Inflammation is essential for host defense but can cause tissue damage and organ failure if unchecked. How the inflammation is resolved remains elusive. Here we report that the transcription factor Miz1 was required for terminating lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation. Genetic disruption of the Miz1 POZ domain, which is essential for its transactivation or repression activity, resulted in hyper-inflammation, lung injury and increased mortality in LPS-treated mice while reduced bacterial load and mortality in mice with Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia. Loss of the Miz1 POZ domain prolonged pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. Upon stimulation, Miz1 was phosphorylated at Ser178, which is required for recruiting histone deacetylase 1 to repress transcription of C/EBP-δ, an amplifier of inflammation. Our data provide a long-sought mechanism underlying resolution of LPS-induced inflammation.
The role of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in human colon cancer (CC) remains controversial: high densities of tumor-infiltrating Tregs can correlate with better or worse clinical outcomes depending on the study. In mouse models of cancer, Tregs have been reported to suppress inflammation and protect the host, suppress T cells and protect the tumor, or even have direct cancer-promoting attributes. These different effects may result from the presence of different Treg subsets. We report the preferential expansion of a Treg subset in human CC with potent T cell–suppressive, but compromised anti-inflammatory, properties; these cells are distinguished from Tregs present in healthy donors by their coexpression of Foxp3 and RORγt. Tregs with similar attributes were found to be expanded in mouse models of hereditary polyposis. Indeed, ablation of the RORγt gene in Foxp3+ cells in polyp-prone mice stabilized Treg anti-inflammatory functions, suppressed inflammation, improved polyp-specific immune surveillance, and severely attenuated polyposis. Ablation of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-23, IL-17, or tumor necrosis factor–α in polyp-prone mice reduced polyp number but not to the same extent as loss of RORγt. Surprisingly, loss of IL-17A had a dual effect: IL-17A–deficient mice had fewer polyps but continued to have RORγt+ Tregs and developed invasive cancer. Thus, we conclude that RORγt has a central role in determining the balance between protective and pathogenic Tregs in CC and that Treg subtype regulates inflammation, potency of immune surveillance, and severity of disease outcome.
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) and T helper (Th) cells share similar effector functions. In this issue of Immunity, Hoyler et al. (2012) and Mjosberg et al. (2012) demonstrate that GATA-3, a Th2 regulator, controls ILC2 differentiation, maintenance, and function.
Musical rhythm perception is a natural human ability that involves complex cognitive processes. Rhythm refers to the organization of events in time, and musical rhythms have an underlying hierarchical metrical structure. The metrical structure induces the feeling of a beat and the extent to which a rhythm induces the feeling of a beat is referred to as its metrical strength. Binary ratios are the most frequent interval ratio in musical rhythms. Rhythms with hierarchical binary ratios are better discriminated and reproduced than rhythms with hierarchical non-binary ratios. However, it remains unclear whether a superiority of serial binary over non-binary ratios in rhythm perception and reproduction exists. In addition, how different types of serial ratios influence the metrical strength of rhythms remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated serial binary vs. non-binary ratios in a reproduction task. Rhythms formed with exclusively binary (1:2:4:8), non-binary integer (1:3:5:6), and non-integer (1:2.3:5.3:6.4) ratios were examined within a constant meter. The results showed that the 1:2:4:8 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 and 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm types, and the 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 rhythm type. Further analyses showed that reproduction performance was better predicted by the distribution pattern of event occurrences within an inter-beat interval, than by the coincidence of events with beats, or the magnitude and complexity of interval ratios. Whereas rhythm theories and empirical data emphasize the role of the coincidence of events with beats in determining metrical strength and predicting rhythm performance, the present results suggest that rhythm processing may be better understood when the distribution pattern of event occurrences is taken into account. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms underlining musical rhythm perception.
music; rhythm; binary; ratio; beat; distribution pattern
An anatomical supra-condylar plate is designed and analysed by biomechanical testing.
The biomechanical properties of the supra-condylar and condylar plate were compared in six matched pairs of cadaveric femurs. A transverse osteotomy gap was created to simulate an OTA/AO type A3 supracondylar fracture. The left and right specimens were fitted with supra-condylar and condylar plate, respectively. Nondestructive axial compression, three-point bending and torsion tests were performed, and the peak load of the bone-implant construction was measured. The fracture site suitable for supra-condylar plate application and its correlation with femoral length were calculated. The gender influence on it was also discussed.
