PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-25 (538)
 

Clipboard (0)
None

Select a Filter Below

Journals
more »
Year of Publication
more »
1.  Comparative study on production of a-Amylase from Bacillus licheniformis strains 
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology  2011;42(4):1397-1404.
Alpha amylase (α-1, 4-glucan-glucanhydrolase, EC 3.2.1.1), an extracellular enzyme, degrades α, 1–4 glucosidic linkages of starch and related substrates in an endo-fashion producing oligosaccharides including maltose, glucose and alpha limit dextrin (7). The present study deals with the production and comparative study of production of α-amylase from two strains of Bacillus licheniformis, MTCC 2617 and 2618, by using four different substrates, starch, rice, wheat and ragi powder as carbon source by submerged fermentation. The effect of varying pH and incubation temperature, activator, inhibitor, and substrate concentration was investigated on the activity of α-amylase produced by MTCC strain 2618. The results shows that the production of the α-amylase by the B.licheniformis strain MTCC 2618, using four different substrates were found to be maximum (Starch 3.64 IU/ml/minutes, Rice powder 2.93 IU/ml/minutes, Wheat powder 2.67 IU/ml/minutes, Ragi powder 2.36 IU/ml/minutes) on comparing the enzyme production of two strains. It was also observed that the maximum production was found on the 3rd day (i.e. 72 hr) and characterization of crude enzyme revealed that optimum activity was at pH 7 and 37°C.
doi:10.1590/S1517-838220110004000022
PMCID: PMC3768710  PMID: 24031769
amylase; Bacillus licheniformis; enzyme; extracellular; glucose
2.  NFAT and CREB Regulate Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus-Induced Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2)▿ † 
Journal of Virology  2010;84(24):12733-12753.
COX-2 has been implicated in Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) latency and pathogenesis (A. George Paul, N. Sharma-Walia, N. Kerur, C. White, and B. Chandran, Cancer Res. 70:3697-3708, 2010; P. P. Naranatt, H. H. Krishnan, S. R. Svojanovsky, C. Bloomer, S. Mathur, and B. Chandran, Cancer Res. 64:72-84, 2004; N. Sharma-Walia, A. G. Paul, V. Bottero, S. Sadagopan, M. V. Veettil, N. Kerur, and B. Chandran, PLoS Pathog. 6:e1000777, 2010; N. Sharma-Walia, H. Raghu, S. Sadagopan, R. Sivakumar, M. V. Veettil, P. P. Naranatt, M. M. Smith, and B. Chandran, J. Virol. 80:6534-6552, 2006). However, the precise regulatory mechanisms involved in COX-2 induction during KSHV infection have never been explored. Here, we identified cis-acting elements involved in the transcriptional regulation of COX-2 upon KSHV de novo infection. Promoter analysis using human COX-2 promoter deletion and mutation reporter constructs revealed that nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) and the cyclic AMP (cAMP) response element (CRE) modulate KSHV-mediated transcriptional regulation of COX-2. Along with multiple KSHV-induced signaling pathways, infection-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) also augmented COX-2 transcription. Infection of endothelial cells markedly induced COX-2 expression via a cyclosporine A-sensitive, calcineurin/NFAT-dependent pathway. KSHV infection increased intracellular cAMP levels and activated protein kinase A (PKA), which phosphorylated the CRE-binding protein (CREB) at serine 133, which probably led to interaction with CRE in the COX-2 promoter, thereby enhancing COX-2 transcription. PKA selective inhibitor H-89 pretreatment strongly inhibited CREB serine 133, indicating the involvement of a cAMP-PKA-CREB-CRE loop in COX-2 transcriptional regulation. In contrast to phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and protein kinase C, inhibition of FAK and Src effectively reduced KSHV infection-induced COX-2 transcription and protein levels. Collectively, our study indicates that mediation of COX-2 transcription upon KSHV infection is a paradigm of a complex regulatory milieu involving the interplay of multiple signal cascades and transcription factors. Intervention at each step of COX-2/PGE2 induction can be used as a potential therapeutic target to treat KSHV-associated neoplasm and control inflammatory sequels of KSHV infection.
doi:10.1128/JVI.01065-10
PMCID: PMC3004349  PMID: 20943963
3.  Lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase (Lck) interacts with CR6-interacting factor 1 (CRIF1) in mitochondria to repress oxidative phosphorylation 
BMC Cancer  2015;15:551.
Background
Many cancer cells exhibit reduced mitochondrial respiration as part of metabolic reprogramming to support tumor growth. Mitochondrial localization of several protein tyrosine kinases is linked to this characteristic metabolic shift in solid tumors, but remains largely unknown in blood cancer. Lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase (Lck) is a key T-cell kinase and widely implicated in blood malignancies. The purpose of our study is to determine whether and how Lck contributes to metabolic shift in T-cell leukemia through mitochondrial localization.
Methods
We compared the human leukemic T-cell line Jurkat with its Lck-deficient derivative Jcam cell line. Differences in mitochondrial respiration were measured by the levels of mitochondrial membrane potential, oxygen consumption, and mitochondrial superoxide. Detailed mitochondrial structure was visualized by transmission electron microscopy. Lck localization was evaluated by subcellular fractionation and confocal microscopy. Proteomic analysis was performed to identify proteins co-precipitated with Lck in leukemic T-cells. Protein interaction was validated by biochemical co-precipitation and confocal microscopy, followed by in situ proximity ligation assay microscopy to confirm close-range (<16 nm) interaction.
Results
Jurkat cells have abnormal mitochondrial structure and reduced levels of mitochondrial respiration, which is associated with the presence of mitochondrial Lck and lower levels of mitochondrion-encoded electron transport chain proteins. Proteomics identified CR6-interacting factor 1 (CRIF1) as the novel Lck-interacting protein. Lck association with CRIF1 in Jurkat mitochondria was confirmed biochemically and by microscopy, but did not lead to CRIF1 tyrosine phosphorylation. Consistent with the role of CRIF1 in functional mitoribosome, shRNA-mediated silencing of CRIF1 in Jcam resulted in mitochondrial dysfunction similar to that observed in Jurkat. Reduced interaction between CRIF1 and Tid1, another key component of intramitochondrial translational machinery, in Jurkat further supports the role of mitochondrial Lck as a negative regulator of CRIF1 through competitive binding.
