Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) is a multifunctional receptor involved in receptor-mediated endocytosis and cell signaling. The aim of this study was to elucidate the expression and mechanism of LRP1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
LRP1 expression in 4 HCC cell lines and 40 HCC samples was detected. After interruption of LRP1 expression in a HCC cell line either with specific lentiviral-mediated shRNA LRP1 or in the presence of the LRP1-specific chaperone, receptor-associated protein (RAP), the role of LRP1 in the migration and invasion of HCC cells was assessed in vivo and in vitro, and the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9 in cells and the bioactivity of MMP9 in the supernatant were assayed. The expression and prognostic value of LRP1 were investigated in 327 HCC specimens.
Low LRP1 expression was associated with poor HCC prognosis, with low expression independently related to shortened overall survival and increased tumor recurrence rate. Expression of LRP1 in non-recurrent HCC samples was significantly higher than that in early recurrent samples. LRP1 expression in HCC cell lines was inversely correlated with their metastatic potential. After inhibition of LRP1, low-metastatic SMCC-7721 cells showed enhanced migration and invasion and increased expression and bioactivity of MMP9. Correlation analysis showed a negative correlation between LRP1 and MMP9 expression in HCC patients. The prognostic value of LRP1 expression was validated in the independent data set.
LRP1 modulated the level of MMP9 and low level of LRP1 expression was associated with aggressiveness and invasiveness in HCCs. LRP1 offered a possible strategy for tumor molecular therapy.
cardiac arrhythmia; heart failure; aging
Action potentials generated in the sinoatrial node (SAN) dominate the rhythm and rate of a healthy human heart. Subsequently, these action potentials propagate to the whole heart via its conduction system. Abnormalities of impulse generation and/or propagation in a heart can cause arrhythmias. For example, SAN dysfunction or conduction block of the atrioventricular node can lead to serious bradycardia which is currently treated with an implanted electronic pacemaker. On the other hand, conduction damage may cause reentrant tachyarrhythmias which are primarily treated pharmacologically or by medical device-based therapies, including defibrillation and tissue ablation. However, drug therapies sometimes may not be effective or are associated with serious side effects. Device-based therapies for cardiac arrhythmias, even with well developed technology, still face inadequacies, limitations, hardware complications, and other challenges. Therefore, scientists are actively seeking other alternatives for antiarrhythmic therapy. In particular, cells and genes used for repairing cardiac conduction damage/defect have been investigated in various studies both in vitro and in vivo. Despite the complexities of the excitation and conduction systems of the heart, cell and gene-based strategies provide novel alternatives for treatment or cure of cardiac arrhythmias. This review summarizes some highlights of recent research progress in this field.
cell therapy; gene therapy; conduction repair; arrhythmia
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has recently been shown to play an important role in the digestive system, but the role of endogenous H2S produced locally in the gallbladder is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether gallbladder possesses the enzymatic machinery to synthesize H2S, and whether H2S synthesis is changed in gallbladder inflammation during acute acalculous cholecystitis (AC).
Adult male guinea pigs underwent either a sham operation or common bile duct ligation (CBDL). One, two, or three days after CBDL, the animals were sacrificed separately. Hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides of gallbladder samples were scored for inflammation. H2S production rate in gallbladder tissue from each group was determined; immunohistochemistry and western blotting were used to determine expression levels of the H2S-producing enzymes cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) in gallbladder.
There was a progressive inflammatory response after CBDL. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed that CBS and CSE were expressed in the gallbladder epithelium, muscular layer, and blood vessels and that the expression increased progressively with increasing inflammation following CBDL. The expression of CBS protein as well as the H2S-production rate was significantly increased in the animals that underwent CBDL, compared to those that underwent the sham operation.
Both CBS and CSE are expressed in gallbladder tissues. The expression of these enzymes, as well as H2S synthesis, was up-regulated in the context of inflammation during AC.