The difference of stiffness between the supra-condylar and condyle groups were not significant (P > 0.05) at 363.4 and 362.5 N/mm for compression, 229.5 and 237.6 N/mm in the sagittal plane and 195.5 and 188.4 N/mm in the coronal plane for three-point bending, and 7.5 and 7.9 Nm/deg for axial torsion, respectively. The peak load was 4438 ± 136.15 N and 5215 ± 174.33 N, respectively, for the two groups. The average extent of the fracture site suitable for the application of the supra-condylar plate was 70.86 ± 4.61 mm. The femoral length and gender showed no influence on it.
Despite the limited bone contact area provided by the supra-condylar plate, its construct stiffness is comparable to the condylar plate. The supra-condylar plate can be used to treat carefully-selected extra-articular supracondylar fractures.
Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological characteristics, prognosis, pathology, and differential diagnosis of LPM by analyzing our experience and reviewed relevant literature. We also postulated the necessity of postoperative adjuvant therapy. Methods: 19 patients with LPM underwent surgical treatment from 2007 through 2010 in our department. The clinical charts of the patients, including surgical, histological, and follow-up records, as well as imaging studies, were analyzed retrospectively. Other 43 cases searched from the literature were also included, so that 62 LPM cases were summarized and reviewed together. Results: The summarized 62 patients comprised 30 males and 31 females aged 9 years to 79 years (40.7±18.3 years). The most common locations were convexity, skull base, para-sagittal and cervical canal. Multiple or diffuse lesions were found in 8 cases. There were 13 patients had peripheral blood abnormalities (21%). One-third of the cases had moderate to severe peritumoral brain edema. Thirty-eight patients had total resection, 12 patients not specified while 12 received subtotal resection or only biopsy. MIB-1 was available in 24 cases and a third of them were higher than 3%. Follow-up more than 3 year was only completed in 19/62 cases. Seven cases suffered recurrence and two of them died after 2 years of operation. Conclusion: LPM is a very rare benign variant of intracranial meningioma. Both lesions and hematological abnormalities have a predilection for younger individuals. Preoperative diagnosis of this subtype of meningioma is still difficult. Surgical resection is the primary treatment option, and supportive care for those not totally removed is very important, because the recurrence rate for this subtype is rather low. However, the massive infiltration of lymphocytes and plasma cells in LPMs are still controversial and the long-term follow-ups are needed. Radiotherapy is not recommended, and hormonal or immune-inhibitor therapy might be helpful.
Diagnosis; differential diagnosis; edema; lymphoplasmacyte-rich meningioma; prognosis
The association between rs13387042 polymorphism on 2q35 and breast cancer (BC) has been widely evaluated since it was first identified through genome-wide association approach. However, the results have been inconclusive. To investigate this inconsistency, we performed a meta-analysis of all available studies dealing with the relationship between the 2q35-rs13387042 polymorphism and BC.
Databases including MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, ISI web of science and CNKI (China National Knowledge Infrastructure) were searched to find relevant studies. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of association. The random-effects model was applied, addressing heterogeneity and publication bias.
A total of 24 articles involving 99,772 cases and 164,985 controls were included. In a combined analysis, the summary per-allele odds ratio (OR) for BC of 2q35-rs13387042 polymorphism was 1.13 (95% CI: 1.11–1.16; P<10−5). Significant associations were also detected under co-dominant, dominant and recessive genetic models. In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, significantly increased risks were found in Asians, Caucasians and Hispanic whites for the polymorphism in all comparisons; whereas no significant associations were found among Africans. In addition, we find 2q35-rs13387042 polymorphism conferred significantly risks for both ER-positive and ER-negative tumors. Furthermore, significant associations were also detected both in PR–positive and PR–negative cancer.
Our findings demonstrated that rs13387042-A allele is a risk-conferring factors for the development of BC, especially in Asians, Caucasians and Hispanic whites.
