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1.  The Effect of Omega-3 Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation on Gestational Length: Randomized Trial of Supplementation Compared to Nutrition Education for Increasing n-3 Intake from Foods 
BioMed Research International  2015;2015:123078.
Objective. DHA supplementation was compared to nutrition education to increase DHA consumption from fish and DHA fortified foods. Design. This two-part intervention included a randomized double-blind placebo controlled DHA supplementation arm and a nutrition education arm designed to increase intake of DHA from dietary sources by 300 mg per day. Setting. Denver Health Hospitals and Clinics, Denver, Colorado, USA. Population. 871 pregnant women aged 18–40 were recruited between16 and 20 weeks of gestation of whom 564 completed the study and complete delivery data was available in 505 women and infants. Methods. Subjects received either 300 or 600 mg DHA or olive oil placebo or nutrition education. Main Outcome Variable. Gestational length. Results. Gestational length was significantly increased by 4.0–4.5 days in women supplemented with 600 mg DHA per day or provided with nutrition education. Each 1% increase in RBC DHA at delivery was associated with a 1.6-day increase in gestational length. No significant effects on birth weight, birth length, or head circumference were demonstrated. The rate of early preterm birth (1.7%) in those supplemented with DHA (combined 300 and 600 mg/day) was significantly lower than in controls. Conclusion. Nutrition education or supplementation with DHA can be effective in increasing gestational length.
doi:10.1155/2015/123078
PMCID: PMC4564584  PMID: 26413500
3.  Infection and inflammation 
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth  2012;12(Suppl 1):A8.
doi:10.1186/1471-2393-12-S1-A8
PMCID: PMC3428672
4.  Pathogenesis to Treatment: Preventing Preterm Birth Mediated by Infection 
Prevention of preterm birth and subsequent newborn immaturity is a primary goal of obstetrical care worldwide. Accumulated evidence shows that 1) as many as 25–50% of preterm births are caused by common genital tract infections and subsequent maternal/fetal inflammatory responses; 2) microbial and maternal host factors (phospholipases, proteases, etc.) play roles in preterm labor and preterm premature rupture of membranes (pPROM); 3) integrated aspects of maternal and fetal host responses (inflammation, altered immune adaptations, endocrine and paracrine mechanisms) play increasingly understood roles in premature activation of parturition; and 4) identification and systemic treatment of common genitourinary infections, most importantly bacterial vaginosis (BV), reduce the risks of preterm delivery and PROM.
doi:10.1155/S1064744997000173
PMCID: PMC2364559  PMID: 18476162
5.  Trichomonas vaginalis Weakens Human Amniochorion in an In Vitro Model of Premature Membrane Rupture 
Objective: Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) infection is associated with preterm rupture of membranes (PROM) and preterm birth. We evaluated the effects of TV growth and metabolism on preparations of human amniochorion to understand and characterize how TV may impair fetal-membrane integrity and predispose to PROM and preterm birth.
Methods: Term fetal membranes were evaluated using an established in vitro fetal-membrane model. Fresh TV clinical isolates were obtained from pregnant women. The protozoa (5.0×105 to 1.5×106/ml) were incubated with fetal membranes in modified Diamond's medium for 20 h at 37°C in 5% CO2.The effects of fetal-membrane strength (bursting tension, work to rupture, and elasticity) were measured using a calibrated Wheatstone-bridge dynamometer. Tests were also performed to evaluate the effects of 1) inoculum size; 2) metronidazole (50 μg/ml); and 3) cell-free filtrate.
Results: The TV-induced membrane effects were 1) isolate variable; 2) inoculum dependent; 3) incompletely protected by metronidazole; and 4) mediated by both live organisms as well as protozoan-free culture filtrates. Six of 9 isolates significantly reduced the calculated work to rupture (P ≤ 0.02); 7 of 9 reduced bursting tension; and 1 of 9 reduced elasticity. One isolate significantly increased the work to rupture and bursting tension (P ≤ 0.002).
Conclusions: In vitro incubation of fetal membranes with TV can significantly impair the measures of fetal-membrane strength. This model may be used to delineate the mechanisms of TV-induced membrane damage. This study suggests that there are enzyme-specific effects as well as pH effects.
doi:10.1155/S1064744995000160
PMCID: PMC2364407  PMID: 18475407

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