Conclusions
This is the first report demonstrating the role of mitochondrial Lck in metabolic reprogramming of leukemic cells. Mechanistically, it is distinct from other reported mitochondrial protein tyrosine kinases. In a kinase-independent manner, mitochondrial Lck interferes with mitochondrial translational machinery through competitive binding to CRIF1. These findings may reveal novel approaches in cancer therapy by targeting cancer cell metabolism.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1520-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1520-6
PMCID: PMC4515320  PMID: 26210498
Lck; Leukemia; Mitochondria; Oxidative phosphorylation; Electron transport chain; Cancer metabolism; Mitoribosome; CRIF1; Tid1; Proximity ligation assay
4.  Human iPSC-derived motoneurons harbouring TARDBP or C9ORF72 ALS mutations are dysfunctional despite maintaining viability 
Nature communications  2015;6:5999.
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease for which a greater understanding of early disease mechanisms is needed to reveal novel therapeutic targets. We report the use of human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived motoneurons (MNs) to study the pathophysiology of ALS. We demonstrate that MNs derived from iPSCs obtained from healthy individuals or patients harbouring TARDBP or C9ORF72 ALS-causing mutations are able to develop appropriate physiological properties. However, patient iPSC-derived MNs, independent of genotype, display an initial hyperexcitability followed by progressive loss of action potential output and synaptic activity. This loss of functional output reflects a progressive decrease in voltage-activated Na+ and K+ currents which occurs in the absence of overt changes in cell viability. These data implicate early dysfunction or loss of ion channels as a convergent point that may contribute to the initiation of downstream degenerative pathways that ultimately lead to MN loss in ALS.
doi:10.1038/ncomms6999
PMCID: PMC4338554  PMID: 25580746
5.  Herpesvirus Genome Recognition Induced Acetylation of Nuclear IFI16 Is Essential for Its Cytoplasmic Translocation, Inflammasome and IFN-β Responses 
PLoS Pathogens  2015;11(7):e1005019.
The IL-1β and type I interferon-β (IFN-β) molecules are important inflammatory cytokines elicited by the eukaryotic host as innate immune responses against invading pathogens and danger signals. Recently, a predominantly nuclear gamma-interferon-inducible protein 16 (IFI16) involved in transcriptional regulation has emerged as an innate DNA sensor which induced IL-1β and IFN-β production through inflammasome and STING activation, respectively. Herpesvirus (KSHV, EBV, and HSV-1) episomal dsDNA genome recognition by IFI16 leads to IFI16-ASC-procaspase-1 inflammasome association, cytoplasmic translocation and IL-1β production. Independent of ASC, HSV-1 genome recognition results in IFI16 interaction with STING in the cytoplasm to induce interferon-β production. However, the mechanisms of IFI16-inflammasome formation, cytoplasmic redistribution and STING activation are not known. Our studies here demonstrate that recognition of herpesvirus genomes in the nucleus by IFI16 leads into its interaction with histone acetyltransferase p300 and IFI16 acetylation resulting in IFI16-ASC interaction, inflammasome assembly, increased interaction with Ran-GTPase, cytoplasmic redistribution, caspase-1 activation, IL-1β production, and interaction with STING which results in IRF-3 phosphorylation, nuclear pIRF-3 localization and interferon-β production. ASC and STING knockdowns did not affect IFI16 acetylation indicating that this modification is upstream of inflammasome-assembly and STING-activation. Vaccinia virus replicating in the cytoplasm did not induce nuclear IFI16 acetylation and cytoplasmic translocation. IFI16 physically associates with KSHV and HSV-1 genomes as revealed by proximity ligation microscopy and chromatin-immunoprecipitation studies which is not hampered by the inhibition of acetylation, thus suggesting that acetylation of IFI16 is not required for its innate sensing of nuclear viral genomes. Collectively, these studies identify the increased nuclear acetylation of IFI16 as a dynamic essential post-genome recognition event in the nucleus that is common to the IFI16-mediated innate responses of inflammasome induction and IFN-β production during herpesvirus (KSHV, EBV, HSV-1) infections.
Author Summary
Herpesviruses establish a latent infection in the nucleus of specific cells and reactivation results in the nuclear viral dsDNA replication and infectious virus production. Host innate responses are initiated by the presence of viral genomes and their products, and nucleus associated IFI16 protein has recently emerged as an innate DNA sensor regulating inflammatory cytokines and type I interferon (IFN) production. IFI16 recognizes the herpesvirus genomes (KSHV, EBV, and HSV-1) in the nucleus resulting in the formation of the IFI16-ASC-Caspase-1 inflammasome complex and IL-1β production. HSV-1 genome recognition by IFI16 in the nucleus also leads to STING activation in the cytoplasm and IFN-β production. However, how IFI16 initiates inflammasome assembly and activates STING in the cytoplasm after nuclear recognition of viral genome are not known. We show that herpesvirus genome recognition in the nucleus by IFI16 leads to interaction with histone acetyltransferase-p300 and IFI16 acetylation which is essential for inflammasome assembly in the nucleus and cytoplasmic translocation, activation of STING in the cytoplasm and IFN-β production. These studies provide insight into a common molecular mechanism for the innate inflammasome assembly and STING activation response pathways that result in IL-1β and IFN-β production, respectively.
doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1005019
PMCID: PMC4489722  PMID: 26134128
6.  Haploid Genetic Screen Reveals a Profound and Direct Dependence on Cholesterol for Hantavirus Membrane Fusion 
mBio  2015;6(4):e00801-15.
