COX-2 has been implicated in Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) latency and pathogenesis (A. George Paul, N. Sharma-Walia, N. Kerur, C. White, and B. Chandran, Cancer Res. 70:3697-3708, 2010; P. P. Naranatt, H. H. Krishnan, S. R. Svojanovsky, C. Bloomer, S. Mathur, and B. Chandran, Cancer Res. 64:72-84, 2004; N. Sharma-Walia, A. G. Paul, V. Bottero, S. Sadagopan, M. V. Veettil, N. Kerur, and B. Chandran, PLoS Pathog. 6:e1000777, 2010; N. Sharma-Walia, H. Raghu, S. Sadagopan, R. Sivakumar, M. V. Veettil, P. P. Naranatt, M. M. Smith, and B. Chandran, J. Virol. 80:6534-6552, 2006). However, the precise regulatory mechanisms involved in COX-2 induction during KSHV infection have never been explored. Here, we identified cis-acting elements involved in the transcriptional regulation of COX-2 upon KSHV de novo infection. Promoter analysis using human COX-2 promoter deletion and mutation reporter constructs revealed that nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) and the cyclic AMP (cAMP) response element (CRE) modulate KSHV-mediated transcriptional regulation of COX-2. Along with multiple KSHV-induced signaling pathways, infection-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) also augmented COX-2 transcription. Infection of endothelial cells markedly induced COX-2 expression via a cyclosporine A-sensitive, calcineurin/NFAT-dependent pathway. KSHV infection increased intracellular cAMP levels and activated protein kinase A (PKA), which phosphorylated the CRE-binding protein (CREB) at serine 133, which probably led to interaction with CRE in the COX-2 promoter, thereby enhancing COX-2 transcription. PKA selective inhibitor H-89 pretreatment strongly inhibited CREB serine 133, indicating the involvement of a cAMP-PKA-CREB-CRE loop in COX-2 transcriptional regulation. In contrast to phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and protein kinase C, inhibition of FAK and Src effectively reduced KSHV infection-induced COX-2 transcription and protein levels. Collectively, our study indicates that mediation of COX-2 transcription upon KSHV infection is a paradigm of a complex regulatory milieu involving the interplay of multiple signal cascades and transcription factors. Intervention at each step of COX-2/PGE2 induction can be used as a potential therapeutic target to treat KSHV-associated neoplasm and control inflammatory sequels of KSHV infection.
The mammalian Golgi apparatus is composed of multiple stacks of cisternal membranes organized laterally into a polarized ribbon. Furthermore, trans-Golgi membranes come in close apposition with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes to form ER-trans-Golgi contact sites, which may facilitate transfer of newly synthesized ceramide from the ER to sphingomyelin (SM) synthase at the trans-Golgi via ceramide transfer protein (CERT). CERT interacts with both ER and Golgi membranes, and together with Golgi morphology contributes to efficient SM synthesis. Here, we show that Golgi disassembly during proapoptotic stress induced by tumor necrosis factor (TNFα) and anisomycin results in decreased levels of CERT at the Golgi region. This is accompanied by a caspase-dependent loss of full-length CERT and reduction in de novo SM synthesis. In vitro, CERT is cleaved by caspases-2, -3 and -9. Truncated versions of CERT corresponding to fragments generated by caspase-2 cleavage at Asp213 were mislocalized and did not promote efficient de novo SM synthesis. Thus, it is likely that during cellular stress, disassembly of Golgi structure together with inactivation of CERT by caspases causes a reduction in ceramide trafficking and SM synthesis, and could contribute to the cellular response to proapoptotic stress.
Golgi complex; caspase; CERT; sphingomyelin synthesis; apoptosis
Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, human herpesvirus 8) is etiologically associated with three neoplastic syndromes: Kaposi sarcoma and the uncommon HIV-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders primary effusion lymphoma and multicentric Castleman disease. The incidence of the latter B-cell pathology has been increasing in spite of antiretroviral therapy; its association with lytic virus replication has prompted interest in therapeutic strategies aimed at this phase of the virus life cycle. We designed and expressed a recombinant immunotoxin (2014-PE38) targeting the gpK8.1A viral glycoprotein expressed on the surface of the virion and infected cells. We show that this immunotoxin selectively kills KSHV-infected cells in dose-dependent fashion, resulting in major reductions of infectious virus release. The immunotoxin and ganciclovir, an inhibitor of viral DNA replication, showed marked reciprocal potentiation of antiviral activities. These results suggest that the immunotoxin, alone or in combination, may represent a new approach to treat diseases associated with KSHV lytic replication.
