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author:("Jia, mingling")
1.  Hyper-IL-15 suppresses metastatic and autochthonous liver cancer by promoting tumour-specific CD8+ T cell responses 
Journal of hepatology  2014;61(6):1297-1303.
Background & Aims
Liver cancer has a very dismal prognosis due to lack of effective therapy. Here, we studied the therapeutic effects of hyper-interleukin15 (hyper-IL-15), which is composed of IL-15 and the sushi domain of the IL-15 receptor α chain, on metastatic and autochthonous liver cancers.
Methods
Liver metastatic tumour models were established by intraportally injecting syngeneic mice with murine CT26 colon carcinoma cells or B16-OVA melanoma cells. Primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was induced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN). A hydrodynamics-based gene delivery method was used to achieve sustained hyper-IL-15 expression in the liver.
Results
Liver gene delivery of hyper-IL-15 robustly expanded CD8+ T and NK cells, leading to a long-term (more than 40 days) accumulation of CD8+ T cells in vivo, especially in the liver. Hyper-IL-15 treatment exerted remarkable therapeutic effects on well-established liver metastatic tumours and even on DEN-induced autochthonous HCC, and these effects were abolished by depletion of CD8+ T cells but not NK cells. Hyper-IL-15 triggered IL-12 and interferon-γ production and reduced the expression of co-inhibitory molecules on dendritic cells in the liver. Adoptive transfer of T cell receptor (TCR) transgenic OT-1 cells showed that hyper-IL-15 preferentially expanded tumour-specific CD8+ T cells and promoted their interferon-γ synthesis and cytotoxicity.
Conclusions
Liver delivery of hyper-IL-15 provides an effective therapy against well-established metastatic and autochthonous liver cancers in mouse models by preferentially expanding tumour-specific CD8+ T cells and promoting their anti-tumour effects.
doi:10.1016/j.jhep.2014.07.004
PMCID: PMC4332697  PMID: 25016226
Liver cancer; Immunotherapy; IFN-γ; Cytotoxicity
2.  Whole exome sequencing of adenoid cystic carcinoma 
The Journal of Clinical Investigation  2013;123(7):2965-2968.
Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy that can occur in multiple organ sites and is primarily found in the salivary gland. While the identification of recurrent fusions of the MYB-NFIB genes have begun to shed light on the molecular underpinnings, little else is known about the molecular genetics of this frequently fatal cancer. We have undertaken exome sequencing in a series of 24 ACC to further delineate the genetics of the disease. We identified multiple mutated genes that, combined, implicate chromatin deregulation in half of cases. Further, mutations were identified in known cancer genes, including PIK3CA, ATM, CDKN2A, SF3B1, SUFU, TSC1, and CYLD. Mutations in NOTCH1/2 were identified in 3 cases, and we identify the negative NOTCH signaling regulator, SPEN, as a new cancer gene in ACC with mutations in 5 cases. Finally, the identification of 3 likely activating mutations in the tyrosine kinase receptor FGFR2, analogous to those reported in ovarian and endometrial carcinoma, point to potential therapeutic avenues for a subset of cases.
doi:10.1172/JCI67201
PMCID: PMC3999050  PMID: 23778141
3.  Preferential CTL targeting of Gag is associated with relative viral control in long-term surviving HIV-1 infected former plasma donors from China 
Cell Research  2012;22(5):903-914.
It is generally believed that CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) play a critical role in limiting the replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and in determining the outcome of the infection, and this effect may partly depend on which HIV product is preferentially targeted. To address the correlation between HIV-1-specific CTL responses and virus replication in a cohort of former plasma donors (FPDs), 143 antiretroviral therapy naive FPDs infected with HIV-1 clade B' strains were assessed for HIV-1-specific CTL responses with an IFN-γ Elispot assay at single peptide level by using overlapping peptides (OLPs) covering the whole consensus clade B proteome. By using a Spearman's rank correlation analysis, we found that the proportion of Gag-specific CTL responses among the total virus-specific CTL activity was inversely correlated with viral loads while being positively correlated to CD4 counts, as opposed to Pol- and Env-specific responses that were associated with increased viral loads and decreased CD4 counts. In addition, Vpr-specifc CTL responses showed a similar protective effect with Gag responses, but with a much lower frequency of recognition. Significantly, we also observed an association between HLA-A*30/B*13/Cw*06 haplotype and lower viral loads that was probably due to restricted Gag-specific CTL responses. Thus, our data demonstrate the prominent role of Gag-specific CTL responses in disease control. The advantage of HLA-A*30/B*13/Cw*06 haplotype in viral control may be associated with the contribution of Gag-specific CTL responses in the studied individuals.