ABSTRACT
Hantaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in the Old World and a highly fatal hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in the New World. No vaccines or antiviral therapies are currently available to prevent or treat hantavirus disease, and gaps in our understanding of how hantaviruses enter cells challenge the search for therapeutics. We performed a haploid genetic screen in human cells to identify host factors required for entry by Andes virus, a highly virulent New World hantavirus. We found that multiple genes involved in cholesterol sensing, regulation, and biosynthesis, including key components of the sterol response element-binding protein (SREBP) pathway, are critical for Andes virus entry. Genetic or pharmacological disruption of the membrane-bound transcription factor peptidase/site-1 protease (MBTPS1/S1P), an SREBP control element, dramatically reduced infection by virulent hantaviruses of both the Old World and New World clades but not by rhabdoviruses or alphaviruses, indicating that this pathway is broadly, but selectively, required by hantaviruses. These results could be fully explained as arising from the modest depletion of cellular membrane cholesterol that accompanied S1P disruption. Mechanistic studies of cells and with protein-free liposomes suggested that high levels of cholesterol are specifically needed for hantavirus membrane fusion. Taken together, our results indicate that the profound dependence on target membrane cholesterol is a fundamental, and unusual, biophysical property of hantavirus glycoprotein-membrane interactions during entry.
IMPORTANCE
Although hantaviruses cause important human diseases worldwide, no specific antiviral treatments are available. One of the major obstacles to the development of new therapies is a lack of understanding of how hantaviruses hijack our own host factors to enter cells. Here, we identified multiple cellular genes that control the levels of cholesterol in cellular membranes to be important for hantavirus entry. Our findings suggest that high concentrations of cholesterol in cellular membranes are required at a specific step in the entry process—fusion between viral and cellular membranes—that allows escape of the hantavirus genome into the host cell cytoplasm to initiate infection. Our findings uncover a fundamental feature of the hantavirus infection mechanism and point to cholesterol-lowering drugs as a potential new treatment of hantaviral infections.
doi:10.1128/mBio.00801-15
PMCID: PMC4488941  PMID: 26126854
7.  BRCA1 Regulates IFI16 Mediated Nuclear Innate Sensing of Herpes Viral DNA and Subsequent Induction of the Innate Inflammasome and Interferon-β Responses 
PLoS Pathogens  2015;11(6):e1005030.
The innate immune system pattern recognition receptors (PRR) are the first line of host defenses recognizing the various pathogen- or danger-associated molecular patterns and eliciting defenses by regulating the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-18 or interferon β (IFN-β). NOD-like receptors (NLRs) and AIM2-like receptors (ALRs) are cytoplasmic inflammasome sensors of foreign molecules, including DNA. IFI16, a sequence-independent nuclear innate sensor ALR, recognizes episomal dsDNA genomes of herpes viruses such as KSHV, EBV, and HSV-1 in the infected cell nuclei, forms an inflammasome complex with ASC and procaspase1, and relocates into the cytoplasm leading into Caspase-1 and IL-1β generation. IFI16 also induces IFN-β during HSV-1 infection via the cytoplasmic STING-TBK1-IRF3 pathway. Thus far, whether IFI16 recognizes foreign DNA directly or utilizes other host protein(s) is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that BRCA1, a DNA damage repair sensor and transcription regulator, is in complex with IFI16 in the host cell nucleus, and their association increases in the presence of nuclear viral genomes during de novo KSHV, EBV and HSV-1 infection, and in latent KSHV or EBV infection, but not by DNA damage responses (DDR) induced by bleomycin and vaccinia virus cytoplasmic dsDNA. BRCA1 is a constituent of the triggered IFI16-inflammasome and is translocated into the cytoplasm after genome recognition along with the IFI16-inflammasome. The absence of BRCA1 abrogated IFI16-viral genome association, inflammasome assembly, IFI16 cytoplasmic localization, and Caspase-1 and IL-1β production. The absence of BRCA1 also abolished the cytoplasmic IFI16-STING interaction, downstream IRF3 phosphorylation, nuclear translocation of pIRF3 and IFN-β production during de novo KSHV and HSV-1 infection. These findings highlight that BRCA1 plays a hitherto unidentified innate immunomodulatory role by facilitating nuclear foreign DNA sensing by IFI16, subsequent assembly and cytoplasmic distribution of IFI16-inflammasomes leading into IL-1β formation and the induction of IFN-β via cytoplasmic signaling through IFI16-STING, TBK1 and IRF3.
Author Summary
Invasion of a host cell by pathogens, including viruses, is sensed by pattern-recognition receptors resulting in the elicitation of the host innate defenses such as the formation of multi-protein inflammasome complexes, inflammatory IL-1β and IL-18 cytokine production and interferon-β production via the cytoplasmic STING molecule. We have shown that nuclear episomal viral DNA genomes of herpes viruses (KSHV, EBV and HSV-1) are sensed by the nuclear resident IFI16 protein, resulting in the formation of the IFI16-ASC-procaspase-1 inflammasome complex. Here, we show that BRCA1 promotes viral DNA sensing by IFI16 in the nucleus and is a constituent of the triggered IFI16-ASC-procaspase-1 inflammasome. IFI16 and BRCA1 are in complex in the nucleus and their association increases in the presence of KSHV, EBV or HSV-1 genomes, but not by the DNA damage response or vaccinia virus cytoplasmic dsDNA. The absence of BRCA1 results in abrogated IFI16-genome association, IFI16 cytoplasmic translocation, IL-1β production, IFI16 interaction with STING, IRF3 phosphorylation, pIRF3 nuclear translocation, and IFN-β induction. Taken together, these results demonstrate a crucial and novel role of BRCA1 in the innate sensing of viral DNA and subsequent induction of the inflammasome and interferon-β responses.
doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1005030
PMCID: PMC4487893  PMID: 26121674
8.  Needs Assessment for Research Use of High-Throughput Sequencing at a Large Academic Medical Center 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(6):e0131166.
Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) methods are driving profound changes in biomedical research, with a growing impact on patient care. Many academic medical centers are evaluating potential models to prepare for the rapid increase in NGS information needs. This study sought to investigate (1) how and where sequencing data is generated and analyzed, (2) research objectives and goals for NGS, (3) workforce capacity and unmet needs, (4) storage capacity and unmet needs, (5) available and anticipated funding resources, and (6) future challenges. As a precursor to informed decision making at our institution, we undertook a systematic needs assessment of investigators using survey methods. We recruited 331 investigators from over 60 departments and divisions at the University of Pittsburgh Schools of Health Sciences and had 140 respondents, or a 42% response rate. Results suggest that both sequencing and analysis bottlenecks currently exist. Significant educational needs were identified, including both investigator-focused needs, such as selection of NGS methods suitable for specific research objectives, and program-focused needs, such as support for training an analytic workforce. The absence of centralized infrastructure was identified as an important institutional gap. Key principles for organizations managing this change were formulated based on the survey responses. This needs assessment provides an in-depth case study which may be useful to other academic medical centers as they identify and plan for future needs.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0131166
PMCID: PMC4483235  PMID: 26115441
9.  Neuronal development is promoted by weakened intrinsic antioxidant defences due to epigenetic repression of Nrf2 
Nature Communications  2015;6:7066.
Forebrain neurons have weak intrinsic antioxidant defences compared with astrocytes, but the molecular basis and purpose of this is poorly understood. We show that early in mouse cortical neuronal development in vitro and in vivo, expression of the master-regulator of antioxidant genes, transcription factor NF-E2-related-factor-2 (Nrf2), is repressed by epigenetic inactivation of its promoter. Consequently, in contrast to astrocytes or young neurons, maturing neurons possess negligible Nrf2-dependent antioxidant defences, and exhibit no transcriptional responses to Nrf2 activators, or to ablation of Nrf2's inhibitor Keap1. Neuronal Nrf2 inactivation seems to be required for proper development: in maturing neurons, ectopic Nrf2 expression inhibits neurite outgrowth and aborization, and electrophysiological maturation, including synaptogenesis. These defects arise because Nrf2 activity buffers neuronal redox status, inhibiting maturation processes dependent on redox-sensitive JNK and Wnt pathways. Thus, developmental epigenetic Nrf2 repression weakens neuronal antioxidant defences but is necessary to create an environment that supports neuronal development.
Neurons in the brain are more susceptible to oxidative stress than astroglial cells but the molecular basis and biological reasons for this are poorly understood. Here the authors show that developing cortical neurons have reduced levels of the antioxidant transcription factor Nrf2 due to epigenetic silencing and that this is necessary for proper neuronal development.
doi:10.1038/ncomms8066
PMCID: PMC4441249  PMID: 25967870
10.  Two Episodes of Cutaneous Non-Tuberculous Mycobacterial Infection in a Patient with Psoriasis 
Dermatology Reports  2015;7(2):5712.
Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are a group of environmental pathogens, which cause a broad spectrum of disease. The incidence of NTM infection is increasing, especially in immunocompromized patients. The past three decades also saw a rapid increase in the incidence of NTM infection involving otherwise healthy subjects. We report a case of cutaneous NTM infection in a 79-year-old Chinese woman, who was receiving methotrexate for psoriasis. Mycobacterial culture grew Mycobacterium abscessus, and the lesions cleared with a combination of oral clarithromycin, ciprofloxacin and doxycycline. Interestingly, she then developed a second episode of cutaneous NTM infection with Mycobacterium haemophilum over the same body region, five years after stoppage of methotrexate. Both episodes were separated in time and involved different species, indicating that they were independent from each other. We further discuss the risk factors for cutaneous NTM infection, treatment, and highlight the need for diagnostic vigilance.
doi:10.4081/dr.2015.5712
PMCID: PMC4500867
Mycobacterium abscessus; Mycobacterium hemophilum; cutaneous; non tuberculous mycobacteria; psoriasis
11.  Computational prediction of miRNAs and their targets in Phaseolus vulgaris using simple sequence repeat signatures 
BMC Plant Biology  2015;15:140.
Background
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous, noncoding, short RNAs directly involved in regulating gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. In spite of immense importance, limited information of P. vulgaris miRNAs and their expression patterns prompted us to identify new miRNAs in P. vulgaris by computational methods. Besides conventional approaches, we have used the simple sequence repeat (SSR) signatures as one of the prediction parameter. Moreover, for all other parameters including normalized Shannon entropy, normalized base pairing index and normalized base-pair distance, instead of taking a fixed cut-off value, we have used 99 % probability range derived from the available data.
Results
We have identified 208 mature miRNAs in P. vulgaris belonging to 118 families, of which 201 are novel. 97 of the predicted miRNAs in P. vulgaris were validated with the sequencing data obtained from the small RNA sequencing of P. vulgaris. Randomly selected predicted miRNAs were also validated using qRT-PCR. A total of 1305 target sequences were identified for 130 predicted miRNAs. Using 80 % sequence identity cut-off, proteins coded by 563 targets were identified. The computational method developed in this study was also validated by predicting 229 miRNAs of A. thaliana and 462 miRNAs of G. max, of which 213 for A. thaliana and 397 for G. max are existing in miRBase 20.
Conclusions
There is no universal SSR that is conserved among all precursors of Viridiplantae, but conserved SSR exists within a miRNA family and is used as a signature in our prediction method. Prediction of known miRNAs of A. thaliana and G. max validates the accuracy of our method. Our findings will contribute to the present knowledge of miRNAs and their targets in P. vulgaris. This computational method can be applied to any species of Viridiplantae for the successful prediction of miRNAs and their targets.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12870-015-0516-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s12870-015-0516-3
PMCID: PMC4464996  PMID: 26067253
miRNA; Phaseolus vulgaris; SSRs; Shannon entropy; MFEI
12.  Is routine pathological evaluation of tissue from gynecomastia necessary? A 15-year retrospective pathological and literature review 
Plastic Surgery  2014;22(2):112-116.
Gynecomastia is characterized by a proliferation of the cellular components of breast tissue believed to be caused by an imbalance in the estrogen-to-androgen ratio. It can present bilaterally or unilaterally, and is usually idiopathic in nature. Histopathological analysis of gynecomastia specimens is mandated in Canada – a practice apparently based more on tradition than evidence-based guidelines. Given the current era of increasing health care expenditures, the authors of this study questioned the necessity of this routine practice by reviewing tissue samples from the Saskatoon Health Region (Saskatchewan) over a 15-year period and reviewing the current literature for evidence-based guidelines.
OBJECTIVE:
To reconsider the routine plastic surgical practice of requesting histopathological evaluation of tissue from gynecomastia.