targeted cytotoxic proteins; human herpesvirus-8; KSHV surface glycoprotein; KSHV lytic infection; multicentric Castleman disease; pseudomonas exotoxin A; ganciclovir; reciprocal drug potentiation
Bacteremia is the second leading cause of death in patients with end-stage renal disease who are on hemodialysis. A vaccine eliciting long-term immune responses against Staphylococcus aureus in patients on chronic hemodialysis may reduce the incidence of bacteremia and its complications in these patients. V710 is a vaccine containing iron surface determinant B (IsdB), a highly conserved S. aureus surface protein, which has been shown to be immunogenic in healthy subjects. In this blinded phase II immunogenicity study, 206 chronic hemodialysis patients between the ages of 18 and 80 years old were randomized to receive 60 μg V710 (with or without adjuvant), 90 μg V710 (with adjuvant), or a placebo in various combinations on days 1, 28, and 180. All 201 vaccinated patients were to be followed through day 360. The primary hypothesis was that at least 1 of the 3 groups receiving 2 V710 doses on days 1 and 28 would have a ≥2.5 geometric mean fold rise (GMFR) in anti-IsdB IgG titers over the baseline 28 days after the second vaccination (day 56). At day 56, all three groups receiving 2 doses of V710 achieved a ≥2.5 GMFR in anti-IsdB antibodies compared to the baseline (P values of <0.001 for all 3 groups), satisfying the primary immunogenicity hypothesis. None of the 33 reported serious adverse experiences were considered vaccine related by the investigators. V710 induced sustained antibody responses for at least 1 year postvaccination in patients on chronic hemodialysis.
Ovarian cancer is the deadliest gynecologic cancer in the US. The consumption of refined sugars has increased dramatically over the past few decades, accounting for almost 15% of total energy intake. Yet, there is limited evidence on how sugar consumption affects ovarian cancer risk.
We evaluated ovarian cancer risk in relation to sugary foods and beverages, and total and added sugar intakes in a population-based case–control study. Cases were women with newly diagnosed epithelial ovarian cancer, older than 21 years, able to speak English or Spanish, and residents of six counties in New Jersey. Controls met same criteria as cases, but were ineligible if they had both ovaries removed. A total of 205 cases and 390 controls completed a phone interview, food frequency questionnaire, and self-recorded waist and hip measurements. Based on dietary data, we computed the number of servings of dessert foods, non-dessert foods, sugary drinks and total sugary foods and drinks for each participant. Total and added sugar intakes (grams/day) were also calculated. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for food and drink groups and total and added sugar intakes, while adjusting for major risk factors.
We did not find evidence of an association between consumption of sugary foods and beverages and risk, although there was a suggestion of increased risk associated with sugary drink intake (servings per 1,000 kcal; OR=1.63, 95% CI: 0.94-2.83).
Overall, we found little indication that sugar intake played a major role on ovarian cancer development.
Ovarian cancer; Diet; Sugar; Sugary foods; Sugary drinks; Added sugars; Caloric sweeteners; Case–control; Nutrition; Risk factors
Studies evaluating the association between alcohol intake and ovarian carcinoma (OC) are inconsistent. Because OC and ovarian borderline tumor histologic types differ genetically, molecularly and clinically, large numbers are needed to estimate risk associations.
We pooled data from 12 case-control studies in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium comprising 5,342 OC cases, 1,455 borderline tumors and 10,358 controls with quantitative information on recent alcohol intake to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) according to frequencies of average daily intakes of beer, wine, liquor and total alcohol.
Total alcohol intake was not associated with all OC: consumption of >3 drinks per day compared to none, OR=0.92, 95% CI=0.76-1.10, P trend=0.27. Among beverage types, a statistically non-significant decreased risk was observed among women who consumed >8 oz/d of wine compared to none (OR=0.83, 95% CI=0.68-1.01, P trend=0.08). This association was more apparent among women with clear cell OC (OR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.22-0.83; P trend=0.02), although based on only 10 cases and not statistically different from the other histologic types (P value for statistical heterogeneity between histologic types = 0.09). Statistical heterogeneity of the alcohol- and wine-OC associations was seen among three European studies, but not among eight North American studies. No statistically significant associations were observed in separate analyses evaluating risk with borderline tumors of serous or mucinous histology. Smoking status did not significantly modify any of the associations.
We found no evidence that recent moderate alcohol drinking is associated with increased risk for overall OC, or that variation in risk is associated strongly with specific histologic types. Understanding modifiable causes of these elusive and deadly cancers remains a priority for the research community.
