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1.  Physical, Sexual, Emotional and Economic Intimate Partner Violence and Controlling Behaviors during Pregnancy and Postpartum among Women in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania 
PLoS ONE  2016;11(10):e0164376.
Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy and postpartum is a serious global health problem affecting millions of women worldwide. This study sought to determine the prevalence of different forms of IPV during pregnancy and postpartum and associated factors among women in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
We conducted a cross-sectional study among 500 women at one to nine months postpartum in three health facilities in the three districts of Dar es Salaam: Temeke, Kinondoni and Illala. Two trained research assistants administered the questionnaire, which aimed to examine sociodemographic characteristics and different forms of IPV.
Of the 500 women who were interviewed, 18.8% experienced some physical and/or sexual violence during pregnancy. Forty-one women (9%) reported having experienced some physical and/or sexual violence at one to nine months postpartum. Physical and/or sexual IPV during pregnancy was associated with cohabiting (AOR 2.2, 95% CI 1.24–4.03) and having a partner who was 25 years old or younger (AOR 2.7, 95% CI 1.08–6.71). Postpartum, physical and/or sexual IPV was associated with having a partner who was 25 years old or younger (AOR 4.4, 95% CI 1.24–15.6).
We found that IPV is more prevalent during pregnancy than during the postpartum phase. There is also continuity and maintenance of IPV during and after pregnancy. These results call for policy and interventions to be tailored for pregnant and postpartum women.
PMCID: PMC5068783  PMID: 27755559
2.  Maternal Dietary Patterns and Practices and Birth Weight in Northern Ghana 
PLoS ONE  2016;11(9):e0162285.
Adequate maternal nutrition is a key factor for achieving good pregnancy outcomes. Moreover, inadequate dietary intake during pregnancy is considered an important contributor to maternal malnutrition in developing countries. Although some studies have examined the effect of the entire diet on birth outcome, most studies have been very narrow because they considered the effect of single nutrient. The single nutrient approach is a major setback because usually several nutrient deficiencies are more likely to occur than single deficiencies especially in low-income settings.
The main aim of this study was to investigate the association between maternal dietary patterns, and practices and birth weight in Northern Ghana.
Participant Settings
A facility-based cross-sectional survey was performed in two districts in the Northern Region of Ghana. The selected districts were the Tamale Metropolis and Savelugu-Nanton District. These districts were purposively sampled to represent a mix of urban, peri-urban and rural populations, therefore ensuring that the distribution in social groups of the study population was similar to the entire population of the region. In all, 578 mothers who were drawing antenatal and postnatal care services were interviewed using a questionnaire, which asked the mothers about their frequency of consumption of individual foods per week since they became pregnant or when they were pregnant.
Statistical Analysis
We determined dietary patterns by applying a factor analysis with a varimax rotation using STATA. Multivariate analysis was used to establish association between maternal factors and dietary patterns. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between dietary practices and patterns and birth weight.
Women who ate outside the home twice a week (OR = 1.6 & 95% CI; 1.1–2.45, P; 0.017) and those who practiced ‘pica’ (OR = 1.7 & 95% CI; 1.16–2.75, P; 0.008) had increased odds for low birth. Two dietary patterns were identified—namely ‘health conscious’ and ‘non-health conscious’. Health conscious diet (OR = 0.23 95% CI 0.12–0.45 per standard deviation change in scores, P; <0.0001) and dietary diversity score (OR = 0.10 95% CI 0.04–0.13 per standard deviation change in scores, P; <0.0001) showed a protective effect for low birth weight respectively after adjusting for gestational age.
Mothers who practiced good nutrition such as consuming foods across and within the various food groups were less likely to have low birth weight babies. Our findings buttress the importance of optimal nutrition during pregnancy.
PMCID: PMC5017622  PMID: 27611597
3.  A scoping review on determinants of unmet need for family planning among women of reproductive age in low and middle income countries 
BMC Women's Health  2016;16:2.
Poor access and low contraceptive prevalence are common to many Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs). Unmet need for family planning (FP), defined as the proportion of women wishing to limit or postpone child birth, but not using contraception, has been central to reproductive health efforts for decades and still remains relevant for most policy makers and FP programs in LMICs. There is still a lag in contraceptive uptake across regions resulting in high unmet need due to various socioeconomic and cultural factors. In this mixed method scoping review we analyzed quantitative, qualitative and mixed method studies to summarize those factors influencing unmet need among women in LMICs.
