A novel, optical sensor was fixed in a new type of disposable bioreactor, Tubespin, for the on-line (real-time) monitoring of dissolved oxygen concentrations during cell culture. The cell density, viability and volumetric mass transfer coefficient were also determined to further characterize the bioreactors. The kLa value of the Tubespin at standard conditions was 24.3 h−1, while that of a spinner flask was only 2.7 h−1. The maximum cell density in the Tubespin bioreactor reached 6 × 106 cells mL−1, which was two times higher than the cell density in a spinner flask. Furthermore, the dynamic dissolved oxygen level was maintained above 90% air-saturation in the Tubespin, while the value was only 1.9% in a spinner flask. These results demonstrate the competitive advantage of using the Tubespin system over spinner flasks for process optimization and scale-down studies of oxygen transfer and cell growth.
Tubespin; Spinner flask; Dissolved oxygen; kLa
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) remodel tumor microenvironment and promote cancer metastasis. Among the MMP family proteases, the proteolytic activity of the pro-tumorigenic and pro-metastatic membrane-type 1 (MT1)-MMP constitutes a promising and targetable biomarker of aggressive cancer tumors. In this study, we systematically developed and characterized several highly sensitive and specific biosensors based on fluorescence resonant energy transfer (FRET), for visualizing MT1-MMP activity in live cells. The sensitivity of the AHLR-MT1-MMP biosensor was the highest and five times that of a reported version. Hence, the AHLR biosensor was employed to quantitatively profile the MT1-MMP activity in multiple breast cancer cell lines, and to visualize the spatiotemporal MT1-MMP activity simultaneously with the underlying collagen matrix at the single cell level. We detected a significantly higher level of MT1-MMP activity in invasive cancer cells than those in benign or non-invasive cells. Our results further show that the high MT1-MMP activity was stimulated by the adhesion of invasive cancer cells onto the extracellular matrix, which is precisely correlated with the cell’s ability to degrade the collagen matrix. Thus, we systematically optimized a FRET-based biosensor, which provides a powerful tool to detect the pro-invasive MT1-MMP activity at single cell levels. This readout can be applied to profile the invasiveness of single cells from clinical samples, and to serve as an indicator for screening anti-cancer inhibitors.
The title molecule, C21H28O5, is composed of three six-membered rings (A/B/C) and a five-membered ring (D). Ring A adopts a 1α-sofa conformation, while rings B and C adopt chair conformations. Cyclopentane ring D adopts a 14α-envelope conformation. In the crystal, O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds lead to the formation of ribbons running along the a axis. The structure is further consolidated by C—H⋯O interactions, which link the molecules head-to-tail into ribbons along the a axis.
Artemisia frigida Willd. is an important Mongolian traditional medicinal plant with pharmacological functions of stanch and detumescence. However, there is little sequence and genomic information available for Artemisia frigida, which makes phylogenetic identification, evolutionary studies, and genetic improvement of its value very difficult. We report the complete chloroplast genome sequence of Artemisia frigida based on 454 pyrosequencing.
The complete chloroplast genome of Artemisia frigida is 151,076 bp including a large single copy (LSC) region of 82,740 bp, a small single copy (SSC) region of 18,394 bp and a pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 24,971 bp. The genome contains 114 unique genes and 18 duplicated genes. The chloroplast genome of Artemisia frigida contains a small 3.4 kb inversion within a large 23 kb inversion in the LSC region, a unique feature in Asteraceae. The gene order in the SSC region of Artemisia frigida is inverted compared with the other 6 Asteraceae species with the chloroplast genomes sequenced. This inversion is likely caused by an intramolecular recombination event only occurred in Artemisia frigida. The existence of rich SSR loci in the Artemisia frigida chloroplast genome provides a rare opportunity to study population genetics of this Mongolian medicinal plant. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrates a sister relationship between Artemisia frigida and four other species in Asteraceae, including Ageratina adenophora, Helianthus annuus, Guizotia abyssinica and Lactuca sativa, based on 61 protein-coding sequences. Furthermore, Artemisia frigida was placed in the tribe Anthemideae in the subfamily Asteroideae (Asteraceae) based on ndhF and trnL-F sequence comparisons.
The chloroplast genome sequence of Artemisia frigida was assembled and analyzed in this study, representing the first plastid genome sequenced in the Anthemideae tribe. This complete chloroplast genome sequence will be useful for molecular ecology and molecular phylogeny studies within Artemisia species and also within the Asteraceae family.