doi:10.1038/cr.2012.19
PMCID: PMC3343654  PMID: 22290423
human immunodeficiency virus type 1; cytotoxic T lymphocytes; human leukocyte antigen class I; Gag
5.  The landscape of cancer genes and mutational processes in breast cancer 
Nature  2012;486(7403):400-404.
All cancers carry somatic mutations in their genomes. A subset, known as driver mutations, confer clonal selective advantage on cancer cells and are causally implicated in oncogenesis1, and the remainder are passenger mutations. The driver mutations and mutational processes operative in breast cancer have not yet been comprehensively explored. Here we examine the genomes of 100 tumours for somatic copy number changes and mutations in the coding exons of protein-coding genes. The number of somatic mutations varied markedly between individual tumours. We found strong correlations between mutation number, age at which cancer was diagnosed and cancer histological grade, and observed multiple mutational signatures, including one present in about ten per cent of tumours characterized by numerous mutations of cytosine at TpC dinucleotides. Driver mutations were identified in several new cancer genes including AKT2, ARID1B, CASP8, CDKN1B, MAP3K1, MAP3K13, NCOR1, SMARCD1 and TBX3. Among the 100 tumours, we found driver mutations in at least 40 cancer genes and 73 different combinations of mutated cancer genes. The results highlight the substantial genetic diversity underlying this common disease.
doi:10.1038/nature11017
PMCID: PMC3428862  PMID: 22722201
6.  The Life History of 21 Breast Cancers 
Cell  2012;149(5):994-1007.
SUMMARY
Cancer evolves dynamically as clonal expansions supersede one another driven by shifting selective pressures, mutational processes, and disrupted cancer genes. These processes mark the genome, such that a cancer’s life history is encrypted in the somatic mutations present. We developed algorithms to decipher this narrative and applied them to 21 breast cancers. Mutational processes evolve across a cancer’s lifespan, with many emerging late but contributing extensive genetic variation. Subclonal diversification is prominent, and most mutations are found in just a fraction of tumor cells. Every tumor has a dominant subclonal lineage, representing more than 50% of tumor cells. Minimal expansion of these subclones occurs until many hundreds to thousands of mutations have accumulated, implying the existence of long-lived, quiescent cell lineages capable of substantial proliferation upon acquisition of enabling genomic changes. Expansion of the dominant subclone to an appreciable mass may therefore represent the final rate-limiting step in a breast cancer’s development, triggering diagnosis.
doi:10.1016/j.cell.2012.04.023
PMCID: PMC3428864  PMID: 22608083
7.  COMPLEX LANDSCAPES OF SOMATIC REARRANGEMENT IN HUMAN BREAST CANCER GENOMES 
Nature  2009;462(7276):1005-1010.
SUMMARY
Multiple somatic rearrangements are often found in cancer genomes. However, the underlying processes of rearrangement and their contribution to cancer development are poorly characterised. Here, we employed a paired-end sequencing strategy to identify somatic rearrangements in breast cancer genomes. There are more rearrangements in some breast cancers than previously appreciated. Rearrangements are more frequent over gene footprints and most are intrachromosomal. Multiple architectures of rearrangement are present, but tandem duplications are common in some cancers, perhaps reflecting a specific defect in DNA maintenance. Short overlapping sequences at most rearrangement junctions suggest that these have been mediated by non-homologous end-joining DNA repair, although varying sequence patterns indicate that multiple processes of this type are operative. Several expressed in-frame fusion genes were identified but none were recurrent. The study provides a new perspective on cancer genomes, highlighting the diversity of somatic rearrangements and their potential contribution to cancer development.
doi:10.1038/nature08645
PMCID: PMC3398135  PMID: 20033038
8.  The Life History of 21 Breast Cancers 
Cell  2012;149(5):994-1007.