Cell Adhesion Molecules (CADMs) family comprise a newly identified protein family whose functions include cell polarity maintenance and tumor suppression. CADM-1, CADM-3 and CADM-4 have been shown to act as tumor suppressor genes in multiple cancers including prostate cancer. However, CADM-2 expression has not been determined in prostate cancer.
CADM-2 gene was cloned and characterized and its expression in human prostatic cell lines and cancer specimens was analyzed by RT-PCR and an immunohistochemical tissue array respectively. Effects of adenovirus-mediated CADM-2 expression on prostate cancer cells were also investigated. CADM-2 promoter methylation was evaluated by bisulfite sequencing and methylation-specific PCR (MSP).
We report the initial characterization of CADM-2 isoforms: CADM-2a and CADM-2b, each with separate promoters, in human chromosome 3p12.1. Prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP and DU145 expressed negligible CADM-2a relative to primary prostate tissue and cell lines RWPE-1 and PPC-1 while CADM-2b was maintained. Tissue array results from clinical specimens using immunohistochemistry demonstrated statistically significant decreased expression in prostate carcinoma compared to normal donor prostate, benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), and normal tissue adjacent to tumor (P<0.001). Adenovirus-mediated CADM-2a expression suppressed DU145 cell proliferation in vitro and colony formation in soft agar. The decrease in CADM-2a mRNA in cancer cell lines correlated with promoter region hypermethylation as determined by bisulfite sequencing and MSP. Accordingly, treatment of cells with the demethylating agent 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine alone or in combination with the histone deacetylase inhibitor Trichostatin A resulted in reactivation of CADM-2a expression.
CADM-2 protein expression is significantly reduced in prostate cancer. Its expression is regulated in part by promoter methylation and implicates CADM-2 as a previously unrecognized tumor suppressor gene in a proportion of human prostate cancers.
CADM-2; prostate cancer; methylation; tumor suppressor
Aggrecan is a high molecular weight, bottlebrush-shaped, negative-charged biopolymer that forms supermolecular complexes with hyaluronic acid. In the extracellular matrix of cartilage, aggrecan-hyaluronic acid complexes are interspersed in the collagen matrix and provide the osmotic properties required to resist deswelling under compressive load. In this review we compile aggrecan solution behavior from different experimental techniques, and discuss them in the context of concentration regimes that were identified in osmotic pressure experiments. At low concentration, aggrecan exhibits microgel-like behavior. With increasing concentration, the bottlebrushes self assemble into large complexes. In the physiological concentration range (2 < caggrecan < 8 % w/w), the physical properties of the solution are dominated by repulsive electrostatic interactions between aggrecan complexes. We discuss the consequences of the bottlebrush architecture on the polyelectrolyte characteristics of the aggrecan molecule, and its implications for cartilage properties and function.
cartilage; osmotic pressure; ECM; light scattering; viscoelasticity
More than a million diagnostic cardiac catheterizations are performed annually in the US for evaluation of coronary artery anatomy and the presence of atherosclerosis. Nearly half of these patients have no significant coronary lesions or do not require mechanical or surgical revascularization. Consequently, the ability to rule out clinically significant coronary artery disease (CAD) using low cost, low risk tests of serum biomarkers in even a small percentage of patients with normal coronary arteries could be highly beneficial.
Serum from 359 symptomatic subjects referred for catheterization was interrogated for proteins involved in atherogenesis, atherosclerosis, and plaque vulnerability. Coronary angiography classified 150 patients without flow-limiting CAD who did not require percutaneous intervention (PCI) while 209 required coronary revascularization (stents, angioplasty, or coronary artery bypass graft surgery). Continuous variables were compared across the two patient groups for each analyte including calculation of false discovery rate (FDR ≤ 1%) and Q value (P value for statistical significance adjusted to ≤ 0.01).
Significant differences were detected in circulating proteins from patients requiring revascularization including increased apolipoprotein B100 (APO-B100), C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), myeloperoxidase (MPO), resistin, osteopontin, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and N-terminal fragment protein precursor brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pBNP) and decreased apolipoprotein A1 (APO-A1). Biomarker classification signatures comprising up to 5 analytes were identified using a tunable scoring function trained against 239 samples and validated with 120 additional samples. A total of 14 overlapping signatures classified patients without significant coronary disease (38% to 59% specificity) while maintaining 95% sensitivity for patients requiring revascularization. Osteopontin (14 times) and resistin (10 times) were most frequently represented among these diagnostic signatures. The most efficacious protein signature in validation studies comprised osteopontin (OPN), resistin, matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP7) and interferon γ (IFNγ) as a four-marker panel while the addition of either CRP or adiponectin (ACRP-30) yielded comparable results in five protein signatures.