Increasing evidence has shown that immune surveillance is compromised in a tumor-promoting microenvironment for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and can be restored by appropriate chemotherapy.
To test this hypothesis, we analyzed microarray gene expression profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 30 patients with newly-diagnosed advanced stage NSCLC, and 20 age-, sex-, and co-morbidity-matched healthy controls. All the patients received a median of four courses of chemotherapy with cisplatin and gemcitabine for a 28-day cycle as first line treatment.
Sixty-nine differentially expressed genes between the patients and controls, and 59 differentially expressed genes before and after chemotherapy were identified. The IL4 pathway was significantly enriched in both tumor progression and chemotherapy signatures. CXCR4 and IL2RG were down-regulated, while DOK2 and S100A15 were up-regulated in the patients, and expressions of all four genes were partially or totally reversed after chemotherapy. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR for the four up-regulated (S100A15, DOK2) and down-regulated (TLR7, TOP1MT) genes in the patients, and the six up-regulated (TLR7, CRISP3, TOP1MT) and down-regulated (S100A15, DOK2, IL2RG) genes after chemotherapy confirmed the validity of the microarray results. Further immunohistochemical analysis of the paraffin-embedded lung cancer tissues identified strong S100A15 nuclear staining not only in stage IV NSCLC as compared to stage IIIB NSCLC (p = 0.005), but also in patients with stable or progressive disease as compared to those with a partial response (p = 0.032). A high percentage of S100A15 nuclear stained cells (HR 1.028, p = 0.01) was the only independent factor associated with three-year overall mortality.
Our results suggest a potential role of the IL4 pathway in immune surveillance of advanced stage NSCLC, and immune potentiation of combination chemotherapy. S100A15 may serve as a potential biomarker for tumor staging, and a predictor of poor prognosis in NSCLC.
Mercury (Hg) is a potent neurotoxicant. We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes coding glutathione-related proteins, selenoproteins and metallothioneins may modify the relationship of mercury biomarkers with changes in peripheral nerve function. Dental professionals (n=515) were recruited in 2009 and 2010. Sensory nerve function (onset latency, peak latency and amplitude) of the median, ulnar and sural nerves were recorded. Samples of urine, hair and DNA were collected. Covariates related to demographics, nerve function and elemental and methyl- mercury exposure were also collected. Subjects included 244 dentists (47.4%) and 269 non-dentists (52.2%; mostly dental hygienists and dental assistants). The mean mercury levels in urine (1.06μg/L) and hair (0.51μg/g) were not significantly different from the US general population (0.95 μg/L and 0.47μg/g, respectively). In multivariate linear models predicting nerve function adjusting for covariates, only 3 out of a total of 504 models showed stable and statistically significant interaction of SNPs with mercury biomarkers. Overall, given the possibility of false positives, the results suggested little evidence of effect modification of the SNPs on the relationship between mercury biomarkers with peripheral nerve function at exposure levels that are relevant to the general US population.
Mercury; Single Nucleotide Polymorphism; Nerve Function; Biomarker; Gene-environment Interaction; Metallothionein; Glutathione; Selenoprotein
Aims: The role of endothelium-derived contracting factors (EDCFs) in regulating renovascular function is yet to be elucidated in renovascular hypertension (RH). The current study investigated whether oxidative stress-dependent cyclooxygenase (COX)-2-derived prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) impairs endothelial function in renal arteries of renovascular hypertensive rats (RHR). Results: Renal hypertension was induced in rats by renal artery stenosis of both kidneys using the 2-kidney 2-clip model. Acute treatment with reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers, COX-2 inhibitors, and thromboxane-prostanoid receptor antagonists, but not COX-1 inhibitors, improved endothelium-dependent relaxations and eliminated endothelium-dependent contractions in RHR renal arteries. Five weeks of treatment with celecoxib or tempol reduced blood pressure, increased renal blood flow, and restored endothelial function in RHRs. Increased ROS production in RHR arteries was inhibited by ROS scavengers, but unaffected by COX-2 inhibitors; whereas increased PGF2α release was reduced by both ROS scavengers and COX-2 inhibitors. ROS also induced COX-2-dependent contraction in RHR renal arteries, which was accompanied by the release of COX-2-derived PGF2α. Further, chronic tempol treatment reduced COX-2 and BMP4 upregulation, p38MAPK phosphorylation, and the nitrotyrosine level in RHR renal arteries. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate the functional importance of oxidative stress, which serves as an initiator of increased COX-2 activity, and that COX-2-derived PGF2α plays an important role in mediating endothelial dysfunction in RH. Innovation: The current study, thus, suggests that drugs targeting oxidative stress-dependent COX-2-derived PGF2α may be useful in the prevention and management of RH. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 16, 363–373.