Recurrence and progression to higher grade lesions are characteristic behaviorsof gliomas. Though IDH1 mutation frequently occurs and is considered as an early event in gliomagenesis, little is known about its role in the recurrence and progression of gliomas. We therefore analysed IDH1 and IDH2 statusat codon 132 of IDH1 and codon 172 of IDH2 by direct sequencing and anti-IDH1-R132H immunohistochemistry in 53 paired samples and their recurrences, including 29 low- grade gliomas, 16 anaplastic gliomas and 8 Glioblastomas. IDH1/IDH2 mutation was detected in 32 primarytumors, with 25 low- grade gliomas and 6 anaplastic gliomas harboring IDH1 mutation and 1 low- grade glioma harboring IDH2 mutation. All of the paired tumors showed consistent IDH1 and IDH2 status. Patients were analyzed according to IDH1 status and tumor-related factors. Malignant progression at recurrence was noted in 22 gliomas and was not associated with IDH1 mutation. Survival analysis revealed patients with IDH1 mutated gliomas had a significantly longer progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). In conclusion, this study demonstrated a strong tendency of IDH1/IDH2 status being consistent during progression of glioma. IDH1 mutation was not a predictive marker for malignant progression and it was a potential prognostic marker for gliomas of Chinese patients.
The throat is an ecological assemblage involved human cells and microbiota, and the colonizing bacteria are important factors in balancing this environment. However, this bacterial community profile has thus been poorly investigated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the microbial biology of the larynx and to analyze the throat biodiversity in laryngeal carcinoma patients compared to a control population in a case-control study. Barcoded pyrosequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA gene was used. We collected tissue samples from 29 patients with laryngeal carcinoma and 31 control patients with vocal cord polyps. The findings of high-quality sequence datasets revealed 218 genera from 13 phyla in the laryngeal mucosa. The predominant communities of phyla in the larynx were Firmicutes (54%), Fusobacteria (17%), Bacteroidetes (15%), Proteobacteria (11%), and Actinobacteria (3%). The leading genera were Streptococcus (36%), Fusobacterium (15%), Prevotella (12%), Neisseria (6%), and Gemella (4%). The throat bacterial compositions were highly different between laryngeal carcinoma subjects and control population (p = 0.006). The abundance of the 26 genera was significantly different between the laryngeal cancer and control groups by metastats analysis (p<0.05). Fifteen genera may be associated with laryngeal carcinoma by partial least squares discriminant analysis (p<0.001). In summary, this study revealed the microbiota profiles in laryngeal mucosa from tissue specimens. The compositions of bacteria community in throat were different between laryngeal cancer patients and controls, and probably were related with this carcinoma. The disruption of this bio-ecological niche might be a risk factor for laryngeal carcinoma.
Cancer stem-like side population (SP) cells have been identified in many solid tumors; however, most of these investigations are performed using established cancer cell lines. Cancer cells in tumor tissue containing fibroblasts and many other types of cells are much more complex than any cancer cell line. Although SP cells were identified in the laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) cell line Hep-2 in our pilot study, it is unknown whether the LSCC tissue contains SP cells. In this study, LSCC cells (LSCCs) were primary cultured and purified from a surgically resected LSCC specimen derived from a well-differentiated epiglottic neoplasm of a Chinese male. This was followed by the verification of epithelium-specific characteristics, such as ultrastructure and biomarkers. A distinct SP subpopulation (4.45±1.07%) was isolated by Hoechst 33342 efflux analysis from cultured LSCCs by using a flow cytometer. Cancer stem cell (CSC)-associated assays, including expression of self-renewal and CSC marker genes, proliferation, differentiation, spheroid formation, chemotherapy resistance, and tumorigenicity were then conducted between SP and non-SP (NSP) LSCCs. In vitro and in vivo assays revealed that SP cells manifested preferential expression of self-renewal and CSC marker genes, higher capacity for proliferation, differentiation, and spheroid formation; enhanced resistance to chemotherapy; and greater xenograft tumorigenicity in immunodeficient mice compared with NSP cells. These findings suggest that the primary cultured and purified LSCCs contain cancer stem-like SP cells, which may serve as a valuable model for CSC research in LSCC.