Proteins in the serum of CAD patients predominantly reflected (1) a positive acute phase, inflammatory response and (2) alterations in lipid metabolism, transport, peroxidation and accumulation. There were surprisingly few indicators of growth factor activation or extracellular matrix remodeling in the serum of CAD patients except for elevated OPN. These data suggest that many symptomatic patients without significant CAD could be identified by a targeted multiplex serum protein test without cardiac catheterization thereby eliminating exposure to ionizing radiation and decreasing the economic burden of angiographic testing for these patients.
atherosclerosis; biomarkers; cardiac catheterization; coronary angiography; coronary stenosis; multiplex proteomics
In this paper a minimally interactive high-throughput system which employs a color gradient based active contour model for rapid and accurate segmentation of multiple target objects on very large images is presented. While geodesic active contours (GAC) have become very popular tools for image segmentation, they tend to be sensitive to model initialization. A second limitation of GAC models is that the edge detector function typically involves use of gray scale gradients; color images usually being converted to gray scale, prior to gradient computation. For color images, however, the gray scale gradient image results in broken edges and weak boundaries, since the other channels are not exploited in the gradient computation. To cope with these limitations, we present a new GAC model that is driven by an accurate and rapid object initialization scheme; hierarchical normalized cuts (HNCut). HNCut draws its strength from the integration of two powerful segmentation strategies—mean shift clustering and normalized cuts. HNCut involves first defining a color swatch (typically a few pixels) from the object of interest. A multi-scale, mean shift coupled normalized cuts algorithm then rapidly yields an initial accurate detection of all objects in the scene corresponding to the colors in the swatch. This detection result provides the initial contour for a GAC model. The edge-detector function of the GAC model employs a local structure tensor based color gradient, obtained by calculating the local min/max variations contributed from each color channel. We show that the color gradient based edge-detector function results in more prominent boundaries compared to the classical gray scale gradient based function. By integrating the HNCut initialization scheme with color gradient based GAC (CGAC), HNCut-CGAC embodies five unique and novel attributes: 1) Efficiency in segmenting multiple target structures; 2) The ability to segment multiple objects from very large images; 3) Minimal human interaction; 4) Accuracy; and 5) Reproducibility. A quantitative and qualitative comparison of the HNCut-CGAC model against other state of the art active contour schemes (including a Hybrid Active Contour model (Paragios-Deriche) and a region based AC model (Rousson-Deriche)), across 196 digitized prostate histopathology images, suggests that HNCut-CGAC is able to outperform state of the art hybrid and region based AC techniques. Our results show that HNCut-CGAC is computationally efficient and may be easily applied to a variety of different problems and applications.
High-throughput System; Active Contour Model; Segmentation; Prostate Cancer; Digital Pathology
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is etiologically associated with the angioproliferative Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). KSHV infection and the expression of latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA-1) upregulates the angiogenic multifunctional 123-amino-acid, 14-kDa protein angiogenin (ANG), which is detected in KS lesions and in KSHV-associated primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) cells. ANG knockdown or the inhibition of ANG's nuclear translocation resulted in decreased LANA-1 gene expression and reduced KSHV-infected endothelial and PEL cell survival (Sadagopan et al., J. Virol. 83:3342–3364, 2009). Further studies here demonstrate that LANA-1 and ANG colocalize and coimmunoprecipitate in de novo infected endothelial cells and in latently infected PEL (BCBL-1 and BC-3) cells. LANA-1 and ANG interaction occurred in the absence of the KSHV genome and other viral proteins. In gel filtration chromatography analyses of BC-3 cell lysates, ANG coeluted with LANA-1, p53, and Mdm2 in high-molecular-weight fractions, and LANA-1, p53, and Mdm2 also coimmunoprecipitated with ANG. LANA-1, ANG, and p53 colocalized in KSHV-infected cells, and colocalization between ANG and p53 was also observed in LANA-1-negative cells. The deletion constructs of ANG suggested that the C-terminal region of amino acids 104 to 123 is involved in LANA-1 and p53 interactions. Silencing ANG or inhibiting its nuclear translocation resulted in decreased nuclear LANA-1 and ANG levels, decreased interactions between ANG-LANA-1, ANG-p53, and LANA-1-p53, the induction of p53, p21, and Bax proteins, the increased cytoplasmic localization of p53, the downregulation of Bcl-2, the increased cleavage of caspase-3, and the apoptosis of cells. No such effects were observed in KSHV-negative BJAB cells. The phosphorylation of p53 at serine 15, which is essential for p53 stabilization and for p53's apoptotic and cell cycle regulation functions, was increased in BCBL-1 cells transduced with short hairpin RNA targeting ANG. Together, these studies suggest that the antiapoptosis observed in KSHV-infected cells and the suppression of p53 functions are mediated in part by ANG, and KSHV has probably evolved to utilize angiogenin's multiple functions for the maintenance of its latency and cell survival. Thus, targeting ANG to induce the apoptosis of cells latently infected with KSHV is an attractive therapeutic strategy against KSHV infection and associated malignancies.