We conducted our scoping review by employing mixed method approach. We included studies applying quantitative and qualitative methods retrieved from online data bases (PubMed, JSTOR, and Google Scholar). We also reviewed the indexes of journals specific to the field of reproductive health by using a set of keywords related to unmet contraception need, and non-contraception use in LMICs.
We retrieved 283 articles and retained 34 articles meeting our inclusion criteria. Of these, 26 were quantitative studies and 8 qualitative studies. We found unmet need for FP to range between 20 % and 58 % in most studies. Woman’s age was negatively associated with total unmet need for FP, meaning as women get older the unmet need for FP decreases. The number of children was found to be a positively associated determinant for a woman’s total unmet need. Also, woman’s level of education was negatively associated – as a woman’s education improves, her total unmet need decreases. Frequently reported reasons for non-contraception use were opposition from husband or husbands fear of infidelity, as well as woman’s fear of side effects or other health concerns related to contraceptive methods.
Factors associated with unmet need for FP and non-contraception use were common across different LMIC settings. This suggests that women in LMICs face similar barriers to FP and that it is still necessary for reproductive health programs to identify FP interventions that more specifically tackle unmet need.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12905-015-0281-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4714507  PMID: 26772591
Unmet need; Contraception use; Family planning; Birth spacing and limiting
4.  Prevalence of abnormal birth weight and related factors in Northern region, Ghana 
Birth weight is a crucial determinant of the development potential of the newborn. Abnormal newborn weights are associated with negative effects on the health and survival of the baby and the mother. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the prevalence of abnormal birth weight and related factors in Northern region, Ghana.
The study was a facility-based cross-sectional survey in five hospitals in Northern region, Ghana. These hospitals were selected based on the different socio-economic backgrounds of their clients. The data on birth weight and other factors were derived from hospital records.
It was observed that low birth weight is still highly prevalent (29.6 %), while macrosomia (10.5 %) is also increasingly becoming important. There were marginal differences in low birth weight observed across public hospitals but marked difference in low birth weight was observed in Cienfuegos Suglo Specialist Hospital (Private hospital) as compared to the public hospitals. The private hospital also had the highest prevalence of macrosomia (20.1 %). Parity (0–1) (p < 0.001), female gender (p < 0.001) and location (rural) (p < 0.001) were significantly associated with decreased risk of macrosomic births. On the other hand, female infant sex (p < 0.001), residential status (rural) (p < 0.001) and parity (0–1) (p < 0.001) were significantly associated with increased risk of low birth weigh.
Our findings show that under nutrition (low birth weight) and over nutrition (macrosomia) coexist among infants at birth in Northern region reflecting the double burden of malnutrition phenomenon, which is currently being experienced by developing and transition counties. Both low birth weight and macrosomia are risk factors, which could contribute considerably to the current and future burden of diseases. This may overstretch the already fragile health system in Ghana. Therefore, it is prudent to recommend that policies aiming at reducing diet related diseases should focus on addressing malnutrition during pregnancy and early life.
PMCID: PMC4681076  PMID: 26670886
Birth weight; Macrosomia; Low birth weight; Prevalence and malnutrition
5.  Understanding home delivery in a context of user fee reduction: a cross-sectional mixed methods study in rural Burkina Faso 
Several African countries have recently reduced/removed user fees for maternal care, producing considerable increases in the utilization of delivery services. Still, across settings, a conspicuous number of women continue to deliver at home. This study explores reasons for home delivery in rural Burkina Faso, where a successful user fee reduction policy is in place since 2007.
The study took place in the Nouna Health District and adopted a triangulation mixed methods design, combining quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis methods. The quantitative component relied on use of data from the 2011 round of a panel household survey conducted on 1130 households. We collected data on utilization of delivery services from all women who had experienced a delivery in the previous twelve months and investigated factors associated with home delivery using multivariate logistic regression. The qualitative component relied on a series of open-ended interviews with 55 purposely selected households and 13 village leaders. We analyzed data using a mixture of inductive and deductive coding.