Summary
Cancer evolves dynamically as clonal expansions supersede one another driven by shifting selective pressures, mutational processes, and disrupted cancer genes. These processes mark the genome, such that a cancer's life history is encrypted in the somatic mutations present. We developed algorithms to decipher this narrative and applied them to 21 breast cancers. Mutational processes evolve across a cancer's lifespan, with many emerging late but contributing extensive genetic variation. Subclonal diversification is prominent, and most mutations are found in just a fraction of tumor cells. Every tumor has a dominant subclonal lineage, representing more than 50% of tumor cells. Minimal expansion of these subclones occurs until many hundreds to thousands of mutations have accumulated, implying the existence of long-lived, quiescent cell lineages capable of substantial proliferation upon acquisition of enabling genomic changes. Expansion of the dominant subclone to an appreciable mass may therefore represent the final rate-limiting step in a breast cancer's development, triggering diagnosis.
PaperClip
Graphical Abstract
Highlights
► Genome-wide analyses of mutations emerging through time in 21 breast cancers ► Minimal expansion of subclones occurs until thousands of mutations have accumulated ► Cancer-specific signatures of point mutations and genomic instability emerge late ► ERBB2 amplification begins early but continues to evolve over long molecular time
Newly developed algorithms allow the reconstruction of the genomic history of different breast cancers, tracing the temporal evolution of each tumor and the emergence of the dominant subclones that will eventually trigger diagnosis.
doi:10.1016/j.cell.2012.04.023
PMCID: PMC3428864  PMID: 22608083
10.  A comprehensive catalogue of somatic mutations from a human cancer genome 
Nature  2009;463(7278):191-196.
All cancers carry somatic mutations. A subset of these somatic alterations, termed driver mutations, confer selective growth advantage and are implicated in cancer development, whereas the remainder are passengers. Here we have sequenced the genomes of a malignant melanoma and a lymphoblastoid cell line from the same person, providing the first comprehensive catalogue of somatic mutations from an individual cancer. The catalogue provides remarkable insights into the forces that have shaped this cancer genome. The dominant mutational signature reflects DNA damage due to ultraviolet light exposure, a known risk factor for malignant melanoma, whereas the uneven distribution of mutations across the genome, with a lower prevalence in gene footprints, indicates that DNA repair has been preferentially deployed towards transcribed regions. The results illustrate the power of a cancer genome sequence to reveal traces of the DNA damage, repair, mutation and selection processes that were operative years before the cancer became symptomatic.
doi:10.1038/nature08658
PMCID: PMC3145108  PMID: 20016485
11.  Exome sequencing identifies frequent mutation of the SWI/SNF complex gene PBRM1 in renal carcinoma 
Nature  2011;469(7331):539-542.
Summary
The genetics of renal cancer is dominated by inactivation of the VHL tumour suppressor gene in clear cell carcinoma (ccRCC), the commonest histological subtype. A recent large-scale screen of ~3500 genes by PCR-based exon re-sequencing identified several new cancer genes in ccRCC including UTX (KDM6A)1, JARID1C (KDM5C) and SETD22. These genes encode enzymes that demethylate (UTX, JARID1C) or methylate (SETD2) key lysine residues of histone H3. Modification of the methylation state of these lysine residues of histone H3 regulates chromatin structure and is implicated in transcriptional control3. However, together these mutations are present in fewer than 15% of ccRCC, suggesting the existence of additional, currently unidentified cancer genes. Here, we have sequenced the protein coding exome in a series of primary ccRCC and report the identification of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex gene PBRM14 as a second major ccRCC cancer gene, with truncating mutations in 41% (92/227) of cases. These data further elucidate the somatic genetic architecture of ccRCC and emphasize the marked contribution of aberrant chromatin biology.
doi:10.1038/nature09639
PMCID: PMC3030920  PMID: 21248752
12.  The patterns and dynamics of genomic instability in metastatic pancreatic cancer 
Nature  2010;467(7319):1109-1113.
