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1.  Management of aplastic anemia in a woman during pregnancy: a case report 
Introduction
Aplastic anemia is a rare disease caused by destruction of pluripotent stem cells in bone marrow. During pregnancy it could be life-threatening for both mother and child. The only causal therapy for aplastic anemia is bone marrow transplantation, which is contraindicated during pregnancy because of potential embryo toxicity. Treatment options are erythrocytes and platelet transfusions and immunosuppressive therapy. There is, however, no agreement about the optimal supportive care and treatment regime for this disorder during pregnancy.
Case Presentation
A 26-year-old nulliparous Asian woman with an uneventful medical history was admitted to the hospital at 14 weeks' gestation because of excessive vomiting. Routine laboratory tests showed pancytopenia (Hb 3.5 mmol/L, leukocytes 3.5 *109/L, platelets 45 *109L). A bone marrow biopsy confirmed aplastic anemia. Methylprednisolon, cyclosporine A, packed cells and platelet transfusions were initiated. At 33 weeks she developed neutropenia (0.1 *109/L) for which oral colistin and tobramycin were given prophylactically. At 35 weeks labor was induced, during which she developed a fever of 38.2°C. She gave birth spontaneously to a healthy son weighing 2415 grams, who had no signs of pancytopenia. After delivery the blood count of the patient did not recover and did not respond to medication. Eighteen weeks after delivery she died of sepsis complicated by cerebral bleeding and infarction due to severe thrombocytopenia and neutropenia, despite optimal supportive treatment.
Conclusion
This potential life-threatening disease has a relatively good prognosis for both mother and child after optimal treatment. Transfusion during pregnancy is the first choice treatment with recommended hemoglobin levels of >5.5 mmol/L and platelet counts of >20 *109/L. Cyclosporine A seems a reasonable alternative therapy with a reported success rate in non-pregnant patients of 70% when combined with antithymocyte globuline. Our patient died 18 weeks postpartum from cerebral bleeding and infarction due to severe thrombocytopenia despite intensive supportive treatment, methylprednisolon and cyclosporine A.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-5-66
PMCID: PMC3048477  PMID: 21324109
2.  Induction of labour versus expectant management in women with preterm prelabour rupture of membranes between 34 and 37 weeks (the PPROMEXIL-trial) 
Background
Preterm prelabour rupture of the membranes (PPROM) is an important clinical problem and a dilemma for the gynaecologist. On the one hand, awaiting spontaneous labour increases the probability of infectious disease for both mother and child, whereas on the other hand induction of labour leads to preterm birth with an increase in neonatal morbidity (e.g., respiratory distress syndrome (RDS)) and a possible rise in the number of instrumental deliveries.
Methods/Design
We aim to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of immediate delivery after PPROM in near term gestation compared to expectant management. Pregnant women with preterm prelabour rupture of the membranes at a gestational age from 34+0 weeks until 37+0 weeks will be included in a multicentre prospective randomised controlled trial. We will compare early delivery with expectant monitoring.
The primary outcome of this study is neonatal sepsis. Secondary outcome measures are maternal morbidity (chorioamnionitis, puerperal sepsis) and neonatal disease, instrumental delivery rate, maternal quality of life, maternal preferences and costs. We anticipate that a reduction of neonatal infection from 7.5% to 2.5% after induction will outweigh an increase in RDS and additional costs due to admission of the child due to prematurity. Under these assumptions, we aim to randomly allocate 520 women to two groups of 260 women each. Analysis will be by intention to treat. Additionally a cost-effectiveness analysis will be performed to evaluate if the cost related to early delivery will outweigh those of expectant management. Long term outcomes will be evaluated using modelling.
Discussion
This trial will provide evidence as to whether induction of labour after preterm prelabour rupture of membranes is an effective and cost-effective strategy to reduce the risk of neonatal sepsis.
Controlled clinical trial register
ISRCTN29313500
doi:10.1186/1471-2393-7-11
PMCID: PMC1934382  PMID: 17617892

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