Of the 420 women who reported a delivery, 47 (11 %) had delivered at home. Random effect multivariate logistic regression revealed a clear, albeit not significant trend for women from a lower socio-economic status and living outside an area to deliver at home. Distance to the health facility was found to be positively significantly associated with home delivery. Qualitative findings indicated that women and their households valued facility-based delivery above home delivery, suggesting that cultural factors do not shape the decision where to deliver. Qualitative findings confirmed that geographical access, defined in relation to the condition of the roads and the high transaction costs associated with travel, and the cost-sharing fees still applied at point of use represent two major barriers to access facility-based delivery.
Findings suggest that the current policy in Burkina Faso, as similar policies in the region, should be expanded to remove fees at point of use completely and to incorporate benefits/solutions to support the transport of women in labor to the health facility in due time.
PMCID: PMC4676832  PMID: 26653013
User fee removal; Home delivery; Mixed-methods study; Burkina Faso; Sub-Saharan Africa; Facility-based delivery
6.  An insecticide-treated bed-net campaign and childhood malaria in Burkina Faso 
To investigate if the first national insecticide-treated bed-net campaign in Burkina Faso, done in 2010, was followed by a decrease in childhood malaria in a district with high baseline transmission of the disease.
We obtained data on the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia in children aged 2 weeks to 36 months from malaria surveys in 2009 and 2011. We assessed morbidity in children younger than 5 years by comparing data from the Nouna health district’s health management information system before and after the campaign in 2010. We analysed mortality data from 2008 to 2012 from Nouna’s health and demographic surveillance system.
The bed-net campaign was associated with an increase in the reported use of insecticide-treated nets. In 2009, 73% (630/869) of children reportedly slept under nets. In 2011, 92% (449/487) did. The campaign had no effect on the proportion of young children with P. falciparum parasitaemia after the rainy season; 52% (442/858) in 2009 and 53% (263/499) in 2011. Cases of malaria increased markedly after the campaign, as did the number of children presenting with other diseases. The campaign was not associated with any changes in child mortality.
The 2010 insecticide-treated net campaign in Burkina Faso was not associated with a decrease in care-seeking for malaria or all-cause mortality in children younger than 5 years. The most likely explanation is the high coverage of nets in the study area before the campaign which could have had an effect on mosquito vectors, limiting the campaign’s impact.
PMCID: PMC4622154  PMID: 26549902
7.  Maternal Determinants of Birth Weight in Northern Ghana 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(8):e0135641.
Weight at birth is usually considered as an indicator of the health status of a given society. As a result this study was designed to investigate the association between birth weight and maternal factors such as gestational weight gain, pre—pregnancy BMI and socio—economic status in Northern Ghana.
The study was a facility-based cross-sectional survey conducted in two districts in the Northern region of Ghana. These districts were purposively sampled to represent a mix of urban, peri—urban and rural population. The current study included 419 mother-infant pairs who delivered at term (37–42 weeks). Mother’s height, pre-pregnancy weight and weight changes were generated from the antenatal records. Questionnaires were administered to establish socio-economic and demographic information of respondents. Maternal factors associated with birth weight were examined using multiple and univariate regressions.
The mothers were generally well nourished before conception (Underweight 3.82%, Normal 57.76%, Overweight 25.06% and Obesity 13.37%) but approximately half of them could not gain adequate weight according to Institute of Medicine recommendations (Low weight gain 49.64%, Adequate weight gain 42.96% and Excessive weight gain 7.40%). Infants whose mothers had excess weight gain were 431g (95% CI 18–444) heavier compared to those whose mothers gained normal weight, while those whose mothers gained less were 479g (95% CI -682– (-276) lighter. Infants of mothers who were overweight and obese before conception were 246g (95% CI 87–405) and 595g (95% CI 375–815) respectively heavier than those of normal mothers, whereas those whose mothers were underweight were 305g (95% CI -565 –(-44) lighter. The mean birth weight observed was 2.98 ± 0.68 kg.
Our findings show that pre-pregnancy body mass index and weight gain during pregnancy influence birth weight. Therefore, emphasis should be placed on counseling and assisting pregnant women to stay within the recommended weight gain ranges.
PMCID: PMC4539219  PMID: 26281013
8.  Different delivery mechanisms for insecticide-treated nets in rural Burkina Faso: a provider's perspective 
Malaria Journal  2010;9:352.
Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) have been confirmed to be a very effective tool in malaria control. Two different delivery strategies for roll-out of ITN programmes have been the focus of debate in the last years: free distribution and distribution through commercial marketing systems. They are now seen as complementary rather than opponent. Acceptance of these programmes by the community and involved providers is an important aspect influencing their sustainability. This paper looks at how providers perceived, understood and accepted two interventions involving two different delivery strategies (subsidized sales supported by social marketing and free distribution to pregnant women attending antenatal care services).
The interventions took place in one province of north-western Burkina Faso in 2006 in the frame of a large randomized controlled ITN intervention study. For this descriptive qualitative study data were collected through focus group discussions and individual interviews. A total of four focus group discussions and eleven individual interviews have been conducted with the providers of the study interventions.
The free distribution intervention was well accepted and perceived as running well. The health care staff had a positive and beneficial view of the intervention and did not feel overwhelmed by the additional workload. The social marketing intervention was also seen as positive by the rural shopkeepers. However, working in market economy, shopkeepers feared the risk of unsold ITNs, due to the low demand and capacity to pay for the product in the community.
The combination of ITN free distribution and social marketing was in general well accepted by the different providers. However, low purchasing power of clients and the resulting financial insecurities of shopkeepers remain a challenge to ITN social marketing in rural SSA.
PMCID: PMC3003674  PMID: 21129224
9.  Effectiveness of community based safe motherhood promoters in improving the utilization of obstetric care. The case of Mtwara Rural District in Tanzania 
In Tanzania, maternal mortality ratio remains unacceptably high at 578/100,000 live births. Despite a high coverage of antenatal care (96%), only 44% of deliveries take place within the formal health services. Still, "Ensure skilled attendant at birth" is acknowledged as one of the most effective interventions to reduce maternal deaths. Exploring the potential of community-based interventions in increasing the utilization of obstetric care, the study aimed at developing, testing and assessing a community-based safe motherhood intervention in Mtwara rural District of Tanzania.
This community-based intervention was designed as a pre-post comparison study, covering 4 villages with a total population of 8300. Intervention activities were implemented by 50 trained safe motherhood promoters (SMPs). Their tasks focused on promoting early and complete antenatal care visits and delivery with a skilled attendant. Data on all 512 deliveries taking place from October 2004 to November 2006 were collected by the SMPs and cross-checked with health service records. In addition 242 respondents were interviewed with respect to knowledge on safe motherhood issues and their perception of the SMP's performance. Skilled delivery attendance was our primary outcome; secondary outcomes included antenatal care attendance and knowledge on Safe Motherhood issues.
Deliveries with skilled attendant significantly increased from 34.1% to 51.4% (ρ < 0.05). Early ANC booking (4 to 16 weeks) rose significantly from 18.7% at baseline to 37.7% in 2005 and 56.9% (ρ < 0.001) at final assessment. After two years 44 (88%) of the SMPs were still active, 79% of pregnant women were visited. Further benefits included the enhancement of male involvement in safe motherhood issues.
The study has demonstrated the effectiveness of community-based safe motherhood intervention in promoting the utilization of obstetric care and a skilled attendant at delivery. This improvement is attributed to the SMPs' home visits and the close collaboration with existing community structures as well as health services.
PMCID: PMC2858713  PMID: 20359341
10.  A survey on worries of pregnant women - testing the German version of the Cambridge Worry Scale 
BMC Public Health  2009;9:490.
Pregnancy is a transition period in a woman's life characterized by increased worries and anxiety. The Cambridge Worry Scale (CWS) was developed to assess the content and extent of maternal worries in pregnancy. It has been increasingly used in studies over recent years. However, a German version has not yet been developed and validated.
The aim of this study was (1) to assess the extent and content of worries in pregnancy on a sample of women in Germany using a translated and adapted version of the Cambridge Worry Scale, and (2) to evaluate the psychometric properties of the German version.
We conducted a cross-sectional study and enrolled 344 pregnant women in the federal state of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Women filled out structured questionnaires that contained the CWS, the Spielberger-State-Trait-Anxiety Inventory (STAI), as well as questions on their obstetric history. Antenatal records were also analyzed.