SUMMARY
Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive malignancy with 5-year mortality of 97–98%, usually due to widespread metastatic disease. Previous studies indicate that this disease has a complex genomic landscape, with frequent copy number changes and point mutations1–5, but genomic rearrangements have not been characterised in detail. Despite the clinical importance of metastasis, there remain fundamental questions about the clonal structures of metastatic tumours6,7, including phylogenetic relationships among metastases, the scale of on-going parallel evolution in metastatic and primary sites7, and how the tumour disseminates. Here, we harness advances in DNA sequencing8–12 to annotate genomic rearrangements in 13 patients with pancreatic cancer and explore clonal relationships among metastases. We find that pancreatic cancer acquires rearrangements indicative of telomere dysfunction and abnormal cell-cycle control, namely dysregulated G1-S phase transition with intact G2-M checkpoint. These initiate amplification of cancer genes and occur predominantly in early cancer development rather than later stages of disease. Genomic instability frequently persists after cancer dissemination, resulting in on-going, parallel and even convergent evolution among different metastases. We find evidence that there is genetic heterogeneity among metastasis-initiating cells; seeding metastasis may require driver mutations beyond those required for primary tumours; and phylogenetic trees across metastases show organ-specific branches. These data attest to the richness of genetic variation in cancer, hewn by the tandem forces of genomic instability and evolutionary selection.
doi:10.1038/nature09460
PMCID: PMC3137369  PMID: 20981101
13.  The patterns and dynamics of genomic instability in metastatic pancreatic cancer 
Nature  2010;467(7319):1109-1113.
Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive malignancy with a five-year mortality of 97–98%, usually due to widespread metastatic disease. Previous studies indicate that this disease has a complex genomic landscape, with frequent copy number changes and point mutations1–5, but genomic rearrangements have not been characterized in detail. Despite the clinical importance of metastasis, there remain fundamental questions about the clonal structures of metastatic tumours6,7, including phylogenetic relationships among metastases, the scale of ongoing parallel evolution in metastatic and primary sites7, and how the tumour disseminates. Here we harness advances in DNA sequencing8–12 to annotate genomic rearrangements in 13 patients with pancreatic cancer and explore clonal relationships among metastases. We find that pancreatic cancer acquires rearrangements indicative of telomere dysfunction and abnormal cell-cycle control, namely dysregulated G1-to-S-phase transition with intact G2–M checkpoint. These initiate amplification of cancer genes and occur predominantly in early cancer development rather than the later stages of the disease. Genomic instability frequently persists after cancer dissemination, resulting in ongoing, parallel and even convergent evolution among different metastases. We find evidence that there is genetic heterogeneity among metastasis-initiating cells, that seeding metastasis may require driver mutations beyond those required for primary tumours, and that phylogenetic trees across metastases show organ-specific branches. These data attest to the richness of genetic variation in cancer, brought about by the tandem forces of genomic instability and evolutionary selection.
doi:10.1038/nature09460
PMCID: PMC3137369  PMID: 20981101
14.  Data mining using the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer BioMart 
Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC) (http://www.sanger.ac.uk/cosmic) is a publicly available resource providing information on somatic mutations implicated in human cancer. Release v51 (January 2011) includes data from just over 19 000 genes, 161 787 coding mutations and 5573 gene fusions, described in more than 577 000 tumour samples. COSMICMart (COSMIC BioMart) provides a flexible way to mine these data and combine somatic mutations with other biological relevant data sets. This article describes the data available in COSMIC along with examples of how to successfully mine and integrate data sets using COSMICMart.
