosis in Nucleus pulposus Cells.
A 2-year field and incubation experiment was conducted to investigate δ13C during the processes of CH4 emission from the fields subjected to two water managements (flooding and drainage) in the winter fallow season, and further to estimate relative contribution of acetate to total methanogenesis (Fac) and fraction of CH4 oxidized (Fox) based on the isotopic data. Compared with flooding, drainage generally caused CH4, either anaerobically or aerobically produced, depleted in 13C. There was no obvious difference between the two in transport fractionation factor (εtransport) and δ13C-value of emitted CH4. CH4 emission was negatively related to its δ13C-value in seasonal variation (P<0.01). Acetate-dependent methanogenesis in soil was dominant (60–70%) in the late season, while drainage decreased Fac-value by 5–10%. On roots however, CH4 was mostly produced through H2/CO2 reduction (60–100%) over the season. CH4 oxidation mainly occurred in the first half of the season and roughly 10–90% of the CH4 was oxidized in the rhizosphere. Drainage increased Fox-value by 5–15%, which is possibly attributed to a significant decrease in production while no simultaneous decrease in oxidation. Around 30–70% of the CH4 was oxidized at the soil-water interface when CH4 in pore water was released into floodwater, although the amount of CH4 oxidized therein might be negligible relative to that in the rhizosphere. CH4 oxidation was also more important in the first half of the season in lab conditions and about 5–50% of the CH4 was oxidized in soil while almost 100% on roots. Drainage decreased Fox-value on roots by 15% as their CH4 oxidation potential was highly reduced. The findings suggest that water management in the winter fallow season substantially affects Fac in the soil and Fox in the rhizosphere and roots rather than Fac on roots and Fox at the soil-water interface.
The activating receptor NK cell group 2 member D (NKG2D) mediates antitumor immunity in experimental animal models. However, whether NKG2D ligands contribute to tumor suppression or progression clinically remains controversial. Here, we have described 2 novel lines of “humanized” bi-transgenic (bi-Tg) mice in which native human NKG2D ligand MHC class I polypeptide-related sequence B (MICB) or the engineered membrane-restricted MICB (MICB.A2) was expressed in the prostate of the transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) model of spontaneous carcinogenesis. Bi-Tg TRAMP/MICB mice exhibited a markedly increased incidence of progressed carcinomas and metastasis, whereas TRAMP/MICB.A2 mice enjoyed long-term tumor-free survival conferred by sustained NKG2D-mediated antitumor immunity. Mechanistically, we found that cancer progression in TRAMP/MICB mice was associated with loss of the peripheral NK cell pool owing to high serum levels of tumor-derived soluble MICB (sMICB). Prostate cancer patients also displayed reduction of peripheral NK cells and high sMIC levels. Our study has not only provided direct evidence in “humanized” mouse models that soluble and membrane-restricted NKG2D ligands pose opposite impacts on cancer progression, but also uncovered a mechanism of sMIC-induced impairment of NK cell antitumor immunity. Our findings suggest that the impact of soluble NKG2D ligands should be considered in NK cell–based cancer immunotherapy and that our unique mouse models should be valuable for therapy optimization.
Small interfering RNA (siRNA) is an emerging class of therapeutics, working by regulating the expression of a specific gene involved in disease progression. Despite the promises, effective transport of siRNA with minimal side effects remains a challenge. In this study, a non-viral nanoparticle gene carrier has been developed and its efficiency for siRNA delivery and transfection has been validated at both in vitro and in vivo levels. Such a nanocarrier, abbreviated as Alkyl-PEI2k-IO, was constructed with a core of iron oxide (IO) and a shell of alkylated PEI2000 (Alkyl-PEI2k). It was found to be able to bind with siRNA, resulting in well-dispersed nanoparticles with a controlled clustering structure and narrow size distribution. Electrophoresis studies showed that the Alkyl-PEI2k-IOs could retard siRNA completely at N/P ratios above 10, protect siRNA from enzymatic degradation in serum and release complexed siRNA efficiently in the presence of polyanionic heparin. The knockdown efficiency of the siRNA loaded nanocarriers was assessed with 4T1 cells stably expressing luciferase (fluc-4T1) and further, with a fluc-4T1 xenograft model. Significant downregulation of luciferase was observed, and unlike the high molecular weight analogs, the Alkyl-PEI2k coated IOs showed a good biocompatibility. In conclusion, Alkyl-PEI2k-IOs demonstrate highly efficient delivery of siRNA and an innocuous toxic profile, making it a potential carrier for gene therapy.