Generation of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species in phagocytes is an important innate immune response mechanism to eliminate microbial pathogens. It is known that deoxynucleotides (dNTPs), the precursor nucleotides to DNA synthesis, are one group of the significant targets for these oxidants and incorporation of oxidized dNTPs into genomic DNA may cause mutations and even cell death. Here we show that the mycobacterial dNTP pyrophosphohydrolase MazG safeguards the bacilli genome by degrading 5-OH-dCTP, thereby, preventing it from incorporation into DNA. Deletion of the (d)NTP pyrophosphohydrolase-encoding mazG in mycobacteria leads to a mutator phenotype both under oxidative stress and in the stationary phase of growth, resulting in increased CG to TA mutations. Biochemical analyses demonstrate that mycobacterial MazG can efficiently hydrolyze 5-OH-dCTP, an oxidized nucleotide that induces CG to TA mutation upon incorporation by polymerase. Moreover, chemical genetic analyses show that direct incorporation of 5-OH-dCTP into mazG-null mutant strain of Mycobacterium smegmatis (Msm) leads to a dose-dependent mutagenesis phenotype, indicating that 5-OH-dCTP is a natural substrate of mycobacterial MazG. Furthermore, deletion of mazG in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) leads to reduced survival in activated macrophages and in the spleen of infected mice. This study not only characterizes the mycobacterial MazG as a novel pyrimidine-specific housecleaning enzyme that prevents CG to TA mutation by degrading 5-OH-dCTP but also reveals a genome-safeguarding mechanism for survival of Mtb in vivo.
The cellular nucleotide pool is a significant target for oxidation by reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species. Misincorporation of these oxidized non-canonical nucleotides into DNA is known to cause mutations, and may be related to carcinogenesis, aging and neurodegeneration. Cells have evolved a group of bio-degradation housecleaning enzymes that may specifically eliminate certain non-canonical nucleotide from the nucleotide pool and thus prevent their incorporation into DNA. The most well-characterized housecleaning enzymes are the MutT-like proteins which specifically hydrolyze the oxidized purine nucleotides, such as 8-oxo-dGTP and 2-OH-dATP. Lack of MutT activity in cells leads to significant increase of AT-CG mutation and genetic instability. However, housecleaning enzymes specific for oxidized pyrimidine nucleotides are yet to be identified. Here we show that the dNTP pyrophosphohydrolase MazG from mycobacteria is a 5-OH-dCTP-specific housecleaning enzyme. Deletion of mazG in mycobacteria results in increased CG to TA mutation under oxidative stress and in the stationary phase of growth. Both biochemical and chemical genetic analyses demonstrate that 5-OH-dCTP is a natural substrate of mycobacterial MazG. Furthermore, deletion of mazG in Mtb leads to reduced survival in activated macrophages and in the spleen of infected mice. These results reveal a novel housecleaning pathway for mycobacteria to maintain genetic stability and survival in vivo.
To assess the refractive outcome of clear lensectomy combined with piggyback intraocular lens implantation in highly hyperopic patients.
This case review included 19 eyes of 10 patients with high hyperopia and axial length less than 21mm. Intraocular lens power was calculated for emmetropia using the Holladay II formula in 17 eyes, and SRK/T formula in 2 eyes following clear lens extraction and piggyback intraocular lens implantation. Patients were examined periodically over 24 months for visual acuity and spherical equivalent (SE).
The mean postoperative SE at 24 months was 0.20±1.39D (range, -3.00 to 2.50D), better than preoperative 9.81±2.62D (range, +6.00 to +14.50D) (P<0.001). Five eyes had SE within ±0.5D of emmetropia and 11 eyes within ±1.00D at postoperative 24 months. The mean postoperative uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) at 24 months was 0.60±0.36, significantly improved compared to preoperative 1.39±0.33 (P<0.001). The mean best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at 24 months was 0.49±0.35, not statistically different compared to preoperative 0.38±0.30 (P=0.34). Twelve eyes maintained and 1 gained 1 or more Snellen line of BCVA, 4 eyes lost 1 line, and 2 eyes lost 2 lines at 24 postoperative months. Twelve eyes best-corrected near visual acuity (BCNVA) achieved J1 at postoperative 24 months compared to preoperative 7 eyes and the other 7 eyes better than J3.
