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1.  Fibrinolytic Activity and Dose-Dependent Effect of Incubating Human Blood Clots in Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester: In Vitro Assays 
BioMed Research International  2015;2015:627471.
Background. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) has been reported to possess time-dependent fibrinolytic activity by in vitro assay. This study is aimed at investigating fibrinolytic dose-dependent activity of CAPE using in vitro assays. Methods. Standardized human whole blood (WB) clots were incubated in either blank controls or different concentrations of CAPE (3.75, 7.50, 15.00, 22.50, and 30.00 mM). After 3 hours, D-dimer (DD) levels and WB clot weights were measured for each concentration. Thromboelastography (TEG) parameters were recorded following CAPE incubation, and fibrin morphology was examined under a confocal microscope. Results. Overall, mean DD (μg/mL) levels were significantly different across samples incubated with different CAPE concentrations, and the median pre- and postincubation WB clot weights (grams) were significantly decreased for each CAPE concentration. Fibrin removal was observed microscopically and indicated dose-dependent effects. Based on the TEG test, the Ly30 fibrinolytic parameter was significantly different between samples incubated with two different CAPE concentrations (15.0 and 22.50 mM). The 50% effective dose (ED50) of CAPE (based on DD) was 1.99 mg/mL. Conclusions. This study suggests that CAPE possesses fibrinolytic activity following in vitro incubation and that it has dose-dependent activities. Therefore, further investigation into CAPE as a potential alternative thrombolytic agent should be conducted.
PMCID: PMC4312562  PMID: 25664321
2.  Multiplex amplification refractory mutation system (MARMS) for the detection of β-globin gene mutations among the transfusion-dependent β-thalassemia Malay patients in Kelantan, Northeast of Peninsular Malaysia 
The aim of this study was to adapt MARMS with some modifications to detect beta mutation in our cohort of thalassemia patients. We focused only on transfusion-dependent thalassemia Malay patients, the predominant ethnic group (95%) in the Kelantanese population. Eight mutations were identified in 46 out of 48 (95.83%) beta thalassemia alleles. Most of the patients (54.2%) were compound heterozygous with co-inheritance Cd 26 (G>A). The frequencies of spectrum beta chain mutation among these patients are presented in Table 2. Among the transfusion dependent beta thalassemia Malay patients studied, 26 patients were found to be compound heterozygous and the main alleles were Cd 26 (G>A). Compound heterozygous mutation of Cd 26 (G>A) and IVS 1-5 (G>C) were 12 (46.2%), Cd 26 (G>A) and Cd 41/42 (TTCT) were 9 (34.6%), Cd 26 (G>A) and IVS 1-1 (G>C) were 2 (7.7%) respectively. Meanwhile the minority were made of a single compound heterozygous of Cd 26 (G>A) and Cd 71/72, Cd 26 (>A) and Cd 17 (A>T), Cd 26 (G>A) and -28 (G>A) respectively. Twenty out of forty six patients were shown to have homozygous of IVS 1-5 (G>C) were 2 (10.0%), Cd 26 (G>A) were 15 (75.0%), Cd 19 (A>G) were 1 (5.0%), and IVS 1-1 (G>T) were 2 (10.0%). The beta chain mutations among the Kelantanese Malays followed closely the distribution of beta chain mutations among the Thais and the Malays of the Southern Thailand. The G-C transition at position 5 of the IVS 1-5 mutation was predominant among the Malay patients. In conclusion, this method has successfully identified the mutation spectrum in our cohort of transfusion-dependent beta thalassemia patients, and this method is equally effective in screening for mutation among thalassemia patients.
PMCID: PMC4165115  PMID: 25232503
MARMS-PCR; β-globin gene; thalassemia; Malay; mutation
3.  In Vitro Whole Blood Clot Lysis for Fibrinolytic Activity Study Using D-Dimer and Confocal Microscopy 
Advances in Hematology  2014;2014:814684.
This study aimed to evaluate in vitro whole blood (WB) clot lysis method for the assessment of fibrinolytic activity. Standardized unresected (uncut) retracted WB clot was incubated in pool platelet poor plasma (PPP) for varying incubation times and in streptokinase (SK) at different concentrations. The fibrinolytic activity was assessed by D-dimer (DD), confocal microscopy, and clot weight. DD was measured photometrically by immunoturbidimetric method. There was a significant difference in mean DD levels according to SK concentrations (P = 0.007). The mean DD ± SD according to the SK concentrations of 5, 30, 50, and 100 IU/mL was: 0.69 ± 0.12, 0.78 ± 0.14, 1.04 ± 0.14 and 2.40 ± 1.09 μg/mL. There were no significant changes of clot weight at different SK concentrations. Gradual loss and increased branching of fibrin in both PPP and SK were observed. Quantitation of DD and morphology of fibrin loss as observed by the imaging features are in keeping with fibrinolytic activity. Combination of DD levels and confocal microscopic features was successfully applied to evaluate the in vitro WB clot lysis method described here.