Biomaterials; Superparamagnetic nanoparticles; Polytehyleneimine; Small interfering RNA
Macrolide resistance rates of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in the Beijing population were as high as 68.9%, 90.0%, 98.4%, 95.4%, and 97.0% in the years 2008 to 2012, respectively. Common macrolide-resistant mobile genetic elements were not detected with any isolate. These macrolide-resistant isolates came from multiple clones rather than the same clone. No massive aggregation of a particular clone was found in a specific period.
The treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) remains palliative. Immunotherapy offers a potentially effective therapy for CRPC; however, its advancement into the clinic has been slow, in part because of the lack of representative in vitro tumor models that resemble the in vivo tumor microenvironment for studying interactions of CRPC cells with immune cells and other potential therapeutics. This study evaluates the use of 3D porous chitosan-alginate (CA) scaffolds for culturing human prostate cancer (PCa) cells and studying tumor cell interaction with human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) ex vivo. CA scaffolds and Matrigel matrix samples supported in vitro tumor spheroid formation over 15 days of culture, and CA scaffolds supported live cell fluorescence imaging with confocal microscopy using stably transfected PCa cells for 55 days. PCa cells grown in Matrigel matrix and CA scaffolds for 15 days were co-cultured with PBLs for 2 and 6 days in vitro and evaluated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), immunohistochemistry (IHC), and flow cytometry. Both the Matrigel matrix and CA scaffolds supported interaction of PBLs with PCa tumors, with CA scaffolds providing a more robust platform for subsequent analyses. This study demonstrates the use of 3D natural polymer scaffolds as a tissue culture model for supporting long-term analysis of interaction of prostate cancer tumor cells with immune cells, providing an in vitro platform for rapid immunotherapy development.
immunotherapy; NK cells; T cells; tumor microenvironment; tumor spheroids
Androgen deprivation therapy remains the primary treatment modality for patients with metastatic prostate cancer but is uniformly marked by progression to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) after a period of regression. Continued activation of androgen receptor (AR) signaling is attributed as one of the most important mechanisms underlying failure of therapy. Recently, the discovery of constitutively active AR splice variants (AR-Vs) adds more credence to this idea. Expression of AR-Vs in metastases portends a rapid progression of the tumor. However, the precise role of the AR-Vs in CRPC still remains unknown. ARv567es is one of the two AR variants frequently found in human CRPC xenografts and metastases. Herein, we developed a probasin (Pb) promoter-driven ARv567es transgenic mouse, Pb-ARv567es, to evaluate the role of ARv567es in both autonomous prostate growth and progression to CRPC. We found that expression of ARv567es in the prostate results in epithelial hyperplasia by 16 weeks and invasive adenocarcinoma is evident by 1 year of age. The underlying genetic cellular events involved a cell cycle-related transcriptome and differential expression of a spectrum of genes that are critical for tumor initiation and progression. These findings indicate that ARv567es could induce tumorigenesis de novo and signifies the critical role of AR-Vs in CRPC. Thus, the Pb-ARv567es mouse could provide a novel model in which the role of AR variants in prostate cancer progression can be examined.