The CWS was well understood and easy to fill in. The major worries referred to the process of giving birth (CWS mean value 2.26) and the possibility that something might be wrong with the baby (1.99), followed by coping with the new baby (1.57), going to hospital (1.29) and the possibility of going into labour too early (1.28). The internal consistency of the scale (0.80) was satisfactory, and we found a four-factor structure, similar to previous studies. Tests of convergent validity showed that the German CWS represents a different construct compared with state and trait anxiety but has the desired overlap.
The German CWS has satisfactory psychometric properties. It represents a valuable tool for use in scientific studies and is likely to be useful also to clinicians.
PMCID: PMC2811709  PMID: 20038294
11.  Access to malaria treatment in young children of rural Burkina Faso 
Malaria Journal  2009;8:266.
Effective and timely treatment is an essential aspect of malaria control, but remains a challenge in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of this study was to describe young children's access to malaria treatment in Nouna Health District, Burkina Faso.
In February/March 2006, a survey was conducted in a representative sample of 1,052 households.
Overall 149/1052 (14%) households reported the current possession of anti-malarial medicine, which was significantly associated with urban area, literacy of household head, having young children, and high socio-economic status. Out of a total of 802 children under five years, at least one malaria episode was reported for 239 (30%) within the last month. Overall 95% of children received treatment, either modern (72%), traditional (18%) or mixed (5%). Most of the medicines were provided as home treatment by the caregiver and half of children received some type of modern treatment within 24 hours of the occurrence of first symptoms. Despite a recent policy change to artemisinin-based combination therapy, modern anti-malarials consisted mainly of chloroquine (93%). Modern drugs were obtained more often from a health facility in localities with a health facility compared to those without (60% vs. 25.6%, p < 0.001). In contrast, beside informal providers, volunteer community health workers (CHW) were the main source of modern medicine in localities without a health centre (28% vs. 3%, p < 0.001).
Access to modern health services providing quality controlled effective combination therapies against malaria needs to be strengthened in rural Africa, which should include a re-investigation of the role of CHW 30 years after Alma Ata.
PMCID: PMC2790466  PMID: 19930680
12.  Distribution Systems of Insecticide-Treated Bed Nets for Malaria Control in Rural Burkina Faso: Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial 
PLoS ONE  2008;3(9):e3182.
Insecticide-impregnated bed nets (ITNs) have been shown to be a highly effective tool against malaria in the endemic regions of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). There are however different opinions about the role of ITN social marketing and ITN free distribution in the roll-out of ITN programmes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of free ITN distribution through antenatal care services in addition to an ITN social marketing programme in an area typical for rural SSA.
A cluster-randomised controlled ITN trial took place in the whole Kossi Province in north-western Burkina Faso, an area highly endemic for malaria. Twelve clusters were assigned to long-term ITN (Serena brand) social marketing plus free ITN (Serena brand) distribution to all pregnant women attending governmental antenatal care services (group A), and 13 clusters to ITN social marketing only (group B). The intervention took place during the rainy season of 2006 and thereafter. The trial was evaluated through a representative household survey at baseline and after one year. Serena ITN household ownership was the primary outcome measure.
A total of 1052 households were visited at baseline in February 2006 and 1050 at follow-up in February 2007. Overall Serena ITN household ownership increased from 16% to 28% over the study period, with a significantly higher increase in group A (13% to 35%) than in group B (18% to 23%) (p<0.001).
The free distribution of ITNs to pregnant women through governmental antenatal care services in addition to ITN social marketing substantially improved ITN household ownership in rural Burkina Faso.
Trial registration ISRCTN07985309
PMCID: PMC2527521  PMID: 18784840
13.  Process and effects of a community intervention on malaria in rural Burkina Faso: randomized controlled trial 
Malaria Journal  2008;7:50.
In the rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa, the majority of young children affected by malaria have no access to formal health services. Home treatment through mothers of febrile children supported by mother groups and local health workers has the potential to reduce malaria morbidity and mortality.
A cluster-randomized controlled effectiveness trial was implemented from 2002–2004 in a malaria endemic area of rural Burkina Faso. Six and seven villages were randomly assigned to the intervention and control arms respectively. Febrile children from intervention villages were treated with chloroquine (CQ) by their mothers, supported by local women group leaders. CQ was regularly supplied through a revolving fund from local health centres. The trial was evaluated through two cross-sectional surveys at baseline and after two years of intervention. The primary endpoint of the study was the proportion of moderate to severe anaemia in children aged 6–59 months. For assessment of the development of drug efficacy over time, an in vivo CQ efficacy study was nested into the trial. The study is registered under (ISRCTN 34104704).