Many studies have revealed correlations between breast tumour phenotypes, variations in gene expression, and patient survival outcomes. The molecular heterogeneity between breast tumours revealed by these studies has allowed prediction of prognosis and has underpinned stratified therapy, where groups of patients with particular tumour types receive specific treatments. The molecular tests used to predict prognosis and stratify treatment usually utilise fixed sets of genomic biomarkers, with the same biomarker sets being used to test all patients. In this paper we suggest that instead of fixed sets of genomic biomarkers, it may be more effective to use a stratified biomarker approach, where optimal biomarker sets are automatically chosen for particular patient groups, analogous to the choice of optimal treatments for groups of similar patients in stratified therapy. We illustrate the effectiveness of a biclustering approach to select optimal gene sets for determining the prognosis of specific strata of patients, based on potentially overlapping, non-discrete molecular characteristics of tumours.
Biclustering identified tightly co-expressed gene sets in the tumours of restricted subgroups of breast cancer patients. The co-expressed genes in these biclusters were significantly enriched for particular biological annotations and gene regulatory modules associated with breast cancer biology. Tumours identified within the same bicluster were more likely to present with similar clinical features. Bicluster membership combined with clinical information could predict patient prognosis in conditional inference tree and ridge regression class prediction models.
The increasing clinical use of genomic profiling demands identification of more effective methods to segregate patients into prognostic and treatment groups. We have shown that biclustering can be used to select optimal gene sets for determining the prognosis of specific strata of patients.
Biclustering; Gene expression profiles; Tumour classification; Survival prediction; Breast cancer
The magnetic susceptibility of tissue can be determined in gradient echo MRI by deconvolving the local magnetic field with the magnetic field generated by a unit dipole. This Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping (QSM) problem is unfortunately ill-posed. By transforming the problem to the Fourier domain, the susceptibility appears to be undersampled only at points where the dipole kernel is zero, suggesting that a modest amount of additional information may be sufficient for uniquely resolving susceptibility. A Morphology Enabled Dipole Inversion (MEDI) approach is developed that exploits the structural consistency between the susceptibility map and the magnitude image reconstructed from the same gradient echo MRI. Specifically, voxels that are part of edges in the susceptibility map but not in the edges of the magnitude image are considered to be sparse. In this approach an L1 norm minimization is used to express this sparsity property. Numerical simulations and phantom experiments are performed to demonstrate the superiority of this L1 minimization approach over the previous L2 minimization method. Preliminary brain imaging results in healthy subjects and in patients with intracerebral hemorrhages illustrate that QSM is feasible in practice.
quantitative susceptibility mapping; gradient echo; inverse problem; morphology enabled dipole inversion; tissue susceptibility; L1 norm; L2 norm; constraint minimization; sparsity
Although the relationship between allergy and cancer has been investigated extensively, the role of allergy in head and neck cancer (HNC) appears less consistent. It is not clear whether allergies can independently influence the risk of HNC in the presence of known strong environmental risk factors, including consumption of alcohol, betel quid, and cigarette.
The current paper reports results from: 1) an original hospital-based case-control study, which included 252 incident cases of HNC and 236 controls frequency-matched to cases on sex and age; and 2) a meta-analysis combining the results of the current case-control study and 13 previously published studies (9 cohort studies with 727,569 subjects and 550 HNC outcomes and 5 case-control studies with 4,017 HNC cases and 10,928 controls).
In the original case-control study, we observed a strong inverse association between allergies and HNC [odds ratio = 0.41, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.27–0.62]. The meta-analysis also indicated a statistically significant inverse association between HNC and allergies [meta-relative risk (RR) = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.63–0.91], particularly strong for allergic rhinitis (meta-RR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.40–0.76). In addition, the inverse association between allergies and HNC was observed only among men (meta-RR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.54–0.84) but not among women (meta-RR = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.81–1.18).