Dynamic thermal management techniques employ a set of on-chip thermal sensors to measure runtime thermal behavior of microprocessors so as to prevent the on-set of high temperatures. Therefore, effective analysis of thermal behavior and determination of the best allocation and placement of thermal sensors directly impact the effectiveness of the dynamic thermal management mechanisms. In this paper, we propose systematic and effective techniques for determining the fewest number of thermal sensors and the optimal locations based on dual clustering to provide a high fidelity thermal monitoring. Initially, we utilize the dual clustering algorithm to devise method that can reduce the number of sensors to a great extent while satisfying an expected accuracy. Then we identify an optimal physical location for each sensor such that the sensor’s attraction towards steep thermal gradient is maximized. Experimental results indicate the superiority of our techniques and confirm that our proposed methods are capable of creating a sensor distribution for a given microprocessor architecture using the number of thermal sensors of 2, 8, 15, 24, 35, depending on different expected hot spot temperature error accuracy of 5%, 4%, 3%, 2%, 1%, respectively.
Dynamic thermal management; Thermal sensors; Allocation; Placement; Dual clustering; Thermal gradient
TH17 cells constitute a pro-inflammatory CD4+ T-cell subset that is important for microbial clearance, but also are implicated as propagators of various autoimmune pathologies. Evidence suggests that TH17 cells share common progenitors with immunosuppressive CD4+ inducible regulatory T-cells (iTREG), and that the developmental pathways of these two subsets are reciprocally regulated. In this study, we show evidence that the Src-family tyrosine kinase Fyn helps regulate this TH17/TREG balance. When placed under TH17-skewing conditions, CD4+ T-cells from fyn−/− mice had decreased levels of IL17, but increased expression of the TREG transcription factor Foxp3. The defect in IL17 expression occurred independently of the ectopic Foxp3 expression, and correlated with a delay in RORγt upregulation and an inability to maintain normal STAT3 activation. Fyn-deficient TH17 cells also exhibited delayed upregulation of Il23r, Il21, Rora, and Irf4, as well as aberrant expression of Socs3, suggesting that Fyn may function upstream of a variety of molecular pathways that contribute to TH17 polarization. The fyn−/− mice had fewer IL17+CD4+ T-cells in the large intestinal lamina propria compared to littermate controls. Furthermore, after transfer of either WT or fyn−/− naïve CD4+ T-cells into Rag1−/− hosts, recipients receiving fyn−/− cells had fewer IL17-producing T-cells, indicating that Fyn may also regulate TH17 differentiation in vivo. These results identify Fyn as a possible novel regulator of the developmental balance between the TH17 and TREG cell subsets.
BACKGROUND & AIMS
Obesity-related insulin resistance contributes to cardiovascular disease. Cannabinoid receptor-1 (CB1) blockade improves insulin sensitivity in obese animals and people, suggesting endocannabinoid involvement. We explored the role of hepatic CB1 in insulin resistance and inhibition of insulin signaling pathways.
Wild-type mice and mice with disruption of CB1 (CB1−/− mice) or with hepatocyte-specific deletion or transgenic overexpression of CB1 were maintained on regular chow or a high-fat diet (HFD) to induce obesity and insulin resistance. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp analysis was used to analyze the role of the liver and hepatic CB1 in HFD-induced insulin resistance. The cellular mechanisms of insulin resistance were analyzed in mouse and human isolated hepatocytes using small interfering or short hairpin RNAs and lentiviral knockdown of gene expression.
The HFD induced hepatic insulin resistance in wild-type mice, but not in CB1−/− mice or mice with hepatocyte-specific deletion of CB1. CB1−/− mice that overexpressed CB1 specifically in hepatocytes became hyperinsulinemic as a result of reduced insulin clearance due to down-regulation of the insulin-degrading enzyme. However, they had increased hepatic glucose production due to increased glycogenolysis, indicating hepatic insulin resistance; this was further increased by the HFD. In mice with hepatocytes that express CB1, the HFD or CB1 activation induced the endoplasmic reticulum stress response via activation of the Bip-PERK-eIF2α protein translation pathway. In hepatocytes isolated from human or mouse liver, CB1 activation caused endoplasmic reticulum stress-dependent suppression of insulin-induced phosphorylation of akt-2 via phosphorylation of IRS1 at serine-307 and by inducing the expression of the serine and threonine phosphatase Phlpp1. Expression of CB1 was up-regulated in samples from patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
Endocannabinoids contribute to diet-induced insulin resistance in mice via hepatic CB1-mediated inhibition of insulin signaling and clearance.