Tan sheep (Ovis aries), a Chinese indigenous breed, has special curly fleece after birth, especially at one month old. However, this unique phenotype disappears gradually with age and the underlying reasons of trait evolvement are still unknown. In this study, skin transcriptome data was used to study this issue. In total 51,215 transcripts including described transcripts and transfrags were identified. Pathway analysis of the top 100 most highly expressed transcripts, which included TCHH and keratin gene family members, such as KRT25, KRT5, KRT71, KRT14 and others, showed pathways known to be relevant to hair/fleece development and function. Six hundred differentially expressed (DE) transcripts were detected at two different physiological ages (one-month-old with curly fleece and 48-month-old without curly fleece) and were categorized into three major functional groups: cellular component, molecular function, and biological process. The top six functional categories included cell, cell part, cellular process, binding, intracellular, metabolic process. The detected differentially expressed genes were particularly involved in signal, signal peptide, disulfide bond, glycoprotein and secreted terms, respectively. Further splicing isoform analysis showed that the metallothionein 3 isoform was up-regulated in Tan lamb skin, indicating that it may be related to the conformation of curly fleece in Chinese Tan lamb. The hair-related important differentially expressed genes (SPINK4, FGF21, ESRα, EphA3, NTNG1 and GPR110) were confirmed by qPCR analysis. We deduced that the differences existed in expressed transcripts, splice isoforms and GO categories between the two different physiological stages, which might constitute the major reasons for explaining the trait evolvement of curly fleece in Chinese Tan sheep. This study provides some clues for elucidating the molecular mechanism of fleece change with age in Chinese Tan sheep, as well as supplying some potential values for understanding human hair disorder and texture changes.
The properties of stem cells can be induced during the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). The responsible molecular mechanisms, however, remain largely undefined. Here we report the identification of the microRNA-146a (miR-146a) as a common target of Krüppel-like factor 8 (KLF8) and TGF-β, both of which are known EMT-inducers. Upon KLF8 overexpression or TGF-β treatment, a significant portion of the MCF-10A cells gained stem cell traits as demonstrated by an increased expression of CD44high/CD24low, activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), mammosphere formation and chemoresistance. Along with this change, the expression of miR-146a was highly upregulated in the cells. Importantly, we found that miR-146a was aberrantly co-overexpressed with KLF8 in a panel of invasive human breast cancer cell lines. Ectopic expression of KLF8 failed to induce the stem cell traits in the MCF-10A cells if the cells were pre-treated with miR-146a inhibitor, whereas overexpression of miR-146a in the MCF-10A cells alone was sufficient to induce the stem cell traits. Co-staining and luciferase reporter analyses indicated that miR-146a targets the 3’-UTR of the Notch signaling inhibitor NUMB for translational inhibition. Overexpression of KLF8 dramatically potentiated the tumorigenecity of MCF-10A cells expressing the H-Ras oncogene, which was accompanied by a loss of NUMB expression in the tumors. Taken together, this study identifies a novel role and mechanism for KLF8 in inducing pro-tumorigenic mammary stem cells via miR-146a potentially by activating Notch signaling. This mechanism could be exploited as a therapeutic target against drug resistance of breast cancer.
KLF8; miR-146a; EMT; mammary stem cells; tumorigenesis
Isoniazid (INH) and Rifampicin (RFP) are widely used in the world for the treatment of tuberculosis, but the hepatotoxicity is a major concern during clinical therapy. Previous studies showed that these drugs induced oxidative stress in liver, and several antioxidants abated this effect. Metallothionein (MT), a member of cysteine-rich protein, has been proposed as a potent antioxidant. This study attempts to determine whether endogenous expression of MT protects against INH and RFP-induced hepatic oxidative stress in mice. Wild type (MT+/+) and MT-null (MT−/−) mice were treated intragastrically with INH (150 mg/kg), RFP (300 mg/kg), or the combination (150 mg/kg INH +300 mg/kg RFP) for 21 days. The results showed that MT−/− mice were more sensitive than MT+/+ mice to INH and RFP-induced hepatic injuries as evidenced by hepatic histopathological alterations, increased serum AST levels and liver index, and hepatic oxidative stress as evidenced by the increase of MDA production and the change of liver antioxidant status. Furthermore, INH increased the protein expression of hepatic CYP2E1 and INH/RFP (alone or in combination) decreased the expression of hepatic CYP1A2. These findings clearly demonstrate that basal MT provides protection against INH and RFP-induced toxicity in hepatocytes. The CYP2E1 and CYP1A2 were involved in the pathogenesis of INH and RFP-induced hepatotoxicity.