The intervention was shown to be feasible under program conditions and a total of 1.076 children and 999 children were evaluated at baseline and follow-up time points respectively. Self-reported CQ treatment of fever episodes at home as well as referrals to health centres increased over the study period. At follow-up, CQ was detected in the blood of high proportions of intervention and control children. Compared to baseline findings, the prevalence of anaemia (29% vs 16%, p < 0.0001) and malaria parameters such as prevalence of P. falciparum parasitaemia, fever and palpable spleens was lower at follow-up but there were no differences between the intervention and control group. CQ efficacy decreased over the study period but this was not associated with the intervention.
The decreasing prevalence of malaria morbidity including anaemia over the study period can be explained by an overall increase of malaria prevention and treatment activities in the study area. The lack of effectiveness of the intervention was likely caused by contamination, pre-existing differences in the coverage of malaria treatment in both study groups and an unexpectedly rapid increase of resistance against CQ, the first-line treatment drug at the time of the study.
PMCID: PMC2287184  PMID: 18364043
14.  Use pattern of maternal health services and determinants of skilled care during delivery in Southern Tanzania: implications for achievement of MDG-5 targets 
Almost two decades since the initiation of the Safe motherhood Initiative, Maternal Mortality is still soaring high in most developing countries. In 2000 WHO estimated a life time risk of a maternal death of 1 in 16 in Sub- Saharan Africa while it was only 1 in 2800 in developed countries. This huge discrepancy in the rate of maternal deaths is due to differences in access and use of maternal health care services. It is known that having a skilled attendant at every delivery can lead to marked reductions in maternal mortality. For this reason, the proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel is one of the indicators used to monitor progress towards the achievement of the MDG-5 of improving maternal health.
Cross sectional study which employed quantitative research methods.
We interviewed 974 women who gave birth within one year prior to the survey. Although almost all (99.8%) attended ANC at least once during their last pregnancy, only 46.7% reported to deliver in a health facility and only 44.5% were assisted during delivery by a skilled attendant. Distance to the health facility (OR = 4.09 (2.72–6.16)), discussion with the male partner on place of delivery (OR = 2.37(1.75–3.22)), advise to deliver in a health facility during ANC (OR = 1.43 (1.25–2.63)) and knowledge of pregnancy risk factors (OR 2.95 (1.65–5.25)) showed significant association with use of skilled care at delivery even after controlling for confounding factors.
Use of skilled care during delivery in this district is below the target set by ICPD + of attaining 80% of deliveries attended by skilled personnel by 2005. We recommend the following in order to increase the pace towards achieving the MDG targets: to improve coverage of health facilities, raising awareness for both men and women on danger signs during pregnancy/delivery and strengthening counseling on facility delivery and individual birth preparedness.
PMCID: PMC2222241  PMID: 18053268
15.  The unmet need for Emergency Obstetric Care in Tanga Region, Tanzania 
Improving maternal health by reducing maternal mortality constitutes the fifth Millennium Development Goal and represents a key public health challenge in the United Republic of Tanzania. In response to the need to evaluate and monitor safe motherhood interventions, this study aims at assessing the coverage of obstetric care according to the Unmet Obstetric Need (UON) concept by obtaining information on indications for, and outcomes of, major obstetric interventions. Furthermore, we explore whether this concept can be operationalised at district level.
A two year study using the Unmet Obstetric Need concept was carried out in three districts in Tanga Region, Tanzania. Data was collected prospectively at all four hospitals in the region for every woman undergoing a major obstetric intervention, including indication and outcome. The concept was adapted to address differentials in access to emergency obstetric care between districts and between rural and urban areas. Based upon literature and expert consensus, a threshold of 2% of all deliveries was used to define the expected minimum requirement of major obstetric interventions performed for absolute maternal indications.
Protocols covering 1,260 complicated deliveries were analysed. The percentage of major obstetric interventions carried out in response to an absolute maternal indication was only 71%; most major obstetric interventions (97%) were caesarean sections. The most frequent indication was cephalo-pelvic-disproportion (51%). The proportion of major obstetric interventions for absolute maternal indications performed amongst women living in urban areas was 1.8% of all deliveries, while in rural areas it was only 0.7%. The high proportion (8.3%) of negative maternal outcomes in terms of morbidity and mortality, as well as the high perinatal mortality of 9.1% (still birth 6.9%, dying within 24 hours 1.7%, dying after 24 hours 0.5%) raise concern about the quality of care being provided.