Database URL: http://www.sanger.ac.uk/genetics/CGP/cosmic/biomart/martview/
doi:10.1093/database/bar018
PMCID: PMC3263736  PMID: 21609966
15.  Massive Genomic Rearrangement Acquired in a Single Catastrophic Event during Cancer Development 
Cell  2011;144(1):27-40.
Summary
Cancer is driven by somatically acquired point mutations and chromosomal rearrangements, conventionally thought to accumulate gradually over time. Using next-generation sequencing, we characterize a phenomenon, which we term chromothripsis, whereby tens to hundreds of genomic rearrangements occur in a one-off cellular crisis. Rearrangements involving one or a few chromosomes crisscross back and forth across involved regions, generating frequent oscillations between two copy number states. These genomic hallmarks are highly improbable if rearrangements accumulate over time and instead imply that nearly all occur during a single cellular catastrophe. The stamp of chromothripsis can be seen in at least 2%–3% of all cancers, across many subtypes, and is present in ∼25% of bone cancers. We find that one, or indeed more than one, cancer-causing lesion can emerge out of the genomic crisis. This phenomenon has important implications for the origins of genomic remodeling and temporal emergence of cancer.
PaperClip
Graphical Abstract
Highlights
► 2%–3% cancers show 10–100 s of rearrangements localized to specific genomic regions ► Genomic features imply chromosome breaks occur in one-off crisis (“chromothripsis”) ► Found across all tumor types, especially common in bone cancers (up to 25%) ► Can generate several genomic lesions with potential to drive cancer in single event
doi:10.1016/j.cell.2010.11.055
PMCID: PMC3065307  PMID: 21215367
16.  COSMIC: mining complete cancer genomes in the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer 
Nucleic Acids Research  2010;39(Database issue):D945-D950.
COSMIC (http://www.sanger.ac.uk/cosmic) curates comprehensive information on somatic mutations in human cancer. Release v48 (July 2010) describes over 136 000 coding mutations in almost 542 000 tumour samples; of the 18 490 genes documented, 4803 (26%) have one or more mutations. Full scientific literature curations are available on 83 major cancer genes and 49 fusion gene pairs (19 new cancer genes and 30 new fusion pairs this year) and this number is continually increasing. Key amongst these is TP53, now available through a collaboration with the IARC p53 database. In addition to data from the Cancer Genome Project (CGP) at the Sanger Institute, UK, and The Cancer Genome Atlas project (TCGA), large systematic screens are also now curated. Major website upgrades now make these data much more mineable, with many new selection filters and graphics. A Biomart is now available allowing more automated data mining and integration with other biological databases. Annotation of genomic features has become a significant focus; COSMIC has begun curating full-genome resequencing experiments, developing new web pages, export formats and graphics styles. With all genomic information recently updated to GRCh37, COSMIC integrates many diverse types of mutation information and is making much closer links with Ensembl and other data resources.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkq929
PMCID: PMC3013785  PMID: 20952405
17.  Systematic sequencing of renal carcinoma reveals inactivation of histone modifying genes 
Nature  2010;463(7279):360-363.
Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common form of adult kidney cancer, characterised by the presence of inactivating mutations in the VHL gene in the majority of cases1,2 and by infrequent somatic mutations in known cancer genes. To elucidate further the genetics of ccRCC, we have sequenced 101 cases through 3544 protein coding genes. Here we report the identification of inactivating mutations in two genes encoding enzymes involved in histone modification, SETD2, a histone H3 lysine 36 methyltransferase and JARID1C (KDM5C), a histone H3 lysine 4 demethylase in addition to mutations in the histone H3 lysine 27 demethylase, UTX (KMD6A), we recently reported3. The results highlight the role of mutations in components of the chromatin modification machinery in human cancer. Additionally, NF2 mutations were found in non-VHL mutated ccRCC and several other likely cancer genes were identified. These results indicate that substantial genetic heterogeneity exists in a cancer type dominated by mutations in a single gene and that systematic screens will be key to fully elucidating the somatic genetic architecture of cancer.
doi:10.1038/nature08672
PMCID: PMC2820242  PMID: 20054297
18.  A small cell lung cancer genome reports complex tobacco exposure signatures 
Nature  2009;463(7278):184-190.