Clear lens extraction combined piggyback intraocular lens implantation appears to be an effective procedure to correct high hyperopia but mild overcorrection and intralenticular opacification may require secondary procedure.
piggyback; intraocular lens; high hyperopia
Although many functions and targets have been attributed to the histone and protein deacetylase SIRT1, a comprehensive analysis of SIRT1 binding proteins yielding a high-confidence interaction map has not been established. Using a comparative statistical analysis of binding partners, we have assembled a high-confidence SIRT1 interactome. Employing this method, we identified the deubiquitinating enzyme ubiquitin-specific protease 22 (USP22), a component of the deubiquitinating module (DUBm) of the SAGA transcriptional coactivating complex, as a SIRT1-interacting partner. We found that this interaction is highly specific, requires the ZnF-UBP domain of USP22, and is disrupted by the inactivating H363Y mutation within SIRT1. Moreover, we show that USP22 is acetylated on multiple lysine residues and that alteration of a single lysine (K129) within the ZnF-UBP domain is sufficient to alter interaction of the DUBm with the core SAGA complex. Furthermore, USP22-mediated recruitment of SIRT1 activity promotes the deacetylation of individual SAGA complex components. Our results indicate an important role of SIRT1-mediated deacetylation in regulating the formation of DUBm subcomplexes within the larger SAGA complex.
Uncovering human mobility patterns is of fundamental importance to the understanding of epidemic spreading, urban transportation and other socioeconomic dynamics embodying spatiality and human travel. According to the direct travel diaries of volunteers, we show the absence of scaling properties in the displacement distribution at the individual level,while the aggregated displacement distribution follows a power law with an exponential cutoff. Given the constraint on total travelling cost, this aggregated scaling law can be analytically predicted by the mixture nature of human travel under the principle of maximum entropy. A direct corollary of such theory is that the displacement distribution of a single mode of transportation should follow an exponential law, which also gets supportive evidences in known data. We thus conclude that the travelling cost shapes the displacement distribution at the aggregated level.
To better characterize how variation in regulatory sequences drives divergence in gene expression, we undertook a systematic study of transcription factor binding and gene expression in blastoderm embryos of four species, which sample much of the diversity in the 40 million-year old genus Drosophila: D. melanogaster, D. yakuba, D. pseudoobscura and D. virilis. We compared gene expression, measured by mRNA-seq, to the genome-wide binding, measured by ChIP-seq, of four transcription factors involved in early anterior-posterior patterning. We found that mRNA levels are much better conserved than individual transcription factor binding events, and that changes in a gene's expression were poorly explained by changes in adjacent transcription factor binding. However, highly bound sites, sites in regions bound by multiple factors and sites near genes are conserved more frequently than other binding, suggesting that a considerable amount of transcription factor binding is weakly or non-functional and not subject to purifying selection.
Inter-species differences in gene expression during development are a major source of phenotypic diversity, yet the molecular origins of such differences are poorly understood. In this study we use a combination of biochemical and genomic methods to explore how an important component of the machinery of gene regulation varies between species. We mapped the genomic sites bound by four specific proteins regulating gene expression along the head to tail axis of young embryos of four diverse species of fruit flies. We were surprised at the extent of variation we observed, especially as we found far less variation in gene expression between these same species' embryos. We conclude, based on various analyses of our binding divergence data, that most of the time these regulators bind to DNA they have no effect on gene expression, and therefore natural selection does not act to preserve these interactions between species.
To reconstruct the lamellar cornea using human amniotic epithelial (HAE) cells and rabbit cornea stroma in vitro using tissue engineering technology.
Human amnia taken from uncomplicated caesarean sections were digested by collagenase to obtain HAE cells, and the cells were cultured to proliferate. Rabbit corneal epithelial cells were removed by n-heptanol to make lamellar matrix sheets. The second passage of HAE cells were cultured on the corneal stroma sheets for 1 or 2 days, then transferred to an air-liquid interface environment to culture for 2 weeks. Tissue engineered lamellar cornea (TELC) morphology was observed by Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining; its ultrastructure was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM); corneal epithelial cell-specific keratin 3 and keratin 12 were detected with immunofluorescence microscopy.