Based on the 2% threshold, Tanga Region – with an overall level of major obstetric interventions for absolute maternal indications of 1% and a caesarean section rate of 1.4% – has significant unmet obstetric need with a considerable rural-urban disparity. The UON concept was found to be a suitable tool for evaluating and monitoring the coverage of obstetric care at district level.
PMCID: PMC1988833  PMID: 17683590
16.  Knowledge about safe motherhood and HIV/AIDS among school pupils in a rural area in Tanzania 
The majority of adolescents in Africa experience pregnancy, childbirth and enter motherhood without adequate information about maternal health issues. Information about these issues could help them reduce their pregnancy related health risks. Existing studies have concentrated on adolescents' knowledge of other areas of reproductive health, but little is known about their awareness and knowledge of safe motherhood issues. We sought to bridge this gap by assessing the knowledge of school pupils regarding safe motherhood in Mtwara Region, Tanzania.
We used qualitative and quantitative descriptive methods to assess school pupils' knowledge of safe motherhood and HIV/AIDS in pregnancy. An anonymous questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge of 135 pupils ranging in age from 9 to 17 years. The pupils were randomly selected from 3 primary schools. Underlying beliefs and attitudes were assessed through focus group interviews with 35 school children. Key informant interviews were conducted with six schoolteachers, two community leaders, and two health staffs.
Knowledge about safe motherhood and other related aspects was generally low. While 67% of pupils could not mention the age at which a girl may be able to conceive, 80% reported it is safe for a girl to be married before she reaches 18 years. Strikingly, many school pupils believed that complications during pregnancy and childbirth are due to non-observance of traditions and taboos during pregnancy. Birth preparedness, important risk factors, danger signs, postpartum care and vertical transmission of HIV/AIDS and its prevention measures were almost unknown to the pupils.
Poor knowledge of safe motherhood issues among school pupils in rural Tanzania is related to lack of effective and coordinated interventions to address reproductive health and motherhood. For long-term and sustained impact, school children must be provided with appropriate safe motherhood information as early as possible through innovative school-based interventions.
PMCID: PMC1868762  PMID: 17456230
17.  Methylene blue for malaria in Africa: results from a dose-finding study in combination with chloroquine 
Malaria Journal  2006;5:84.
The development of safe, effective and affordable drug combinations against malaria in Africa is a public health priority. Methylene blue (MB) has a similar mode of action as chloroquine (CQ) and has moreover been shown to selectively inhibit the Plasmodium falciparum glutathione reductase. In 2004, an uncontrolled dose-finding study on the combination MB-CQ was performed in 435 young children with uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Burkina Faso (CQ monotherapy had a > 50% clinical failure rate in this area in 2003). Three serious adverse events (SAE) occurred of which one was probably attributable to the study medication. In the per protocol safety analysis, there were no dose specific effects. The overall clinical and parasitological failure rates by day 14 were 10% [95% CI (7.5%, 14.0%)] and 24% [95% CI (19.4%, 28.3%)], respectively. MB appears to have efficacy against malaria, but the combination of CQ-MB is clearly not effective in the treatment of malaria in Africa.
PMCID: PMC1617109  PMID: 17026773
18.  How much time do health services spend on antenatal care? Implications for the introduction of the focused antenatal care model in Tanzania 
Antenatal care (ANC) is a widely used strategy to improve the health of pregnant women and to encourage skilled care during childbirth. In 2002, the Ministry of Health of the United Republic of Tanzania developed a national adaptation plan based on the new model of the World Health Organisation (WHO). In this study we assess the time health workers currently spent on providing ANC services and compare it to the requirements anticipated for the new ANC model in order to identify the implications of Focused ANC on health care providers' workload.
Health workers in four dispensaries in Mtwara Urban District, Southern Tanzania, were observed while providing routine ANC. The time used for the overall activity as well as for the different, specific components of 71 ANC service provisions was measured in detail; 28 of these were first visits and 43 revisits. Standard time requirements for the provision of focused ANC were assessed through simulated consultations based on the new guidelines.