SUMMARY
Cancer is driven by mutation. Worldwide, tobacco smoking is the major lifestyle exposure that causes cancer, exerting carcinogenicity through >60 chemicals that bind and mutate DNA. Using massively parallel sequencing technology, we sequenced a small cell lung cancer cell line, NCI-H209, to explore the mutational burden associated with tobacco smoking. 22,910 somatic substitutions were identified, including 132 in coding exons. Multiple mutation signatures testify to the cocktail of carcinogens in tobacco smoke and their proclivities for particular bases and surrounding sequence context. Effects of transcription-coupled repair and a second, more general expression-linked repair pathway were evident. We identified a tandem duplication that duplicates exons 3-8 of CHD7 in-frame, and another two lines carrying PVT1-CHD7 fusion genes, suggesting that CHD7 may be recurrently rearranged in this disease. These findings illustrate the potential for next-generation sequencing to provide unprecedented insights into mutational processes, cellular repair pathways and gene networks associated with cancer.
doi:10.1038/nature08629
PMCID: PMC2880489  PMID: 20016488
19.  Somatic mutations of the histone H3K27 demethylase, UTX, in human cancer 
Nature genetics  2009;41(5):521-523.
Somatically acquired epigenetic changes are present in many cancers. Epigenetic regulation is maintained via post-translational modifications of core histones. Here, we describe inactivating somatic mutations in the histone lysine demethylase, UTX, pointing to histone H3 lysine methylation deregulation in multiple tumour types. UTX reintroduction into cancer cells with inactivating UTX mutations resulted in slowing of proliferation and marked transcriptional changes. These data identify UTX as a new human cancer gene.
doi:10.1038/ng.349
PMCID: PMC2873835  PMID: 19330029
20.  A systematic, large-scale resequencing screen of X-chromosome coding exons in mental retardation 
Tarpey, Patrick S | Smith, Raffaella | Pleasance, Erin | Whibley, Annabel | Edkins, Sarah | Hardy, Claire | O'Meara, Sarah | Latimer, Calli | Dicks, Ed | Menzies, Andrew | Stephens, Phil | Blow, Matt | Greenman, Chris | Xue, Yali | Tyler-Smith, Chris | Thompson, Deborah | Gray, Kristian | Andrews, Jenny | Barthorpe, Syd | Buck, Gemma | Cole, Jennifer | Dunmore, Rebecca | Jones, David | Maddison, Mark | Mironenko, Tatiana | Turner, Rachel | Turrell, Kelly | Varian, Jennifer | West, Sofie | Widaa, Sara | Wray, Paul | Teague, Jon | Butler, Adam | Jenkinson, Andrew | Jia, Mingming | Richardson, David | Shepherd, Rebecca | Wooster, Richard | Tejada, M Isabel | Martinez, Francisco | Carvill, Gemma | Goliath, Rene | de Brouwer, Arjan P M | van Bokhoven, Hans | Van Esch, Hilde | Chelly, Jamel | Raynaud, Martine | Ropers, Hans-Hilger | Abidi, Fatima E | Srivastava, Anand K | Cox, James | Luo, Ying | Mallya, Uma | Moon, Jenny | Parnau, Josef | Mohammed, Shehla | Tolmie, John L | Shoubridge, Cheryl | Corbett, Mark | Gardner, Alison | Haan, Eric | Rujirabanjerd, Sinitdhorn | Shaw, Marie | Vandeleur, Lucianne | Fullston, Tod | Easton, Douglas F | Boyle, Jackie | Partington, Michael | Hackett, Anna | Field, Michael | Skinner, Cindy | Stevenson, Roger E | Bobrow, Martin | Turner, Gillian | Schwartz, Charles E | Gecz, Jozef | Raymond, F Lucy | Futreal, P Andrew | Stratton, Michael R
Nature genetics  2009;41(5):535-543.