HAE cells grew on the rabbit corneal stroma, forming a monolayer after 1-2 days. About 4-5 layers of epithelial cells developed after 2 weeks of air-liquid interface cultivation, a result similar to normal corneal epithelium. Rabbit corneal stromal cells were significantly reduced after one week, then almost completely disappeared after 2 weeks. TEM showed desmosomes between the epithelial cells; hemidesmosomes formed between the epithelial cells and the basement membrane. SEM revealed that the HAE cells which grew on the lamellar cornea had abundant microvilli. The tissue-engineered cornea expressed keratin 3 and keratin 12, as detected by immunofluorescence assay.
Functional tissue-engineered lamellar corneal grafts can be constructed in vitro using HAE cells and rabbit corneal stroma.
amniotic epithelial cells; cornea; tissue engineering; keratin
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level in a wide range of species. Highly conserved miRNAs regulate ancestral transcription factors common to all plants, and control important basic processes such as cell division and meristem function. We selected 21 conserved miRNA families to analyze the distribution and maintenance of miRNAs. Recently, the first genome sequence in Palmaceae was released: date palm (Phoenix dactylifera). We conducted a systematic miRNA analysis in date palm, computationally identifying and characterizing the distribution and duplication of conserved miRNAs in this species compared to other published plant genomes. A total of 81 miRNAs belonging to 18 miRNA families were identified in date palm. The majority of miRNAs in date palm and seven other well-studied plant species were located in intergenic regions and located 4 to 5 kb away from the nearest protein-coding genes. Sequence comparison showed that 67% of date palm miRNA members were present in duplicated segments, and that 135 pairs of miRNA-containing segments were duplicated in Arabidopsis, tomato, orange, rice, apple, poplar and soybean with a high similarity of non coding sequences between duplicated segments, indicating genomic duplication was a major force for expansion of conserved miRNAs. Duplicated miRNA pairs in date palm showed divergence in pre-miRNA sequence and in number of promoters, implying that these duplicated pairs may have undergone divergent evolution. Comparisons between date palm and the seven other plant species for the gain/loss of miR167 loci in an ancient segment shared between monocots and dicots suggested that these conserved miRNAs were highly influenced by and diverged as a result of genomic duplication events.
To investigate the prognostic value of intratumoral invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after curative resection.
Expression of TRAV10, encoding the Vα24 domain of iNKT cells, and IFN-γ mRNA were assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in tumor from 224 HCC patients undergoing curative resection. The prognostic value of these two and other clinicopathologic factors was evaluated.
Either intratumoral iNKT cells and IFN-γ alone or their combination was an independent prognostic factor for OS (P = 0.001) and RFS (P = 0.001) by multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis. Patients with concurrent low levels of iNKT cells and IFN-γ had a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.784 for OS and 2.673 for RFS. The areas under the curve of iNKT cells, IFN-γand their combination were 0.618 vs 0.608 vs 0.654 for death and 0.591 vs 0.604 vs 0.633 for recurrence respectively by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The prognosis was the worst for HCC patients with concurrent low levels of iNKT cells and IFN-γ, which might be related with more advanced pTNM stage and more vascular invasion.
Combination of intratumoral iNKT cells and IFN-γ is a promising independent predictor for recurrence and survival in HCC, which has a better power to predict HCC patients’ outcome compared with intratumoral iNKT cells or IFN-γ alone.
X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 3 (XRCC3) is an essential gene involved in the double-strand break repair pathway. Published evidence has shown controversial results about the relationship between XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism and clinical outcomes of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients receiving platinum-based chemotherapy.
A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the predictive value of XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism on clinical outcomes of advanced NSCLC receiving platinum-based chemotherapy. Response to chemotherapy, overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were analyzed.