METHOD:
The present study was a retrospective histopathological review (15-year period [1996 to 2012]) involving gynecomastia tissue samples received at the pathology laboratory in the Saskatoon Health Region (Saskatchewan). The Laboratory Information System (LIS) identified all specimens using the key search words “gynecomastia”, “gynaecomastia”, “gynecomazia” and “gynaecomazia”. A literature review to identify all cases of incidentally discovered malignancies in gynecomastia tissue specimens over a 15-year period (1996 to present) was undertaken.
RESULTS:
The 15-year LIS search detected a total of 452 patients that included two cases of pseudogynecomastia (0.4%). Patients’ age ranged from five to 92 years and 43% of the cases were bilateral (28% left sided, 29% right sided). The weight of the specimens received ranged from 0.2 g to 1147.2 g. All cases showed no significant histopathological concerns. The number of tissue blocks sampled ranged from one to 42, averaging four blocks/case (approximately $105/case), resulting in a cost of approximately $3,200/year, with a 15-year expenditure of approximately $48,000. The literature review identified a total of 15 incidental findings: ductal carcinoma in situ (12 cases), atypical ductal hyperplasia (two cases) and infiltrating ductal carcinoma (one case).
CONCLUSIONS:
In the context of evidence-based literature, and because no significant pathological findings were detected in this particular cohort of 452 cases with 2178 slides, the authors believe it is time to re-evaluate whether routine histopathological examination of tissue from gynecomastia remains necessary. The current climate of health care budget fiscal restraints warrants reassessment of the current policies and practices of sending tissue samples of gynecomastia incurring negative productivity costs on routine histopathological examination.
PMCID: PMC4116310  PMID: 25114624
Best practice guidelines; Gynecomastia; Histopathology; Male breast cancer; Risk factors for male breast cancer
13.  Nephrogenic Adenoma of the Urethra Presenting as Hematuria 
The Indian Journal of Surgery  2013;76(3):228-229.
doi:10.1007/s12262-013-0932-2
PMCID: PMC4141049  PMID: 25177122
Nephrogenic adenoma; Hematuria; Hypospadias; Cystoscopic excision
14.  p130Cas Scaffolds the Signalosome To Direct Adaptor-Effector Cross Talk during Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Trafficking in Human Microvascular Dermal Endothelial Cells 
Journal of Virology  2014;88(23):13858-13878.
ABSTRACT
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) interacts with cell surface receptors, such as heparan sulfate, integrins (α3β1, αVβ3, and αVβ5), and EphrinA2 (EphA2), and activates focal adhesion kinase (FAK), Src, phosphoinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K), c-Cbl, and RhoA GTPase signal molecules early during lipid raft (LR)-dependent productive macropinocytic entry into human dermal microvascular endothelial cells. Our recent studies have identified CIB1 as a signal amplifier facilitating EphA2 phosphorylation and subsequent cytoskeletal cross talk during KSHV macropinocytosis. Although CIB1 lacks an enzymatic activity and traditional adaptor domain or known interacting sequence, it associated with the KSHV entry signal complex and the CIB1-KSHV association was sustained over 30 min postinfection. To identify factors scaffolding the EphA2-CIB1 signal axis, the role of major cellular scaffold protein p130Cas (Crk-associated substrate of Src) was investigated. Inhibitor and small interfering RNA (siRNA) studies demonstrated that KSHV induced p130Cas in an EphA2-, CIB1-, and Src-dependent manner. p130Cas and Crk were associated with KSHV, LRs, EphA2, and CIB1 early during infection. Live-cell microscopy and biochemical studies demonstrated that p130Cas knockdown did not affect KSHV entry but significantly reduced productive nuclear trafficking of viral DNA and routed KSHV to lysosomal degradation. p130Cas aided in scaffolding adaptor Crk to downstream guanine nucleotide exchange factor phospho-C3G possibly to coordinate GTPase signaling during KSHV trafficking. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that p130Cas acts as a bridging molecule between the KSHV-induced entry signal complex and the downstream trafficking signalosome in endothelial cells and suggest that simultaneous targeting of KSHV entry receptors with p130Cas would be an attractive potential avenue for therapeutic intervention in KSHV infection.
IMPORTANCE Eukaryotic cell adaptor molecules, without any intrinsic enzymatic activity, are well known to allow a great diversity of specific and coordinated protein-protein interactions imparting signal amplification to different networks for physiological and pathological signaling. They are involved in integrating signals from growth factors, extracellular matrix molecules, bacterial pathogens, and apoptotic cells. The present study identifies human microvascular dermal endothelial (HMVEC-d) cellular scaffold protein p130Cas (Crk-associated substrate) as a platform to promote Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) trafficking. Early during KSHV de novo infection, p130Cas associates with lipid rafts and scaffolds EphrinA2 (EphA2)-associated critical adaptor members to downstream effector molecules, promoting successful nuclear delivery of the KSHV genome. Hence, simultaneous targeting of the receptor EphA2 and scaffolding action of p130Cas can potentially uncouple the signal cross talk of the KSHV entry-associated upstream signal complex from the immediate downstream trafficking-associated signalosome, consequently routing KSHV toward lysosomal degradation and eventually blocking KSHV infection and associated malignancies.
doi:10.1128/JVI.01674-14
PMCID: PMC4248985  PMID: 25253349
15.  Niemann-Pick C1 Is Essential for Ebolavirus Replication and Pathogenesis In Vivo 
mBio  2015;6(3):e00565-15.