Large-scale systematic resequencing has been proposed as the key future strategy for the discovery of rare, disease-causing sequence variants across the spectrum of human complex disease. We have sequenced the coding exons of the X chromosome in 208 families with X-linked mental retardation (XLMR), the largest direct screen for constitutional disease-causing mutations thus far reported. The screen has discovered nine genes implicated in XLMR, including SYP, ZNF711 and CASK reported here, confirming the power of this strategy. The study has, however, also highlighted issues confronting whole-genome sequencing screens, including the observation that loss of function of 1% or more of X-chromosome genes is compatible with apparently normal existence.
doi:10.1038/ng.367
PMCID: PMC2872007  PMID: 19377476
21.  COSMIC (the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer): a resource to investigate acquired mutations in human cancer 
Nucleic Acids Research  2009;38(Database issue):D652-D657.
The catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC) (http://www.sanger.ac.uk/cosmic/) is the largest public resource for information on somatically acquired mutations in human cancer and is available freely without restrictions. Currently (v43, August 2009), COSMIC contains details of 1.5-million experiments performed through 13 423 genes in almost 370 000 tumours, describing over 90 000 individual mutations. Data are gathered from two sources, publications in the scientific literature, (v43 contains 7797 curated articles) and the full output of the genome-wide screens from the Cancer Genome Project (CGP) at the Sanger Institute, UK. Most of the world’s literature on point mutations in human cancer has now been curated into COSMIC and while this is continually updated, a greater emphasis on curating fusion gene mutations is driving the expansion of this information; over 2700 fusion gene mutations are now described. Whole-genome sequencing screens are now identifying large numbers of genomic rearrangements in cancer and COSMIC is now displaying details of these analyses also. Examination of COSMIC’s data is primarily web-driven, focused on providing mutation range and frequency statistics based upon a choice of gene and/or cancer phenotype. Graphical views provide easily interpretable summaries of large quantities of data, and export functions can provide precise details of user-selected data.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkp995
PMCID: PMC2808858  PMID: 19906727
22.  Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses in Chinese infected with HIV-1 B'/C Recombinant (CRF07_BC) 
Retrovirology  2007;4:62.
Background
The characterization of HIV-1-specific T cell responses in people infected with locally circulating HIV-1 strain will facilitate the development of HIV-1 vaccine. Sixty intravenous drug users infected with HIV-1 circulating recombinant form 07_BC (CRF07_BC), which has been spreading rapidly in western China from north to south, were recruited from Xinjiang, China to assess the HIV-1-specific T cell responses at single peptide level with overlapping peptides (OLP) covering the whole concensus clades B and C proteome.
Results
The median of the total magnitude and total number of OLPs recognized by CTL responses were 10925 SFC/million PBMC and 25 OLPs, respectively, when tested by clade C peptides, which was significantly higher than when tested by clade B peptides. The immunodominant regions, which cover 14% (58/413) of the HIV-1 proteome, are widely distributed throughout the HIV-1 proteome except in Tat, Vpu and Pol-PR, with Gag, Pol-RT, Pol-Int and Nef being most frequently targeted. The subdominant epitopes are mostly located in p24, Nef, integrase, Vpr and Vif. Of the responses directed to clade C OLPs, 61.75% (972/1574) can be observed when tested with corresponding clade B OLPs. However, Pol-PR and Vpu tend to be targeted in the clade B sequence rather than the clade C sequence, which is in line with the recombinant pattern of CRF07_BC. Stronger and broader CTL responses in subjects with CD4 cell counts ranging from 200 to 400/mm3 were observed when compared to those with less than 200/mm3 or more than 400/mm3, though there have been no significant correlations identified between the accumulative CTL responses or overall breadth and CD4 cell count or plasma viral load.
Conclusion
This is the first study conducted to comprehensively address T cell responses in Chinese subjects infected with HIV-1 CRF07_BC in which subtle differences in cross-reactivity were observed, though similar patterns of overall immune responses were demonstrated with clade B infected populations. The immunodominant regions identified in this population can facilitate future HIV-1 vaccine development in China.
doi:10.1186/1742-4690-4-62
PMCID: PMC2018724  PMID: 17727734

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