PMCID: PMC3934584  PMID: 24660000
4.  Single-Center Experience of von Willebrand Disease (vWD) Among Patients with Menorrhagia: A Diagnosis which could be Missed 
Menorrhagia is one of the gynecological complaints, seen in women of reproductive age. In majority of cases no organic pathology is found. To date there is no consensus on application of von Willebrand disease (vWD) testing as part of the routine investigations in menorrhagia. Diagnosis of vWD is challenging. It is complicated by intra-individual variations in von Willebrand antigen, activity, and factor VIII levels due to fluctuation of these factor levels during the menstrual cycle or hormonal therapy. The aim of this study is to detect vWD presenting with menorrhagia among Malays attending gynecology clinic by using a standard panel of haemostatic profiles. Thirty Malay patients attending gynecology clinic with unexplained menorrhagia were included in this study. Haemostatic profile such as platelet count, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), factor VIII assay, von Willebrand factor antigen, and von Willebrand factor activity, and collagen binding assay were measured in all patients. Pre- and post hormonal haemostatic profiles were also performed in the patients diagnosed as vWD. All patients had normal APTT. Based on von Willebrand factor work-up, vWD was diagnosed in four patients (13.3%). Three of them were Type 1 and the other one was Type 2M. Investigation for vWD is essential in patients with menorrhagia and thus the laboratories performing vWD testing should provide a complete panel of diagnostic work-up in order to reduce the interpretation error. Screening for vWD should be performed before hormonal treatment as haemostatic profile post treatment could mask the diagnosis.
PMCID: PMC3422391  PMID: 23997452
von Willebrand Disease (vWD); Menorrhagia; Malay
5.  HOXA4 Gene Promoter Hypermethylation as an Epigenetic Mechanism Mediating Resistance to Imatinib Mesylate in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Patients 
BioMed Research International  2012;2013:129715.
Development of resistance to imatinib mesylate (IM) in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients has emerged as a significant clinical problem. The observation that increased epigenetic silencing of potential tumor suppressor genes correlates with disease progression in some CML patients treated with IM suggests a relationship between epigenetic silencing and resistance development. We hypothesize that promoter hypermethylation of HOXA4 could be an epigenetic mechanism mediating IM resistance in CML patients. Thus a study was undertaken to investigate the promoter hypermethylation status of HOXA4 in CML patients on IM treatment and to determine its role in mediating resistance to IM. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples of 95 CML patients (38 good responders and 57 resistant) and 12 normal controls. All samples were bisulfite treated and analysed by methylation-specific high-resolution melt analysis. Compared to the good responders, the HOXA4 hypermethylation level was significantly higher (P = 0.002) in IM-resistant CML patients. On comparing the risk, HOXA4 hypermethylation was associated with a higher risk for IM resistance (OR 4.658; 95% CI, 1.673–12.971; P = 0.003). Thus, it is reasonable to suggest that promoter hypermethylation of HOXA4 gene could be an epigenetic mechanism mediating IM resistance in CML patients.
PMCID: PMC3591123  PMID: 23484077
6.  Contribution of BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations to imatinib mesylate resistance in Philadelphia chromosome positive Malaysian chronic myeloid leukemia patients 
Hematology Reports  2012;4(4):e23.
Development of resistance to imatinib mesylate (IM) in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients is mediated by different mechanisms that can be classified as BCR-ABL dependent or BCR-ABL independent pathways. BCR-ABL dependent mechanisms are most frequently associated with point mutations in tyrosine kinase domain (TKD) of BCR-ABL1 and also with BCR-ABL gene amplification. Many different types and frequencies of mutations have been reported in different studies, probably due to the different composition of study cohorts. Since no reports are available from Malaysia, this study was undertaken to investigate the frequency and pattern of BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations using dHPLC followed by sequencing, and also status of BCR-ABL gene amplification using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on 40 IM resistant Malaysian CML patients. Mutations were detected in 13 patients (32.5%). Five different types of mutations (T315I, E255K, Y253H, M351T, V289F) were identified in these patients. In the remaining 27 IM resistant CML patients, we investigated the contribution made by BCR-ABL gene amplification, but none of these patients showed amplification. It is presumed that the mechanisms of resistance in these 27 patients might be due to BCR-ABL independent pathways. Different mutations confer different levels of resistance and, therefore, detection and characterization of TKD mutations is highly important in order to guide therapy in CML patients.
PMCID: PMC3555211  PMID: 23355941
chronic myeloid leukemia; imatinib mesylate; BCR-ABL dependent mechanisms; tyrosine kinase domain; mutation.
8.  The Co-Existence of Pure Red Cell Aplasia and Autoimmune Haemolytic Anaemia in a Child with Malignant Lymphoma 
The association between pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) and autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AIHA) has rarely been reported. PRCA represents an isolated process, characterized by normochromic, normocytic anaemia, reticulocytopenia and erythroid hypoplasia in the bone marrow, and may be attributable to infection with Parvo virus B19. AIHA is a condition in which peripheral red blood cell destruction is induced by the presence of autoantibodies. However, the co-existence of these conditions is very rare, since only few cases of PRCA and AIHA associated with malignant lymphoma (ML) were reported. A case of PRCA and AIHA was detected and described, for the first time in Malaysia, in a 10-year-old child suffering from non-Hodgkin lymphoma from the Department of Haematology, Universiti Sains Malaysia. Following the induction course of chemotherapy, the patient turned anaemic, with tendency for red cell clumping, reticulocytopenia and anisocytosis. AIHA was suspected in spite of the weak Coomb reaction obtained. The bone marrow aspirate revealed the presence of giant pronormoblasts, suggesting PRCA. Serological tests for Parvo virus and other viruses were negative.
PMCID: PMC3349402  PMID: 22605959
pure red cell aplasia; autoimmune haemolytic anaemia; malignant lymphoma

Results 1-8 (8)