A number of 11 eligible studies were identified according to the inclusion criteria. Carriers of the variant XRCC3 241Met allele were significantly associated with good response to platinum-based chemotherapy (ThrMet/MetMet vs. ThrThr: OR = 1.509, 95% CI: 1.099–2.072, Pheterogeneity = 0.618). The XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism was not associated with OS (MetMet vs. ThrThr, HR = 0.939, 95% CI:0.651–1.356, Pheterogeneity = 0.112) or PFS (MetMet vs. ThrThr, HR = 0.960, 95% CI: 0.539–1.710, Pheterogeneity = 0.198). Additionally, no evidence of publication bias was observed.
This systematic review and meta-analysis shows that carriers of the XRCC3 241Met allele are associated with good response to platinum-based chemotherapy in advanced NSCLC, while the XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism is not associated with OS or PFS.
Do scientists follow hot topics in their scientific investigations? In this paper, by performing analysis to papers published in the American Physical Society (APS) Physical Review journals, it is found that papers are more likely to be attracted by hot fields, where the hotness of a field is measured by the number of papers belonging to the field. This indicates that scientists generally do follow hot topics. However, there are qualitative differences among scientists from various countries, among research works regarding different number of authors, different number of affiliations and different number of references. These observations could be valuable for policy makers when deciding research funding and also for individual researchers when searching for scientific projects.
Radish floral bud abortion (FBA) is an adverse biological phenomenon that occurs during reproduction. Although FBA is a frequent occurrence, its molecular mechanism remains unknown. A transcript-derived fragment (TDF72), which was obtained by cDNA amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP), was up-regulated in the aborted buds and exhibited 89% sequence homology with the AtγVPE gene. In this study, TDF72 was used to clarify the role of VPE in FBA by isolation of the VPE gene RsVPE1 from radish flower buds. The full-length genomic DNA was 2346 bp including nine exons and eight introns. The full-length cDNA was 1825 bp, containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) of 1470 bp, which encoded a predicted protein containing 489 amino acid residues, with a calculated molecular mass of 53.735 kDa. Expression analysis demonstrated that RsVPE1 was expressed in all tested organs of radish at different levels. Highest expression was detected in aborted flower buds, suggesting that RsVPE1 has a role in FBA. In order to analyze the role of RsVPE1 in FBA, RsVPE1 was overexpressed in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Aborted flower buds appeared in transgenic plants subjected to heat stress. In addition, RsVPE1 expression in the transgenic plants reached a maximum when subjected to heat stress for 24 h and increased by 2.1-fold to 2.8-fold in three homozygous transgenic lines. These results indicated that RsVPE1 led to FBA when its expression levels exceeded a particular threshold, and provided evidence for the involvement of RsVPE1 in promoting FBA under heat stress.
radish; vacuolar processing enzyme; floral bud abortion; heat stress
The hybrid pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) breeding technology based on cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is currently unique among legumes and displays major potential for yield increase. CMS is defined as a condition in which a plant is unable to produce functional pollen grains. The novel chimeric open reading frames (ORFs) produced as a results of mitochondrial genome rearrangements are considered to be the main cause of CMS. To identify these CMS-related ORFs in pigeonpea, we sequenced the mitochondrial genomes of three C. cajan lines (the male-sterile line ICPA 2039, the maintainer line ICPB 2039, and the hybrid line ICPH 2433) and of the wild relative (Cajanus cajanifolius ICPW 29). A single, circular-mapping molecule of length 545.7 kb was assembled and annotated for the ICPA 2039 line. Sequence annotation predicted 51 genes, including 34 protein-coding and 17 RNA genes. Comparison of the mitochondrial genomes from different Cajanus genotypes identified 31 ORFs, which differ between lines within which CMS is present or absent. Among these chimeric ORFs, 13 were identified by comparison of the related male-sterile and maintainer lines. These ORFs display features that are known to trigger CMS in other plant species and to represent the most promising candidates for CMS-related mitochondrial rearrangements in pigeonpea.
mitochondria; pigeonpea; next-generation sequencing; cytoplasmic male sterility; open reading frames
AIM: To investigate the disruptions of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) in the remaining bowel in rats after massive small bowel resection (mSBR).