Detailed knowledge of the host-virus interactions that accompany filovirus entry into cells is expected to identify determinants of viral virulence and host range, and to yield targets for the development of antiviral therapeutics. While it is generally agreed that filovirus entry into the host cytoplasm requires viral internalization into acidic endosomal compartments and proteolytic cleavage of the envelope glycoprotein by endo/lysosomal cysteine proteases, our understanding of the specific endocytic pathways co-opted by filoviruses remains limited. This review addresses the current knowledge on cellular endocytic pathways implicated in filovirus entry, highlights the consensus as well as controversies, and discusses important remaining questions.
filoviruses; viral entry; viral internalization; endocytosis; endocytic pathways; clathrin-mediated endocytosis; macropinocytosis; caveolae-mediated endocytosis
There are over 150 human proteins that have been categorized as bona fide DNA repair proteins. These DNA repair proteins maintain the integrity of the genome, reducing the onset of cancer, disease and aging phenotypes. Variations in expression and/or function would therefore impact genome integrity as well as the cellular response to genotoxins. Global gene expression analysis is an effective approach to uncover defects in DNA repair gene expression and to discover cellular and/or organismal effects brought about by external stimuli such as environmental genotoxicants, chemotherapeutic regimens, viral infections as well as developmental and age-related stimuli. Given the significance of genome stability in cell survival and response to stimuli, we have hypothesized that cells may undergo transcriptional re-programming to accommodate defects in basal DNA repair capacity to promote survival. As a test of this hypothesis, we have compared the transcriptome in three DNA polymerase ß knockout (Polß-KO) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and the corresponding wild-type (WT) littermate control cell lines. Each Polß-KO cell line was found to have a range of genes up-regulated, when compared to its WT littermate control cell line. Interestingly, six (6) genes were commonly up regulated in all three Polß-KO cell lines, including Sox2, one of several genes associated with the induction of pluripotent stem cells. Herein, we present these findings and suggest that loss of DNA repair and the induction of cellular transcriptional re-programming may, in part, contribute to tumor formation and the cellular response to external stimuli.
DNA polymerase ß; mouse embryonic fibroblast; Sox2; gene expression profiling; transcriptional reprogramming
In this work, we investigated the oxidative modification of histidine residues induced by peroxidase and thiol oxidase activities of bovine copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu-ZnSOD) using NMR and pulse EPR spectroscopy. 1D NMR and 2D-NOESY were used to determine the oxidative damage at the Zn(II) and Cu(II) active sites as well as at distant histidines. Results indicate that during treatment of SOD with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or cysteine in the absence of bicarbonate anion (HCO3−), both exchangeable and non-exchangeable protons were affected. Both His-44 and His-46 in the Cu(II) active site were oxidized based on the disappearance of NOESY cross peaks between CH and NH resonances of the imidazole rings. In the Zn(II) site, only His-69, which is closer to His-44, was oxidatively modified. However, addition of HCO3− protected the active site His residues. Instead, resonances assigned to His-41 residue, 11 Å away from the Cu(II) site, were completely abolished during both HCO3− stimulated peroxidase activity and thiol oxidase activity in the presence of HCO3−. Additionally, ESEEM/HYSCORE and ENDOR studies of SOD treated with peroxide/Cys in the absence of HCO3− revealed that hyperfine couplings to the distal and directly coordinated nitrogens of the His-44 and His-46 ligands at the Cu(II) active site were modified. In the presence of HCO3−, these modifications were absent. HCO3− mediated, selective oxidative modification of histidines in SOD may be relevant to understanding the molecular mechanism of SOD peroxidase and thiol oxidase activities.