ABSTRACT
Recent work demonstrated that the Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) protein is an essential entry receptor for filoviruses. While previous studies focused on filovirus entry requirements of NPC1 in vitro, its roles in filovirus replication and pathogenesis in vivo remain unclear. Here, we evaluated the importance of NPC1, and its partner in cholesterol transport, NPC2, by using a mouse model of Ebolavirus (EBOV) disease. We found that, whereas wild-type mice had high viral loads and succumbed to EBOV infection, Npc1−/− mice were entirely free of viral replication and completely protected from EBOV disease. Interestingly, Npc1+/− mice transiently developed high levels of viremia, but were nevertheless substantially protected from EBOV challenge. We also found Npc2−/− mice to be fully susceptible to EBOV infection, while Npc1−/− mice treated to deplete stored lysosomal cholesterol remained completely resistant to EBOV infection. These results provide mechanistic evidence that NPC1 is directly required for EBOV infection in vivo, with little or no role for NPC1/NPC2-dependent cholesterol transport. Finally, we assessed the in vivo antiviral efficacies of three compounds known to inhibit NPC1 function or NPC1-glycoprotein binding in vitro. Two compounds reduced viral titers in vivo and provided a modest, albeit not statistically significant, degree of protection. Taken together, our results show that NPC1 is critical for replication and pathogenesis in animals and is a bona fide target for development of antifilovirus therapeutics. Additionally, our findings with Npc1+/− mice raise the possibility that individuals heterozygous for NPC1 may have a survival advantage in the face of EBOV infection.
IMPORTANCE
Researchers have been searching for an essential filovirus receptor for decades, and numerous candidate receptors have been proposed. However, none of the proposed candidate receptors has proven essential in all in vitro scenarios, nor have they proven essential when evaluated using animal models. In this report, we provide the first example of a knockout mouse that is completely refractory to EBOV infection, replication, and disease. The findings detailed here provide the first critical in vivo data illustrating the absolute requirement of NPC1 for filovirus infection in mice. Our work establishes NPC1 as a legitimate target for the development of anti-EBOV therapeutics. However, the limited success of available NPC1 inhibitors to protect mice from EBOV challenge highlights the need for new molecules or approaches to target NPC1 in vivo.
doi:10.1128/mBio.00565-15
PMCID: PMC4447246  PMID: 26015498
16.  Nuclear lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase and its interaction with CR6-interacting factor 1 promote the survival of human leukemic T cells 
Oncology Reports  2015;34(1):43-50.
Overexpression and hyperactivation of lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase (Lck) have been associated with leukemia development. We previously showed that, other than its known function as a cytoplasmic signal transducer, Lck also acts as a nuclear transcription factor in mouse leukemic cells. In the present study, we demonstrated the presence of nuclear Lck in human leukemic T cells and in primary cells. We further established a positive correlation between Lck nuclear localization and its kinase activity. Proteomic analysis identified CR6-interacting factor 1 (CRIF1) as one of the Lck-interacting proteins. CRIF1 and Lck association in the nucleus was confirmed both by immunofluorescence microscopy and co-immunoprecipitation in human leukemic T cells. Close-range interaction between Lck and CRIF1 was validated by in situ proximity ligation assay (PLA). Consistent with the role of nuclear CRIF1 as a tumor suppressor, CRIF1 silencing promotes leukemic T cell survival in the absence of growth factors. This protective effect can be recapitulated by endogenous Lck or reconstituted Lck in leukemic T cells. All together, our results support a novel function of nuclear Lck in promoting human leukemic T cell survival through interaction with a tumor suppressor. It has important implications in defining a paradigm shift of non-canonical protein tyrosine kinase signaling.
doi:10.3892/or.2015.3990
PMCID: PMC4484609  PMID: 25997448
lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase; leukemia; CRIF1; non-canonical signaling; cell survival; proximity ligation assay
18.  Virus nomenclature below the species level: a standardized nomenclature for filovirus strains and variants rescued from cDNA 
Archives of virology  2013;159(5):1229-1237.
Specific alterations (mutations, deletions, insertions) of virus genomes are crucial for the functional characterization of their regulatory elements and their expression products, as well as a prerequisite for the creation of attenuated viruses that could serve as vaccine candidates. Virus genome tailoring can be performed either by using traditionally cloned genomes as starting materials, followed by site-directed mutagenesis, or by de novo synthesis of modified virus genomes or parts thereof. A systematic nomenclature for such recombinant viruses is necessary to set them apart from wild-type and laboratory-adapted viruses, and to improve communication and collaborations among researchers who may want to use recombinant viruses or create novel viruses based on them. A large group of filovirus experts has recently proposed nomenclatures for natural and laboratory animal-adapted filoviruses that aim to simplify the retrieval of sequence data from electronic databases. Here, this work is extended to include nomenclature for filoviruses obtained in the laboratory via reverse genetics systems. The previously developed template for natural filovirus genetic variant naming, (/)///-, is retained, but we propose to adapt the type of information added to each field for cDNA clone-derived filoviruses. For instance, the full-length designation of an Ebola virus Kikwit variant rescued from a plasmid developed at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention could be akin to “Ebola virus H.sapiens-rec/COD/1995/Kikwit-abc1” (with the suffix “rec” identifying the recombinant nature of the virus and “abc1” being a placeholder for any meaningful isolate designator). Such a full-length designation should be used in databases and the methods section of publications. Shortened designations (such as “EBOVH.sap/COD/95/Kik-abc1”) and abbreviations (such as “EBOV/Kik-abc1”) could be used in the remainder of the text, depending on how critical it is to convey information contained in the full-length name. “EBOV” would suffice if only one EBOV strain/variant/isolate is addressed.