METHODS: Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats fitting entry criteria were divided randomly into three experimental groups (n = 10 each): Group A rats underwent bowel transection and re-anastomosis (sham) and tissue samples were harvested at day 7 post-surgery. Group B and C rats underwent 80% small bowel resection with tissue harvested from Group B rats at day 7 post-surgery, and from Group C rats at day 14 post-surgery. The distribution of ICC at the site of the residual small bowel was evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis of small intestine samples. The ultrastructural changes of ICC in the remnant ileum of model rats 7 and 14 d after mSBR were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. Intracellular recordings of slow wave oscillations were used to evaluate electrical pacemaking. The protein expression of c-kit, ICC phenotypic markers, and membrane-bound stem cell factor (mSCF) in intestinal smooth muscle of each group were detected by Western blotting.
RESULTS: After mSBR, immunohistochemical analysis indicated that the number of c-kit-positive cells was dramatically decreased in Group B rats compared with sham tissues. Significant ultrastructural changes in ICC with associated smooth muscle hypertrophy were also observed. Disordered spontaneous rhythmic contractions with reduced amplitude (8.5 ± 1.4 mV vs 24.8 ± 1.3 mV, P = 0.037) and increased slow wave frequency (39.5 ± 2.1 cycles/min vs 33.0 ± 1.3 cycles/min, P = 0.044) were found in the residual intestinal smooth muscle 7 d post mSBR. The contractile function and electrical activity of intestinal circular smooth muscle returned to normal levels at 14 d post mSBR (amplitude, 14.9 ± 1.6 mV vs 24.8 ± 1.3 mV; frequency, 30.7 ± 1.7 cycles/min vs 33.0 ± 1.3 cycles/min). The expression of Mscf and c-kit protein was decreased at 7 d (P = 0.026), but gradually returned to normal levels at 14 d. The ICC and associated neural networks were disrupted, which was associated with the phenotype alterations of ICC.
CONCLUSION: Massive small bowel resection in rats triggered damage to ICC networks and decreased the number of ICC leading to disordered intestinal rhythmicity. The mSCF/c-kit signaling pathway plays a role in the regulation and maintenance of ICC phenotypes.
Interstitial cells of Cajal; c-kit; Slow wave; Massive small bowel resection; Intestinal dysfunction
Fierce predatory freshwater fishes, the species of Percocypris (Cyprinidae, Teleostei) inhabit large rivers or lakes, and have a specific distribution pattern. Only a single species or subspecies occurs in each large-scale drainage basin of the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau. In this study, the molecular phylogenetic relationships for all but one of the described subspecies/species of Percocypris were investigated based on three mitochondrial genes (16S; COI; Cyt b) and one nuclear marker (Rag2). The results of Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference analyses show that Percocypris is a strongly supported monophyletic group and that it is the sister group of Schizothorax. Combined with analyses of morphological characters, our results suggest that Percocypris needs to be reclassified, and we propose that six species be recognized, with corresponding distributions in five main drainages (including one lake). In addition, based on the results of the estimation of divergence times and ancestral drainages, we hypothesize that Percocypris likely originated in the early Miocene from a paleo-connected drainage system containing the contemporary main drainages of the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau. This study suggests that vicariance (due to the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau modifying the large-scale morphologies of drainage basins in the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau) has played an important role in the speciation of the genus. Furthermore, external morphological characters (such as the length of the fins) and an internal trait (the position of pterygiophore) appear to be correlated with different habitats in rivers and the lake.