Despite extensive research and interest in endocrine disruptors, there are essentially no epidemiologic studies of estrogenic mycotoxins, such as zeranol and zearalenone (ZEA). ZEA mycoestrogens are present in grains and other plant foods through fungal contamination, and in animal products (e.g., meat, eggs, dairy products) through deliberate introduction of zeranol into livestock to enhance meat production, or by indirect contamination of animals through consumption of contaminated feedstuff. Zeranol is banned for use in animal husbandry in the European Union and other countries, but is still widely used in the US. Surprisingly, little is known about the health effects of these mycoestrogens, including their impact on puberty in girls, a period highly sensitive to estrogenic stimulation.
OBJECTIVES AND METHODS
We conducted a cross-sectional analysis among 163 girls, aged 9 and 10 years, participating in the Jersey Girl Study to measure urinary mycoestrogens and their possible relationship to body size and development.
We found that mycoestrogens were detectable in urine in 78.5% of the girls, and that urinary levels were predominantly associated with beef and popcorn intake. Furthermore, girls with detectable urinary ZEA mycoestrogen levels tended to be shorter and less likely to have reached the onset of breast development.
Our findings suggest that ZEA mycoestrogens may exert anti-estrogenic effects similar to those reported for isoflavones. To our knowledge, this was the first evaluation of urinary mycoestrogens and their potential health effects in healthy girls. However, our findings need replication in larger studies with more heterogeneous populations, using a longitudinal approach.
mycoestrogens; zearalenone; zeranol; thelarche; height; weight
The identification of resident stem cells in the mouse gallbladder is to date, unexplored. In addition, the relationship between adult gallbladder stem cells and intrahepatic bile duct (IHBD) cells is not well understood. The goal of this study was to isolate stem cells from an adult mouse gallbladder and determine if they were unique compared to IHBD cells. By limiting dilution analyses and index sorts, we found that an EpCAM+CD49fhi sub-population from primary gallbladder is enriched in colony forming cells compared to EpCAM+CD49flo cells. EpCAM+CD49fhi cells expressed CD29, CD133 and Sca1 but were negative for lineage markers CD31, CD45 and F4/80. Using a novel feeder cell culture system, we observed long-term (>passage 20) and clonal expansion of the EpCAM+CD49fhi cells in vitro. In a matrigel differentiation assay, EpCAM+CD49f+ cells expanding in vitro underwent organotypic morphogenesis forming ductular structures and cysts. These structures are similar to, and recapitulate a transport function of primary gallbladder. EpCAM+CD49f+ cells also engraft into the subcutaneous space of recipient mice. We compared primary gallbladder and IHBD cells by flow cytometry and found phenotypic differences in expression of CD49f, CD49e, CD81, CD26, CD54 and CD166. In addition, oligonucleotide microarrays showed that the expanded EpCAM+CD49f+ gallbladder cells and IHBD cells exhibit differences related to lipid and drug metabolism. Notable genes that were different are cytochrome P450, glutathione-S-transferase, Indian hedgehog and solute carrier family genes.
we have isolated an epithelial cell population from primary mouse gallbladder with stem cell characteristics and found it to be unique compared to IHBD cells.
Intrahepatic bile duct cells; EpCAM; CD49f; biliary cells; gallbladder cells
In this paper, the synchronization problem for delayed continuous time nonlinear complex neural networks is considered. The delay dependent state feed back synchronization gain matrix is obtained by considering more general case of time-varying delay. Using Lyapunov stability theory, the sufficient synchronization criteria are derived in terms of Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMIs). By decomposing the delay interval into multiple equidistant subintervals, Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals (LKFs) are constructed on these intervals. Employing these LKFs, new delay dependent synchronization criteria are proposed in terms of LMIs for two cases with and without derivative of time-varying delay. Numerical examples are illustrated to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Synchronization; Neural networks; Time-varying delay; Delay decomposition; Maximum admissible upper bound (MAUB)
Ebola virus (EBOV) glycoprotein (GP), responsible for mediating host-cell attachment and membrane fusion, contains a heavily glycosylated mucin-like domain hypothesized to shield GP from neutralizing antibodies. To test whether the mucin-like domain inhibits the production and function of anti-GP antibodies, we vaccinated mice with Ebola virus-like particles (VLPs) that express vesicular stomatitis virus G, wild-type EBOV GP (EBGP), EBOV GP without its mucin-like domain (ΔMucGP), or EBOV GP with a Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever virus mucin-like domain substituted for the EBOV mucin-like domain (CMsubGP). EBGP-VLP immunized mice elicited significantly higher serum antibody titers toward EBGP or its mutants, as detected by western blot analysis, than did VLP-ΔMucGP. However, EBGP-, ΔMucGP- and CMsubGP-VLP immunized mouse sera contained antibodies that bound to cell surface-expressed GP at similar levels. Furthermore, low but similar neutralizing antibody titers, measured against a vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) expressing EBGP or ΔMucGP, were present in EBGP, ΔMucGP, and CMsubGP sera, although a slightly higher neutralizing titer (2- to 2.5-fold) was detected in ΔMucGP sera. We conclude that the EBOV GP mucin-like domain can increase relative anti-GP titers, however these titers appear to be directed, at least partly, to denatured GP. Furthermore, removing the mucin-like domain from immunizing VLPs has modest impact on neutralizing antibody titers in serum.