doi:10.1007/s00705-013-1877-2
PMCID: PMC4010566  PMID: 24190508
cDNA clone; cuevavirus; Ebola; Ebola virus; ebolavirus; filovirid; Filoviridae; filovirus; genome annotation; ICTV; International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses; Lloviu virus; Marburg virus; marburgvirus; mononegavirad; Mononegavirales; mononegavirus; reverse genetics; virus classification; virus isolate; virus nomenclature; virus strain; virus taxonomy; virus variant
19.  Genome-wide Association Study of Subtype-Specific Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Risk Alleles Using Pooled DNA 
Earp, Madalene A. | Kelemen, Linda E. | Magliocco, Anthony M. | Swenerton, Kenneth D. | Chenevix–Trench, Georgia | Lu, Yi | Hein, Alexander | Ekici, Arif B. | Beckmann, Matthias W. | Fasching, Peter A. | Lambrechts, Diether | Despierre, Evelyn | Vergote, Ignace | Lambrechts, Sandrina | Doherty, Jennifer A. | Rossing, Mary Anne | Chang-Claude, Jenny | Rudolph, Anja | Friel, Grace | Moysich, Kirsten B. | Odunsi, Kunle | Sucheston-Campbell, Lara | Lurie, Galina | Goodman, Marc T. | Carney, Michael E. | Thompson, Pamela J. | Runnebaum, Ingo B. | Dürst, Matthias | Hillemanns, Peter | Dörk, Thilo | Antonenkova, Natalia | Bogdanova, Natalia | Leminen, Arto | Nevanlinna, Heli | Pelttari, Liisa M. | Butzow, Ralf | Bunker, Clareann H. | Modugno, Francesmary | Edwards, Robert P. | Ness, Roberta B. | du Bois, Andreas | Heitz, Florian | Schwaab, Ira | Harter, Philipp | Karlan, Beth Y. | Walsh, Christine | Lester, Jenny | Jensen, Allan | Kjær, Susanne K. | Høgdall, Claus K. | Høgdall, Estrid | Lundvall, Lene | Sellers, Thomas A. | Fridley, Brooke L. | Goode, Ellen L. | Cunningham, Julie M. | Vierkant, Robert A. | Giles, Graham G. | Baglietto, Laura | Severi, Gianluca | Southey, Melissa C. | Liang, Dong | Wu, Xifeng | Lu, Karen | Hildebrandt, Michelle A.T. | Levine, Douglas A. | Bisogna, Maria | Schildkraut, Joellen M. | Iversen, Edwin S. | Weber, Rachel Palmieri | Berchuck, Andrew | Cramer, Daniel W. | Terry, Kathryn L. | Poole, Elizabeth M. | Tworoger, Shelley S. | Bandera, Elisa V. | Chandran, Urmila | Orlow, Irene | Olson, Sara H. | Wik, Elisabeth | Salvesen, Helga B. | Bjorge, Line | Halle, Mari K. | van Altena, Anne M. | Aben, Katja K.H. | Kiemeney, Lambertus A. | Massuger, Leon F.A.G. | Pejovic, Tanja | Bean, Yukie T. | Cybulski, Cezary | Gronwald, Jacek | Lubinski, Jan | Wentzensen, Nicolas | Brinton, Louise A. | Lissowska, Jolanta | Garcia–Closas, Montserrat | Dicks, Ed | Dennis, Joe | Easton, Douglas F. | Song, Honglin | Tyrer, Jonathan P. | Pharoah, Paul D. P. | Eccles, Diana | Campbell, Ian G. | Whittemore, Alice S. | McGuire, Valerie | Sieh, Weiva | Rothstein, Joseph H. | Flanagan, James M. | Paul, James | Brown, Robert | Phelan, Catherine M. | Risch, Harvey A. | McLaughlin, John R. | Narod, Steven A. | Ziogas, Argyrios | Anton-Culver, Hoda | Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra | Menon, Usha | Gayther, Simon A. | Ramus, Susan J. | Wu, Anna H. | Pearce, Celeste L. | Pike, Malcolm C. | Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka | Rzepecka, Iwona K | Szafron, Lukasz M | Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta | Cook, Linda S. | Le, Nhu D. | Brooks–Wilson, Angela
Human genetics  2013;133(5):481-497.
Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is a heterogeneous cancer with both genetic and environmental risk factors. Variants influencing the risk of developing the less-common EOC subtypes have not been fully investigated. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of EOC according to subtype by pooling genomic DNA from 545 cases and 398 controls of European descent, and testing for allelic associations. We evaluated for replication 188 variants from the GWAS (56 variants for mucinous, 55 for endometrioid and clear cell, 53 for low malignant potential (LMP) serous, and 24 for invasive serous EOC), selected using pre-defined criteria. Genotypes from 13,188 cases and 23,164 controls of European descent were used to perform unconditional logistic regression under the log-additive genetic model; odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals are reported. Nine variants tagging 6 loci were associated with subtype-specific EOC risk at P<0.05, and had an OR that agreed in direction of effect with the GWAS results. Several of these variants are in or near genes with a biological rationale for conferring EOC risk, including ZFP36L1 and RAD51B for mucinous EOC (rs17106154, OR=1.17, P=0.029, n=1,483 cases), GRB10 for endometrioid and clear cell EOC (rs2190503, P=0.014, n=2,903 cases), and C22orf26/BPIL2 for LMP serous EOC (rs9609538, OR=0.86, P=0.0043, n=892 cases). In analyses that included the 75 GWAS samples, the association between rs9609538 (OR=0.84, P=0.0007) and LMP serous EOC risk remained statistically significant at P<0.0012 adjusted for multiple testing. Replication in additional samples will be important to verify these results for the less-common EOC subtypes.
doi:10.1007/s00439-013-1383-3
PMCID: PMC4063682  PMID: 24190013
histological subtype; serous; endometrioid; clear cell; mucinous; BPIL2
20.  Basaloid Squamous Cell Carcinoma: An Unusual Ball-Valve Laryngeal Obstruction 
Introduction:
A rare case of basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC) of the larynx, which has not been previously reported, is described.
Case Report:
A 60-year-old man was presented to the Otolaryngology Department with progressive dyspnoea and dysphagia to solids for over a period of 1 week. Direct laryngoscopy revealed a tumour at the laryngeal aspect of the epiglottis, which prolapsed into the laryngeal inlet each time the patient inspired. This resulted in an inspiratory stridor despite adequate glottic opening and normal mobility of the vocal cords.
Conclusion:
Therefore, in cases where a ball-valve lesion causes intermittent life-threatening airway obstruction, BSCC of the larynx, though rare, must be considered as a differential diagnosis.
PMCID: PMC4461850  PMID: 26082908
Airway obstruction; Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma; Larynx; Squamous cell carcinoma
21.  Adherence to Insulin Pen Therapy Is Associated with Reduction in Healthcare Costs Among Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus 
American Health & Drug Benefits  2015;8(3):148-158.
Background
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder that poses a significant economic burden on the US healthcare system associated with direct and indirect medical costs, loss of productivity, and premature mortality.
Objectives
To determine whether increased adherence to therapy among patients with type 2 diabetes who use an insulin pen is associated with reduced healthcare costs, and to describe the overall healthcare costs of patients with type 2 diabetes.