NASH; Signal Transduction; Mouse Model; Liver Disease
Aqueous three-phase surfactant systems (A3PS) are important, multicomponent, stable three-phase equilibria with coexisting forms in a common colloid solution, but have been largely ignored regarding further characterization and application. Mixing simple, commercially available, single-tailed anionic/nonionic or anionic/cationic surfactants in water can spontaneously produce stable A3PS with coexisting multiscale self-assembled structures including discs, lamellas, micelles and vesicles. As with conventional aqueous two-phase systems (A2PS), A3PS can be applied in partition and extraction processes. Here, the A3PS was also used as a mild media for one-step synthesis of multiscale CdS nanowires. Particularly, the A3PS does not change and simultaneously separates the CdS nanowires with the comparable size in one phase, which provides a facile strategy for collection of monodisperse nanomaterials. We expect that this present work can expand recognition of A3PS for use in theoretical and applied studies.
A pulsed laser engineering approach is developed to prepare novel functional graphene paper with graphitic nanospheres homogeneously decorated on the surface and the superior performance of engineered paper is revealed in matrix-free mass spectrometry (MS) detection and imaging. We demonstrate that the stability of graphene paper under intense irradiation can be dramatically increased through a designed laser engineering process by forming densely packed graphitic nanospheres on the paper surface. Moreover, the surface hydrophobicity is enhanced and electric conductivity is improved. The engineered graphene paper can image the invisible micro-patterns of trace amount molecules and increases the detection limit towards diverse molecules by over two orders of magnitude compared to the pristine graphene paper and commercial products in MS analysis.
The prognosis for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is poor, and the mechanisms underlying the development of HCC remain unclear. Notch1 and Notch3 may be involved in malignant transformation, although their roles remain unknown.
Materials and Methods
HCC tissues were stained with anti-Notch1 or -Notch3 antibody. The migration and invasion capacities of the cells were measured with transwell cell culture chambers. RT-PCR was used to measure the expression of Notch1 and Notch3 mRNA. Additionally, western blot analysis was used to assess the protein expression of Notch1, Notch3, CD44v6, E-cadherin, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9, and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA). RNA interference was used to down-regulate the expression of Notch1 and Notch3. Cell viability was assessed using MTT.
Based on immunohistochemistry, high Notch1 expression was correlated with tumor size, tumor grade, metastasis, venous invasion and AJCC TNM stage. High Notch3 expression was only strongly correlated with metastasis, venous invasion and satellite lesions. Kaplan-Meier curves demonstrated that patients with high Notch1 or Notch3 expression were at a significantly increased risk for shortened survival time. In vitro, the down-regulation of Notch1 decreased the migration and invasion capacities of HCC cells by regulating CD44v6, E-cadherin, MMP-2, MMP-9, and uPA via the COX-2 and ERK1/2 pathways. Down-regulation of Notch3 only decreased the invasion capacity of HCC cells by regulating MMP-2 and MMP-9 via the ERK1/2 pathway.
Based on the migration and invasion of HCC, we hypothesize that targeting Notch1 may be more useful than Notch3 for designing novel preventive and therapeutic strategies for HCC in the near future.
Secretory meningioma (SM) is a rare, benign subtype of meningioma. Between January 2005 and December 2010, 70 SMs were operated on at the Department of Neurosurgery, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data, radiological and immunohistochemical findings, and patient outcome to discuss the specific features of SMs. Cranial base preference, hyper-signal in T2 weighted MR image, “xenon light” gadolinium-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) enhancement were frequently observed in the 70 cases. Non-skull base SMs, which received more complete resection (p<0.01) and had better short-term and long-term outcome, were observed with more severe peritumoral brain edema (PTBE) (p<0.001). In follow-up, only 1 cranial base SM case showed tumor progression. 3 cases died after operation, all with cranial base SMs. As for the 10 cases given Simpson grade 3 or 4 resection who were available at follow-up, 3 died, 5 received gamma-knife therapy, and the other 2 cases received no treatment at all. Only one of the 2 residual SMs without postoperative radiation presented minor progression at a median of 48 months follow-up. In conclusion, cranial base preference, hyper-signal T2 weighted MR image and “xenon light” GD-DTPA enhancement are specific for SMs. Prognosis of SMs is related with operation completeness and surgical risks, rather than the extent of PTBE. Residual SM grows slowly and reacts well to gamma-knife therapy.