Fibromyalgia, a complex, multifaceted disorder representing a significant source of cognitive and physical disability, is the second most common disorder encountered by rheumatologists. However, rheumatologists in the United States provide care for less than 20% of fibromyalgia patients – instead, initial treatment has been provided by primary care physicians (PCPs). The authors of this study hypothesized that significant unmet needs for timely, accurate diagnosis of fibromyalgia exist and, accordingly, aimed to determine the challenges faced by PCPs in the diagnosis, treatment and management of fibromyalgia. Using a mixed-methods approach, which included surveys and semistructured focus groups, this study characterized differences between PCPs who reported being able to provide timely and beneficial care and those who were less able to do so.
To describe beliefs and practice patterns of primary care physicians (PCPs) providing fibromyalgia (FM) care, and to characterize differences between PCPs who report being able to provide timely and beneficial care versus the remaining PCPs.
A mixed-methods approach including surveys followed by semi-structured focus groups among United States-based PCPs in seven cities was used. Post hoc, a composite threshold of timely and beneficial care, defined as PCPs reports of at least one-half of their patients achieving an ‘acceptable’ quality of life within one to four office visits after diagnosis, was created to compare subgroups.
Forty-six per cent of PCPs reported some uncertainty when diagnosing FM. PCPs reported personally treating approximately two-thirds of their patients (63%), and reported an average of three dosage titrations. In a post hoc exploratory analysis, 42.5% of PCPs met a composite threshold of self-reported timely and beneficial FM care. These PCPs reported fewer office visits to confirm an FM diagnosis (2.7 versus 4.0 visits [P<0.01]) and more patients with ‘significant improvement’ (38% versus 23% [P<0.01]) after six months of treatment compared with the remaining PCPs.
Physicians self-reported an inadequacy in diagnosing, treating and managing patients with FM in current practice. A subset of PCPs, however, perceived an ability to reach a definitive diagnosis and initiate treatment plans relatively sooner than the other respondents. If the perception of this subset can be confirmed with objective clinical outcomes, and these behaviours modelled, steps could be taken to improve FM care within the broader PCP setting.
Diagnosis; Fibromyalgia, Focus group; Practice patterns; Primary care physicians; Survey; Treatment
We recently demonstrated that Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1), a ubiquitous 13-pass cellular membrane protein involved in lysosomal cholesterol transport, is a critical entry receptor for filoviruses. Here we show that Niemann-Pick C1-like1 (NPC1L1), an NPC1 paralog and hepatitis C virus entry factor, lacks filovirus receptor activity. We exploited the structural similarity between NPC1 and NPC1L1 to construct and analyze a panel of chimeras in which NPC1L1 sequences were replaced with cognate sequences from NPC1. Only one chimera, NPC1L1 containing the second luminal domain (C) of NPC1 in place of its own, bound to the viral glycoprotein, GP. This engineered protein mediated authentic filovirus infection nearly as well as wild-type NPC1, and more efficiently than did a minimal NPC1 domain C-based receptor recently described by us. A reciprocal chimera, NPC1 containing NPC1L1’s domain C, was completely inactive. Remarkably, an intra-domain NPC1L1-NPC1 chimera bearing only a ~130-amino acid N–terminal region of NPC1 domain C could confer substantial viral receptor activity on NPC1L1. Taken together, these findings account for the failure of NPC1L1 to serve as a filovirus receptor, highlight the central role of the luminal domain C of NPC1 in filovirus entry, and reveal the direct involvement of N–terminal domain C sequences in NPC1’s function as a filovirus receptor.