Targeted nanoparticle-based delivery systems have been used extensively to develop effective cancer theranostics. However, how targeting ligands affect extravascular transport of nanoparticles in solid tumors remains unclear. Here, we show, using B16/F10 melanoma cells expressing melanocortin type-1 receptor (MC1R), that the nature of targeting ligands, i.e., whether they are agonists or antagonists, directs tumor uptake and intratumoral distribution after extravasation of nanoparticles from tumor vessels into the extravascular fluid space. Pegylated hollow gold nanospheres (HAuNS, diameter≈40 nm) coated with MC1R agonist are internalized upon ligand-receptor binding, whereas MC1R antagonist-conjugated HAuNS remain attached on the cell surface. Transcellular transport of agonist-conjugated HAuNS was confirmed by a multilayer tumor cell model and by transmission electron microscopy. MC1R agonist- but not MC1R antagonist-conjugated nanoparticles exhibit significantly higher tumor uptake than nontargeted HAuNS and are quickly dispersed from tumor vessels via receptor-mediated endocytosis and subsequent transcytosis. These results confirm an active transport mechanism that can be used to overcome one of the major biological barriers for efficient nanoparticle delivery to solid tumors.
Nanoparticles; Melanocortin type-1 receptor (MC1R); Transcytosis; Agonists; Antagonists
A total of 201 Mycoplasma pneumoniae clinical isolates from Beijing, China, isolated from 2008 to 2011, were clustered into 16 multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) types, of which 6 new MLVA types have never been reported previously. Type 1 isolates based on p1 gene genotyping were mainly MLVA types E, J, P, U, and X. There was no correlation between macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae and their MLVA type.
Bacterial pathogens like Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) encounter acidic microenvironments in the host and must maintain their acid-base homeostasis to survive. A genetic screen identified two Mtb strains that cannot control intrabacterial pH (pHIB) in an acidic environment; infection with either strain led to severe attenuation in mice. To search for additional proteins that Mtb requires to survive at low pH, we introduced a whole-cell screen for compounds that disrupt pHIB, along with counter-screens that identify ionophores and membrane perturbors. Application of these methods to a natural product library identified four compounds of interest, one of which may inhibit novel pathway(s). This approach yields compounds that may lead to the identification of pathways that allow Mtb to survive in acidic environments, a setting in which Mtb is resistant to most of the drugs currently used to treat tuberculosis.
Flowers of ethylene-sensitive ornamental plants transformed with ethylene-insensitive 1-1(etr1-1), a mutant ethylene receptor first isolated from Arabidopsis, are known to have longer shelf lives. We have generated petunia plants in which the etr1-1 gene was over-expressed under the control of a chemically-inducible promoter, which would allow expression of etr1-1 to be initiated at the desired time and stage of development. Here, we showed that transgenic plants grew and developed normally without a chemical inducer. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that the abundance of transcripts of Arabidopsis etr1-1 gene was substantially induced in flowers with 30 μM dexamethasone (DEX). Consequently, t he life of the flowers was almost doubled and the peak of ethylene production was delayed. We compared gene expression changes of petals with DEX to those without DEX at 24 h and 48 h by microarray. Our results indicated that transcripts of many putative genes encoding transcription factors were down-regulated by etr1-1 induced expression at the early stage. In addition, putative genes involved in gibberellin biosynthesis, response to jasmonic acid/gibberellins stimulus, cell wall modification, ethylene biosynthesis, and cell death were down-regulated associating with etr1-1 induced expression. We investigated time-course gene expression profiles and found two profiles which displayed totally opposite expression patterns under these two treatments. In these profiles, ‘the regulation of transcription’ was predominant in GO categories. Taking all results together, we concluded those transcription factors down-regulated at early stage might exert a major role in regulating the senescence process which were consequently characterized by cell wall modification and cell death.
Ribosome assembly cofactor RimP is one of the auxiliary proteins required for maturation of the 30S subunit in Escherichia coli. Although RimP in protein synthesis is important, its role in secondary metabolites biosynthesis has not been reported so far. Considering the close relationship between protein synthesis and the production of secondary metabolites, the function of ribosome assembly cofactor RimP on antibiotics production was studied in Streptomyces coelicolor and Streptomyces venezuelae.