Rare Earth Elements (REE) are essential to modern society but the origins of many large REE deposits remain unclear. The U-Th-Pb ages, chemical compositions and C, O and Mg isotopic compositions of Bayan Obo, the world's largest REE deposit, indicate a protracted mineralisation history with unusual chemical and isotopic features. Coexisting calcite and dolomite are in O isotope disequilibrium; some calcitic carbonatite samples show highly varied δ26Mg which increases with increasing Si and Mg; and ankerite crystals show decreases in Fe and REE from rim to centre, with highly varied REE patterns. These and many other observations are consistent with an unusual mineralisation process not previously considered; protracted fluxing of calcitic carbonatite by subduction-released high-Si fluids during the closure of the Palaeo-Asian Ocean. The fluids leached Fe and Mg from the mantle wedge and scavenged REE, Nb and Th from carbonatite, forming the deposit through metasomatism of overlying sedimentary carbonate.
Eighteen polyketides (1–18) including six citrinin derivatives, two phenol derivatives, one cyclopentenone, two naphthol derivatives, and seven tetralone derivatives were isolated from the culture broth of a marine-derived fungal strain Xylariaceae sp. SCSGAF0086. Five of these compounds (1, 2, 8, 9, and 10) were new, and their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. Compounds 4, 6, 7, and 17 showed enzyme-inhibitory activities towards several tested enzymes, and 6 and 7 showed strong antifouling activity against Bugula neritina larvae settlement. This is the first time that the antifouling and enzyme-inhibitory activities of these compounds has been reported.
Xylariaceae sp.; polyketide; enzyme-inhibitory activity; antifouling activity
To determine the prevalence and risk factors for eye diseases, blindness, and low vision in Tibet, and to assist the development of eye disease prevention and treatment schemes.
We carried out a survey of eye diseases among a population living at high altitude. A total of 1 115 Tibetan permanent residents aged 40 years or older from the towns and villages of Qushui County, Lhasa Prefecture, Tibet Autonomous Region, participated in this study. All participants completed a detailed questionnaire, and underwent presenting and pinhole visual acuity tests, and a comprehensive ophthalmic examination.
There were 187 blind eyes (8.43%), 231 eyes with low vision (10.41%). The leading cause of visual impairment was cataract of 55.0% (101/187) blindness and of 50.2% (116/231) low vision, followed by fundus lesions of 22.9% blindness and 23.8% low vision, while only a low prevalence of glaucoma of 9.6% blindness and 1.7% low vision was observed. The analysis of 2 219 eyes showed that the most common external eye disease was pterygium (27.2%) in Tibet.
The high prevalence of blindness and low vision in the Tibetan population at high altitude is a serious public health issue. There is a need to establish and maintain an appropriate effective eye care program in Tibet.
Tibet; eye diseases; blindness; low vision; risk factors
A simple additive-free approach is developed to synthesize uniform manganese monoxide (MnO) one-dimensional nanorods, in which only manganese acetate and ethanol were used as reactants. The as-synthesized MnO nanorods were characterized in detail by X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) including high-resolution TEM and selected-area electron diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrum, and nitrogen adsorption isotherm measurements. The results indicate that the as-synthesized MnO nanorods present a mesoporous characteristic with large specific surface area (153 m2 g−1), indicating promising applications in catalysis, energy storage, and biomedical image. On the basis of experimental results, the formation mechanism of MnO one-dimensional nanorods in the absence of polymer additives was also discussed.
Manganese monoxide; Nanorods; Additive-free synthesis; Formation mechanism
To determine the efficacy and toxicity of Pemetrexed plus Oxaliplatin in patients suffering from stage IIIb or IV lung adenocarcinoma and being treated with Erlotinib as second-line treatment, a total of 45 patients were randomly divided into two groups. One group was treated with 500 mg/m2 Pemetrexed plus 100 mg/m2 Oxaliplatin, and the other was treated with 500 mg/m2 Pemetrexed plus 75 mg/m2 Cisplatin. All drugs were administered on day one of a 21-day cycle. In the Oxaliplatin group, 3 patients (13.6 %) experienced partial response (PR), 9 patients (41.0 %) showed stable disease (SD), and 10 patients (45.5 %) had progressive disease (PD). In the Cisplatin group, 2 patients (8.7 %) experienced PR, 7 patients (30.4 %) showed SD, and 14 patients (60.9 %) had PD. The PFS of the Oxaliplatin group and the Cisplatin group was 4.45 months (95 % CI 4.10–4.80) and 3.96 months (95 % CI 3.68–4.24) (P = 0.03), respectively. The median overall survival (OS) was 10.8 months (95 % CI 10.2–11.5) and 10.7 months (95 % CI 10.2–11.3) (P = 0.72), respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in the occurrence rate of grades 3 and 4 myelotoxicity between the two groups. However, there was a significant difference in the occurrence rate of grades 3 and 4 gastrointestinal reactions and peripheral neurotoxicity between the two groups (P < 0.05). A regime combining Pemetrexed and Oxaliplatin was marginally effective and well tolerated in patients with stage IIIb or IV lung adenocarcinoma who have received Erlotinib as second-line treatment.