Ebola virus; Marburg virus; filovirus; viral entry; Niemann-Pick C1; NPC1; Niemann-Pick C1-like1; NPC1L1; host factor; viral receptor
The aim of this study was to develop micellar nanocarriers for concomitant delivery of paclitaxel and 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) for cancer therapy. Paclitaxel and 17-AAG were simultaneously loaded into polymeric micelles by a solvent evaporation method. Two candidate nanocarrier constructs, polyethylene glycol-poly(D, L-lactic acid) (PEG-PLA) micelles and PEG-distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine/tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 (PEG-DSPE/TPGS) mixed micelles, were assessed for the release kinetics of the loaded drugs. Compared to PEG-PLA micelles, entrapment of paclitaxel and 17-AAG into PEG-DSPE/TPGS mixed micelles resulted in significantly prolonged release half-lives. The simultaneous incorporation of paclitaxel and 17-AAG into PEG-DSPE/TPGS mixed micelles was confirmed by 1H NMR analysis. Paclitaxel/17-AAG-loaded PEG-DSPE/TPGS mixed micelles were as effective in blocking the proliferation of human ovarian cancer SKOV-3 cells as the combined free drugs. PEG-DSPE/TPGS mixed micelles may provide a novel and advantageous delivery approach for paclitaxel/17-AAG combination therapy.
Combination therapy; Polymeric micelles; Paclitaxel; 17-AAG; PEG-DSPE; PEG-PLA
Mutations in the RNA binding protein FUS cause ALS, a fatal adult motor neuron disease. Decreased expression of SMN causes the fatal childhood motor neuron disorder SMA. The SMN complex localizes in both the cytoplasm and nuclear Gems, and loss of Gems is a cellular hallmark of SMA patient fibroblasts. Here, we report that FUS associates with the SMN complex, an interaction mediated by U1 snRNP and by direct interactions between FUS and SMN. Functionally, we show that FUS is required for Gem formation in HeLa cells, and expression of FUS containing a severe ALS-causing mutation (R495X) also results in Gem loss. Strikingly, a reduction in Gems is observed in ALS patient fibroblasts expressing either mutant FUS or TDP-43, another ALS-causing protein that interacts with FUS. The physical and functional interactions between SMN, FUS, TDP-43, and Gems indicate that ALS and SMA share a biochemical pathway, adding strong new support to the view that these motor neuron diseases are related.
Ebola virus (EBOV) has been reported to enter cultured cell lines via a dynamin-2-independent macropinocytic pathway or clathrin-mediated endocytosis. The route(s) of productive EBOV internalization into physiologically relevant cell types remain unexplored, and viral-host requirements for this process are incompletely understood. Here, we use electron microscopy and complementary chemical and genetic approaches to demonstrate that the viral glycoprotein, GP, induces macropinocytic uptake of viral particles into cells. GP's highly-glycosylated mucin domain is dispensable for virus-induced macropinocytosis, arguing that interactions between other sequences in GP and the host cell surface are responsible. Unexpectedly, we also found a requirement for the large GTPase dynamin-2, which is proposed to be dispensable for several types of macropinocytosis. Our results provide evidence that EBOV uses an atypical dynamin-dependent macropinocytosis-like entry pathway to enter Vero cells, adherent human peripheral blood-derived monocytes, and a mouse dendritic cell line.
Ebola virus; filovirus; vesicular stomatitis virus; virus-like particles; glycoprotein; viral entry; viral infection; endocytosis; macropinocytosis; Pak-1; dynamin; antigen presenting cells; monocytes; dendritic cells
Difficulty sleeping is common among patients with fibromyalgia (FM); however, its impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is not well understood. The aim of the current study was to assess the burden of sleep difficulty symptoms on HRQoL among patients with FM.
The current study included data from the 2009 National Health and Wellness Survey (N=75,000), which is a cross-sectional, Internet-based survey representative of the adult US population. The prevalence of sleep difficulty symptoms among patients with FM (n=2,196) were compared with matched controls (n=2,194), identified using propensity-score matching. Additionally, the relationship between the number of sleep difficulty symptoms (none, one, or two or more) and HRQoL (using the SF-12v2) was assessed using regression modeling, controlling for demographic and health history variables.
Of the 2,196 patients with FM, 11.2% reported no sleep difficulty symptoms, 25.7% reported one sleep difficulty symptom, and 63.05% reported two or more sleep difficulty symptoms. The prevalence of sleep difficulty symptoms was significantly higher than matched controls. Patients with one and two sleep difficulty symptoms both reported significantly worse HRQoL summary and domain scores relative to those with no sleep difficulty symptoms (all p<.05). Further, the relationship between sleep difficulty symptoms and HRQoL was significantly different between those with FM than matched controls, suggesting a uniqueness of the burden of sleep difficulties within the FM population.
Among the FM population, sleep difficulty symptoms were independently associated with clinically-meaningful decrements in mental and physical HRQoL. These results suggest that greater emphasis in the treatment of sleep difficulty symptoms among the FM population may be warranted.
Fibromyalgia; Sleep; Insomnia; Health-related quality of life; Pain