Methods
This retrospective claims database analysis used the Truven Health MarketScan Commercial and Medicare Supplemental databases to identify patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes with at least 1 insulin pen prescription claim between January 2006 and September 2010. Insulin pen adherence was measured using the medication possession ratio (MPR). The cost outcomes included all-cause and type 2 diabetes–related costs by type of service (ie, inpatient, outpatient medical, outpatient pharmacy), which were calculated in 2011 US dollars. Insulin adherence and overall healthcare costs were evaluated over the 12-month postindex period.
Results
A total of 32,361 patients met the study inclusion criteria, with an average MPR of 0.63 (standard deviation [SD], 0.29). Overall, patients with type 2 diabetes who used an insulin pen had an average annual healthcare cost of $19,612, which was driven by inpatient costs (37.2%) and outpatient pharmacy costs (24.4%). There is a significant difference in the average annual per-patient healthcare expenditures between the least adherent group (MPR <0.20; 11.0% of patients) and the most adherent group (MPR >0.80; 34.6% of patients) $26,310 versus $23,839, respectively (P = .007). Patients with the greatest insulin adherence had higher overall pharmacy costs than patients with the lowest insulin adherence ($10,174 vs $5395, respectively; P <.001).
Conclusions
The total healthcare expenditures of patients with type 2 diabetes who utilized insulin pens decreased with improvement in adherence, suggesting that higher rates of medication adherence may present an opportunity to curb healthcare costs in insulin pen users. The average sample MPR for our study population was 0.63 (SD, 0.29), indicating that insulin adherence continues to be a challenge for successful diabetes management. More research is needed to better characterize the relationship between medication adherence and healthcare costs among insulin users with type 2 diabetes and to identify the key drivers of adherence among this patient group.
PMCID: PMC4467016  PMID: 26085903
type 2 diabetes; type 1 diabetes; insulin pen; healthcare cost; medical costs; pharmacy costs; insulin adherence; diabetes management
22.  Calcified embolism: a rare cause of cerebral infarction 
BMJ Case Reports  2013;2013:bcr2013009509.
Calcified cerebral emboli (CCE) are a rare cause of stroke and these emboli can be identified on a CT scan of the brain performed for the initial evaluation of stroke. In this report we present a patient who developed a CCE following cardiac catheterisation that lodged in the left middle cerebral artery with resultant right hemiparesis and aphasia. The calcified embolus was seen on CT but could not be identified on MRI. Predisposing factors for CCE include angiography and valve or vessel wall calcification. The natural history and response to standard therapy in patients with CCE as compared with stroke of other aetiologies have not been studied until now. Increased awareness and ability to identify calcified emboli will help us to have an improved understanding of strokes resulting from CCE.
doi:10.1136/bcr-2013-009509
PMCID: PMC3645624  PMID: 23632190
23.  Snapshot quiz – recurrent right iliac fossa pain in the patient with a previous history of appendicitis 
Clinical Case Reports  2015;3(6):512.
Key Clinical Message
A low threshold for computed tomography (CT) scanning in patients with previous appendicectomy and right iliac fossa pain helps facilitate timely diagnosis and exclusion of other differential diagnoses. Here, we present a rare cause which has significant medicolegal ramifications and is accurately diagnosed with CT.
doi:10.1002/ccr3.235
PMCID: PMC4498876  PMID: 26185662
Faecolith; incomplete appendicectomy; right iliac fossa; stump appendicitis
24.  Cardiogenic Genes Expressed in Cardiac Fibroblasts Contribute to Heart Development and Repair 
Circulation research  2014;114(9):1422-1434.
Rationale
Cardiac fibroblasts are critical to proper heart function through multiple interactions with the myocardial compartment but appreciation of their contribution has suffered from incomplete characterization and lack of cell-specific markers.
Objective
To generate an unbiased comparative gene expression profile of the cardiac fibroblast pool, identify and characterize the role of key genes in cardiac fibroblast function, and determine their contribution to myocardial development and regeneration.
Methods and Results
High-throughput cell surface and intracellular profiling of cardiac and tail fibroblasts identified canonical MSC and a surprising number of cardiogenic genes, some expressed at higher levels than in whole heart. Whilst genetically marked fibroblasts contributed heterogeneously to interstitial but not cardiomyocyte compartments in infarcted hearts, fibroblast-restricted depletion of one highly expressed cardiogenic marker, Tbx20, caused marked myocardial dysmorphology and perturbations in scar formation upon myocardial infarction.
Conclusions
The surprising transcriptional identity of cardiac fibroblasts, the adoption of cardiogenic gene programs and direct contribution to cardiac development and repair provokes alternative interpretations for studies on more specialized cardiac progenitors, offering a novel perspective for reinterpreting cardiac regenerative therapies.
doi:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.114.302530
PMCID: PMC4083003  PMID: 24650916
Heart; fibroblast; transcription factors; transcriptional network; cardiac fibroblasts
25.  Drug Repurposing: A Systematic Approach to Evaluate Candidate Oral Neuroprotective Interventions for Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(4):e0117705.
Objective
To develop and implement an evidence based framework to select, from drugs already licenced, candidate oral neuroprotective drugs to be tested in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.
Design
Systematic review of clinical studies of oral putative neuroprotective therapies in MS and four other neurodegenerative diseases with shared pathological features, followed by systematic review and meta-analyses of the in vivo experimental data for those interventions. We presented summary data to an international multi-disciplinary committee, which assessed each drug in turn using pre-specified criteria including consideration of mechanism of action.
Results
We identified a short list of fifty-two candidate interventions. After review of all clinical and pre-clinical evidence we identified ibudilast, riluzole, amiloride, pirfenidone, fluoxetine, oxcarbazepine, and the polyunsaturated fatty-acid class (Linoleic Acid, Lipoic acid; Omega-3 fatty acid, Max EPA oil) as lead candidates for clinical evaluation.
Conclusions
We demonstrate a standardised and systematic approach to candidate identification for drug rescue and repurposing trials that can be applied widely to neurodegenerative disorders.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0117705
PMCID: PMC4391783  PMID: 25856304

Results 1-25 (538)