In this study, the rimP homologue rimP-SC was identified and cloned from Streptomyces coelicolor. Disruption of rimP-SC led to enhanced production of actinorhodin and calcium-dependent antibiotics by promoting the transcription of actII-ORF4 and cdaR. Further experiments demonstrated that MetK was one of the reasons for the increment of antibiotics production. In addition, rimP-SC disruption mutant could be used as a host to produce more peptidyl nucleoside antibiotics (polyoxin or nikkomycin) than the wild-type strain. Likewise, disruption of rimP-SV of Streptomyces venezuelae also significantly stimulated jadomycin production, suggesting that enhanced antibiotics production might be widespread in many other Streptomyces species.
These results established an important relationship between ribosome assembly cofactor and secondary metabolites biosynthesis and provided an approach for yield improvement of secondary metabolites in Streptomyces.
rimP-SC; Streptomyces coelicolor; Actinorhodin; Calcium-dependent antibiotics
Estrogen receptors (ERs) play vital roles in the function and remodeling of bone. Their cellular mechanisms can broadly be categorized into those involving direct DNA binding (classical) or indirect DNA binding (non-classical). The generation of non-classical ER knock-in (ERα−/NERKI) mice provides a unique opportunity to define these pathways in bone. We previously demonstrated that ERα−/NERKI mice exhibit an osteoporotic phenotype; however, the mechanism(s) for this remain unresolved. Gene expression analyses of cortical bone from ERα−/NERKI mice revealed suppression of lymphoid enhancer factor-1 (Lef1), a classic Wnt-responsive transcription factor that associates with β-catenin. Since Wnt signaling is generally considered bone anabolic, this observation leads to the hypothesis that NERKI-induced suppression of Wnt signaling may contribute to the low bone mass phenotype. We generated ERα−/NERKI mice crossed with the Wnt-responsive TOPGAL transgenic mouse model and observed significantly less β-galactosidase activity in ERα−/NERKI mice, confirming suppression of Wnt activity in vivo. Adenoviral expression of the NERKI receptor using an in vitro cell system resulted in the induction of several secreted antagonists of Wnt signaling. Furthermore, expression of NERKI abrogated Wnt10b-dependent Wnt activation using a lentiviral-mediated reporter assay. Finally, expression of NERKI destabilized β-catenin cellular protein levels and disrupted ER/β-catenin interactions. Collectively, these data suggest the osteoporotic phenotype of ERα−/NERKI mice may involve the suppression of Lef1-mediated Wnt signaling through both the stimulation of secreted Wnt inhibitors and/or disruption of normal β-catenin function.
Estrogen Receptor; NERKI; Wnt; β-catenin; Bone
DIAPH1 is a formin protein which promotes actin polymerization, stabilizes microtubules and consequently is involved in cytoskeleton dynamics, cell migration and differentiation. In contrast to the relatively well-understood signaling cascades that regulate DIAPH1 activity, its spatial regulation of biogenesis is not understood. A recent report showed that synthesis of DIAPH1 is confined in the perinuclear ER compartment through translation-dependent mRNA targeting. However, the underlying mechanism of DIAPH1 local synthesis is yet to be elucidated. Here, we provide evidence to demonstrate that the 5′-cap-mediated immediate translation of DIAPH1 mRNA upon exiting nucleus is required for localizing the mRNA in the perinuclear ER compartment. This is supported by data: 1) Delayed translation of DIAPH1 mRNA resulted in loss of perinuclear localization of the mRNA; 2) Once delocalized, DIAPH1 mRNA could not be retargeted to the perinuclear region; and 3) The translation of DIAPH1 mRNA is 5′-cap dependent. These results provide new insights into the novel mechanism of DIAPH1 local synthesis. In addition, these findings have led to the development of new approaches for manipulating DIAPH1 mRNA localization and local protein synthesis in cells for functional studies. Furthermore, a correlation of DIAPH1 mRNA and DIAPH1 protein localization has been demonstrated using a new method to quantify the intracellular distribution of protein.