Location; prognosis; radiology; secretory meningiomas
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) expressing the nuclear receptor RORγt are essential for gut immunity presumably through production of interleukin (IL)-22. The molecular mechanism underlying the development of RORγt+ ILCs is poorly understood. Here, we have shown that the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr) plays an essential role in RORγt+ ILC maintenance and function. Expression of Ahr in the hematopoietic compartment was important for accumulation of adult but not fetal intestinal RORγt+ ILCs. Without Ahr, RORγt+ ILCs had increased apoptosis and less production of IL-22. RORγt interacted with Ahr and promoted Ahr binding at the Il22 locus. Upon IL-23 stimulation, Ahr-deficient RORγt+ ILCs had reduced IL-22 expression, consistent with downregulation of IL-23R in those cells. Ahr-deficient mice succumbed to Citrobacter rodentium infection, while ectopic expression of IL-22 protected animals from early mortality. Our data uncover a previously unrecognized physiological role for Ahr in promoting innate gut immunity by regulating RORγt+ ILCs.
Ahr; RORγt+ILCs; IL-22; Citrobacter rodentium infection
The aim of the present study was to discuss the clinical features of intracranial vestibular schwannomas and to evaluate the symptoms and signs as well as their correlation with tumor extension. The records of 1,009 patients who were treated in Shanghai Huashan Hospital were reviewed retrospectively. According to the Samii classification of 1997, the patients were grouped into a T3 and a T4 group based on the radiological findings. We focused our analysis on the incidence of subjective disturbances versus objective morbidity, and symptomatology versus tumor size and extension. Of the 1,009 cases, 424 patients (42.0%) were defined as T3 while 585 patients (58%) were defined as T4. The most frequent clinical symptoms were hearing loss (85.8%), facial numbness (48.9%), ataxia (44.6%), tinnitus (40.1%), deafness (26.3%) and facial paralysis (21.1%). The ratios of gender, vertigo and facial paralysis were significantly different between the T3 and T4 groups (P<0.05); however, none of the clinical symptoms had a positive likelihood ratio (PLR) greater than 10 for T4 prediction. The most frequent cranial nerve disturbance was associated with the cochlear nerve (92.6%) and trigeminal nerve (53.5%). Disturbance of the facial nerve was more severe in T3 than T4 patients (P<0.05). Hearing deficit, facial paresthesia, ataxia and tinnitus are key symptoms of huge vestibular schwannomas. Cochlear, trigeminal and facial nerves were the most commonly affected cranial nerves in cases of large tumors. Gender and tumor size were associated with tumor extension. Although the predictive value was limited, the symptoms of vertigo, facial paralysis and hearing loss may be indicators of tumor growth.
vestibular schwannomas; clinical feature; alarm feature; tumor growth
It has been proven that radioactive seeds such as Iodine-125 seeds implantation is a highly effective treatment for patients with localized cancer, such as lung cancer. It may increase the effectiveness of cryosurgery for lung cancer with the combination of Iodine-125 seed implantation into edge of the cryoablation zone. Percutaneous cryosurgery and Iodine-125 seed implantation are mutual complementation; both have been proved to be safe and effective modality for unresectable lung cancer, especially for centrally located lung cancer. Well-designed, randomized and control study both in the laboratory and in the clinical about this option are needed before the conclusive evidence submits.
Lung cancer; cryosurgery; cryoablation; Iodine-125 seeds
Zinc distributes widely in the central nervous system, especially in the hippocampus, amygdala and cortex. The dynamic balance of zinc is critical for neuronal functions. Zinc modulates the activity of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) through the direct inhibition and various intracellular signaling pathways. Abnormal NMDAR activities have been implicated in the aetiology of many brain diseases. Sustained zinc accumulation in the extracellular fluid is known to link to pathological conditions. However, the mechanism linking this chronic zinc exposure and NMDAR dysfunction is poorly understood.
We reported that chronic zinc exposure reduced the numbers of NR1 and NR2A clusters in cultured hippocampal pyramidal neurons. Whole-cell and synaptic NR2A-mediated currents also decreased. By contrast, zinc did not affect NR2B, suggesting that chronic zinc exposure specifically influences NR2A-containg NMDARs. Surface biotinylation indicated that zinc exposure attenuated the membrane expression of NR1 and NR2A, which might arise from to the dissociation of the NR2A-PSD-95-Src complex.