Lung adenocarcinoma; Oxaliplatin; Pemetrexed; Erlotinib as second-line treatment
Cocos nucifera (coconut), a member of the Arecaceae family, is an economically important woody palm grown in tropical regions. Despite its agronomic importance, previous germplasm assessment studies have relied solely on morphological and agronomical traits. Molecular biology techniques have been scarcely used in assessment of genetic resources and for improvement of important agronomic and quality traits in Cocos nucifera, mostly due to the absence of available sequence information.
To provide basic information for molecular breeding and further molecular biological analysis in Cocos nucifera, we applied RNA-seq technology and de novo assembly to gain a global overview of the Cocos nucifera transcriptome from mixed tissue samples. Using Illumina sequencing, we obtained 54.9 million short reads and conducted de novo assembly to obtain 57,304 unigenes with an average length of 752 base pairs. Sequence comparison between assembled unigenes and released cDNA sequences of Cocos nucifera and Elaeis guineensis indicated that the assembled sequences were of high quality. Approximately 99.9% of unigenes were novel compared to the released coconut EST sequences. Using BLASTX, 68.2% of unigenes were successfully annotated based on the Genbank non-redundant (Nr) protein database. The annotated unigenes were then further classified using the Gene Ontology (GO), Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases.
Our study provides a large quantity of novel genetic information for Cocos nucifera. This information will act as a valuable resource for further molecular genetic studies and breeding in coconut, as well as for isolation and characterization of functional genes involved in different biochemical pathways in this important tropical crop species.
Evidence for an immunosuppressive function of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) has been accumulating. However, the unusual distribution of IDO1 in gynecologic cancer cells suggests that modulating immunity may not its only function. To clarify the physiological importance of IDO1 in endometriosis, a tumor-like benign disease, we have investigated the potential mechanism by which IDO1 modulated endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) proliferation and invasion. ESCs were obtained from 16 control women (normal) and 14 patients with ovarian endometrioma, then the normal ESCs were treated with plasmid pEGFP-N1-IDO1 or SD11-IDO1 short hairpin RNA (shRNA) alone, or in combination with c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor (SP600125), and subjected to cell viability, proliferation, apoptosis assay and Matrigel invasion assay. IDO1 mRNA expression was evaluated by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR), and protein levels of IDO1, survivin, protein 53 (p53), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, tissue-inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in IDO1-overexpressing and IDO1-deficiency ESCs were analyzed by in-cell Western. We found that IDO1 expression was higher in endometriosis-derived eutopic and ectopic ESCs, compared with endometriosis-free normal ESCs. As a result, IDO1-overexpression in ESCs was markedly linked to reduction of apoptosis and p53 expression, and upregulation of survival, proliferation, invasion, as well as expression of MMP-9, COX-2 expression, rather than expression of survivin, MMP-2 and TIMP-1. Reversely, JNK blockage could abrogate these alterations of ESCs in IDO1-overexpressing milieu, suggesting that JNK signaling pathway was indispensable for ESCs survival, proliferation and invasion enhanced by IDO1, which may contribute to the pathophysiology of endometriosis.
Endometriosis; indoleamine 2; 3-dioxygenase; endometrial stromal cells