Although only a subset of smokers develop lung cancer, we cannot determine which smokers are at highest risk for cancer development, nor do we know the signaling pathways altered early in the process of tumorigenesis in these individuals. On the basis of the concept that cigarette smoke creates a molecular field of injury throughout the respiratory tract, this study explores oncogenic pathway deregulation in cytologically normal proximal airway epithelial cells of smokers at risk for lung cancer. We observed a significant increase in a genomic signature of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway activation in the cytologically normal bronchial airway of smokers with lung cancer and smokers with dysplastic lesions, suggesting that PI3K is activated in the proximal airway before tumorigenesis. Further, PI3K activity is decreased in the airway of high-risk smokers who had significant regression of dysplasia after treatment with the chemopreventive agent myo-inositol, and myo-inositol inhibits the PI3K pathway in vitro. These results suggest that deregulation of the PI3K pathway in the bronchial airway epithelium of smokers is an early, measurable, and reversible event in the development of lung cancer and that genomic profiling of these relatively accessible airway cells may enable personalized approaches to chemoprevention and therapy. Our work further suggests that additional lung cancer chemoprevention trials either targeting the PI3K pathway or measuring airway PI3K activation as an intermediate endpoint are warranted.
Nanoformulations have shown great promise for delivering chemotherapeutics and hold tremendous clinical relevance. However nuclear mapping of the chemo drugs is important to predict the success of the nanoformulation. Herein in this study fluorescence microscopy and a subcellular tracking algorithm were used to map the diffusion of chemotherapeutic drugs in cancer cells. Positively charged nanoparticles efficiently carried the chemo drug across the cell membrane. The algorithm helped map free drug and drug loaded nanoparticles, revealing varying nuclear diffusion pattern of the chemotherapeutics in drug-sensitive and resistant cells in a live dynamic cellular environment. While the drug-sensitive cells showed an exponential uptake of the drug with time, resistant cells showed random and asymmetric drug distribution. Moreover nanoparticles carrying the drug remained in the perinuclear region while the drug got accumulated in the cell nuclei. The tracking approach has enabled us to predict the therapeutic success of different nanoscale formulations of doxorubicin.
iron oxide nanoparticles; doxorubicin; drug resistance; computational; nuclear mapping; live cell imaging; cancer
This study proposes an intelligent algorithm that can realize information fusion in reference to the relative research achievements in brain cognitive theory and innovative computation. This algorithm treats knowledge as core and information fusion as a knowledge-based innovative thinking process. Furthermore, the five key parts of this algorithm including information sense and perception, memory storage, divergent thinking, convergent thinking, and evaluation system are simulated and modeled. This algorithm fully develops innovative thinking skills of knowledge in information fusion and is a try to converse the abstract conception of brain cognitive science to specific and operable research routes and strategies. Furthermore, the influences of each parameter of this algorithm on algorithm performance are analyzed and compared with those of classical intelligent algorithms trough test. Test results suggest that the algorithm proposed in this study can obtain the optimum problem solution by less target evaluation times, improve optimization effectiveness, and achieve the effective fusion of information.
Clearance of apoptotic cells (efferocytosis) is critical to the homeostasis of immune system by restraining inflammation and autoimmune response to intracellular antigens released from dying cells. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) mediated innate immunity plays important role in pathogen clearance and in regulation of adaptive immune response. However, the regulation of efferocytosis by activation of TLRs has not been well characterized. In this study, we found that activation of TLR3 or TLR9, but not of TLR2, enhances engulfment of apoptotic cells by macrophages. We found that the activation of TLR3 upregulates the expression of Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM)-like protein 2 (TLT2), a member of TREM receptor family, on the surface of macrophages. Blocking TLT2 on macrophage surface by either specific anti-TLT2 antibody or soluble TLT2 extracellular domain attenuated the enhanced ability of macrophages with TLR3 activation to engulf apoptotic cells. To the contrary, overexpression of TLT2 increased the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. We found that TLT2 specifically binds to phosphatidylserine (PS), a major “eat me” signal that is exposed on the surface of apoptotic cells. Furthermore, we found that TLT2 mediates phagocytosis of apoptotic cells in vivo. Thus, our studies identified TLT2 as an engulfment receptor for apoptotic cells. Our data also suggest a novel mechanism by which TREM receptors regulate inflammation and autoimmune response.
efferocytosis; Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM)-like protein 2; Toll like receptor; inflammation