Chronic zinc exposure perturbs the interaction of NR2A to PSD-95 and causes the disorder of NMDARs in hippocampal neurons, suggesting a novel action of zinc distinct from its acute effects on NMDAR activity.
A great number of studies regarding the associations between IL-1B-511, IL-1B+3954 and IL-1RN VNTR polymorphisms within the IL-1gene cluster and coronary heart disease (CHD) have been published. However, results have been inconsistent. In this study, a meta-analysis was performed to investigate the associations.
Published literature from PubMed and Embase databases were searched for eligible publications. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random- or fixed- effect model.
Thirteen studies (3,219 cases/2,445 controls) for IL-1B-511 polymorphism, nine studies (1,828 cases/1,818 controls) for IL-1B+3954 polymorphism and twelve studies (2,987 cases/ 2,208 controls) for IL-1RN VNTR polymorphism were included in this meta analysis. The results indicated that both IL-1B-511 and IL-1B+3954 polymorphisms were not associated with CHD risk (IL-1B-511 T vs. C: OR = 0.98, 95%CI 0.87–1.09; IL-1B+3954 T vs. C: OR = 1.06, 95%CI 0.95–1.19). Similarly, there was no association between IL-1RN VNTR polymorphism and CHD risk (*2 vs. L: OR = 1.00, 95%CI 0.85–1.17).
This meta-analysis suggested that there were no associations between IL-1 gene cluster polymorphisms and CHD.
Depolarization-induced suppression of excitation (DSE) at parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapse is an endocannabinoid-mediated short-term retrograde plasticity. Intracellular Ca2+ elevation is critical for the endocannabinoid production and DSE. Nevertheless, how elevated Ca2+ leads to DSE is unclear.
We utilized cytosolic phospholipase A2 alpha (cPLA2α) knock-out mice and whole-cell patch clamp in cerebellar slices to observed the action of cPLA2α/arachidonic acid signaling on DSE at parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapse. Our data showed that DSE was significantly inhibited in cPLA2α knock-out mice, which was rescued by arachidonic acid. The degradation enzyme of 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), blocked DSE, while another catabolism enzyme for N-arachidonoylethanolamine (AEA), fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), did not affect DSE. These results suggested that 2-AG is responsible for DSE in Purkinje cells. Co-application of paxilline reversed the blockade of DSE by internal K+, indicating that large conductance Ca2+-activated potassium channel (BK) is sufficient to inhibit cPLA2α/arachidonic acid-mediated DSE. In addition, we showed that the release of 2-AG was independent of soluble NSF attachment protein receptor (SNARE), protein kinase C and protein kinase A.
Our data first showed that cPLA2α/arachidonic acid/2-AG signaling pathway mediates DSE at parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapse.
Utilizing somatic cell nuclear transfer, the authors demonstrate the generation of a transgenic miniature pig model of retinitis pigmentosa. These pigs demonstrate a clinical phenotype similar to that observed in humans and may represent a novel tool for study of hereditary retinal degeneration.
The Pro23His (P23H) rhodopsin (RHO) mutation underlies the most common form of human autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP). The objective of this investigation was to establish a transgenic miniature swine model of RP using the human P23H RHO gene.
Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) was used to create transgenic miniature pigs that expressed the human P23H RHO mutation. From these experiments, six transgenic founders were identified whose retinal function was studied with full-field electroretinography (ffERG) from 3 months through 2 years. Progeny from one founder were generated and genotyped to determine transgene inheritance pattern. Retinal mRNA was isolated, and the ratio of P23H to wild-type pig RHO was measured.
A single transgene integration site was observed for five of the six founders. All founders had abnormal scotopic and photopic ffERGs after 3 months. The severity of the ffERG phenotype was grouped into moderately and severely affected groups. Offspring of one founder inherited the transgene as an autosomal dominant mutation. mRNA analyses demonstrated that approximately 80% of total RHO was mutant P23H.
Expression of the human RHO P23H transgene in the retina creates a miniature swine model with an inheritance pattern and retinal function that mimics adRP. This large-animal model can serve as a novel tool for the study of the pathogenesis and therapeutic intervention in the most common form of adRP.