The average time health workers currently spend for providing ANC service to a first visit client was found to be 15 minutes; the provision of ANC according to the focused ANC model was assessed to be 46 minutes. For a revisiting client the difference between current practise and the anticipated standard of the new model was 27 minutes (9 vs. 36 min.). The major discrepancy between the two procedures was related to counselling. On average a first visit client was counselled for 1:30 minutes, while counselling in revisiting clients did hardly take place at all. The simulation of focused ANC revealed that proper counselling would take about 15 minutes per visit.
While the introduction of focused ANC has the potential to improve the health of pregnant women and to raise the number of births attended by skilled staff in Tanzania, it may need additional investment in human resources. The generally anticipated saving effect of the new model through the reduction of routine consultations may not materialise because the number of consultations is already low in Tanzania with a median of only 4 visits per pregnancy. Special attention needs to be given to counselling attitudes and skills during the training for Focused ANC as this component is identified as the major difference between old practise and the new model. Our estimated requirement of 46 minutes per first visit consultation matches well with the WHO estimate of 40 minutes.
PMCID: PMC1557863  PMID: 16796749
19.  Safety of the methylene blue plus chloroquine combination in the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in young children of Burkina Faso [ISRCTN27290841] 
Malaria Journal  2005;4:45.
Safe, effective and affordable drug combinations against falciparum malaria are urgently needed for the poor populations in malaria endemic countries. Methylene blue (MB) combined with chloroquine (CQ) has been considered as one promising new regimen.
The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the safety of CQ-MB in African children with uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Secondary objectives were to assess the efficacy and the acceptance of CQ-MB in a rural population of West Africa.
In this hospital-based randomized controlled trial, 226 children (6–59 months) with uncomplicated falciparum malaria were treated in Burkina Faso. The children were 4:1 randomized to CQ-MB (n = 181; 25 mg/kg CQ and 12 mg/kg MB over three days) or CQ (n = 45; 25 mg/kg over three days) respectively. The primary outcome was the incidence of severe haemolysis or other serious adverse events (SAEs). Efficacy outcomes were defined according to the WHO 2003 classification system. Patients were hospitalized for four days and followed up until day 14.
No differences in the incidence of SAEs and other adverse events were observed between children treated with CQ-MB (including 24 cases of G6PD deficiency) compared to children treated with CQ. There was no case of severe haemolysis and also no significant difference in mean haemoglobin between study groups. Treatment failure rates were 53.7% (95% CI [37.4%; 69.3%]) in the CQ group compared to 44.0% (95% CI [36.3%; 51.9%]) in the CQ-MB group.
MB is safe for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria, even in G6PD deficient African children. However, the efficacy of the CQ-MB combination has not been sufficient at the MB dose used in this study. Future studies need to assess the efficacy of MB at higher doses and in combination with appropriate partner drugs.
PMCID: PMC1262758  PMID: 16179085
20.  Malaria and anemia prevention in pregnant women of rural Burkina Faso 
Pregnant women are a major risk group for malaria in endemic areas. Only little information exists on the compliance of pregnant women with malaria and anaemia preventive drug regimens in the rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). In this study, we collected information on malaria and anaemia prevention behaviour in pregnant women of rural Burkina Faso.
Cross-sectional qualitative and quantitative survey among 225 women of eight villages in rural northwestern Burkina Faso. Four of the villages had a health centre offering antenatal care (ANC) services while the other four were more than five kilometers away from a health centre.
Overall ANC coverage (at least one visit) was 71% (95% in health centre villages vs 50% in remote villages). Malaria and anaemia were considered as the biggest problems during pregnancy in this community. ANC using women were quite satisfied with the quality of services, and compliance with malaria and anaemia prevention regimens (chloroquine and iron/folic acid) was high in this population. Knowledge on the benefit of bed nets and good nutrition was less prominent. Distance, lack of money and ignorance were the main reasons for women to not attend ANC services.
There is an urgent need to improve access of rural SSA women to ANC services, either through increasing the number of rural health centres or establishing functioning outreach services. Moreover, alternative malaria and anaemia prevention programmes such as intermittent preventive treatment with effective antimalarials and the distribution of insecticide-treated bed nets need to become implemented on a large scale.
PMCID: PMC516443  PMID: 15333138

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