These findings suggest that immunity plays an influential role in the risk of HNC. Future studies investigating immune biomarkers, including cytokine profiles and genetic polymorphisms, are warranted to further delineate the relationship between allergies and HNC. Understanding the relationship between allergies and HNC may help devise effective strategies to reduce and treat HNC.
T1rho relaxation measurement has the potential to identify early biochemical changes in the intervertebral disc. Traditionally, multiple spin-lock times (SLT), often ~5 SLTs, are used to ensure the accuracy and robustness of T1rho mapping. It will be advantageous to use fewer SLT points if comparable accuracy of T1rho mapping can be achieved. In this study, the feasibility of using 3 SLT points to measure intervertebral disc T1rho relaxation time is explored.
Materials and methods
The lumbar spine of 12 subjects (age range: 30-75 years, disc =60) were studied on 3-T MRI. For T1rho measurement, a rotary echo spin-lock pulse was implemented in a 3D balanced fast field echo (b-FFE) sequence. Spin-lock frequency was set as 500 Hz and the SLTs of 1, 10, 20, 40, and 60 ms were acquired. T1rho maps were generated by fitting each pixel’s intensity as a function of SLT using a non-negative least-square fitting algorithm. Images were analysed in the mid-sagittal section. T1rho maps were re-constructed using all 5 SLT points of 1, 10, 20, 40, and 60 ms, and three SLT points of 1, 20, and 60 ms respectively. ROIs included nucleus pulposus (NP), anterior annulus fibrosus (AF) and posterior annulus fibrosus. Values of anterior AF and posterior AF were averaged as the value for AF. Agreement of T1rho measurements using different SLT points was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) on absolute agreement as well as Bland and Altman plot.
There was no significant difference for T1rho values by 5-SLT measurement and 3-SLT measurement in both NP (P=0.63) and AF (P=0.31). The ICC for 5-SLT T1rho measurement vs. 3-SLT T1rho measurement was 0.991 and 0.981 respectively for NP and AF T1rho time. The Bland and Altman plots for the comparison showed a mean difference of 3.14 and 1.83 for NP and AF respectively. Polling the T1rho values for NP and AF in 60 discs together, the ICC for 5-SLT T1rho measurement vs. 3-SLT T1rho measurement was 0.993, and the Bland and Altman analysis showed a mean difference of 2.56.
This study suggests that adopting 3 SLTs of 1, 20, and 60 ms can be an acceptable alternative for the disc T1rho measurement.
Magnetic resonance imaging; disc; T1rho; spin-lock time
Previous studies of meta-analyses found significantly positive correlations between primate species richness and rainfall for Africa, Madagascar and the Neotropics, with the exception of Asia, leaving the open question whether that anomaly is the result of sampling bias, biogeography, or some other factor. This study re-examines the question using modelled data, with primate species richness data from the Southeast Asian Mammals Databank and rainfall data from the Climatic Research Unit. Data processing with Geographical Information Systems resulted in 390 sample points. Reduced major axis and ordinary least squares regressions were employed to examine the relationship for six regions, including the whole study area of Southeast Asia, and the subareas of Huxley West, Huxley East, Mainland Southeast Asia, Borneo, and Sumatra. The results showed a significant positive relationship between primate species richness and mean annual rainfall for Southeast Asia (r = 0.26, P<0.001). Comparing the results for the large islands and Mainland Southeast Asia showed that Sumatra had the highest correlation (r = 0.58; P<0.05). After controlling for the major biogeographic effect associated with Huxley’s Line, our results showed that primate species richness is positively associated with mean annual rainfall in Southeast Asia. Our findings contrast to prior studies of meta-analyses that showed no relationship between rainfall and primate species richness in Asia, and thereby bring Asia into agreement with results showing significant positive correlations between rainfall and primate species richness everywhere else in the world. The inference is that previous anomalous results for Asia were result of sampling bias in the meta-analysis.
Fatty acid profiling has been widely used in the bacteria species identification, we hypothesized that fatty acid characteristics might discriminate the Panax herbs according to species. To test the hypothesis, fatty acids of Panax species, including Panax ginseng, Panax notoginseng and Panax quinquefolius, were characterized and compared using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) followed by multivariate statistical analysis.
The content of investigated 11 fatty acids, including myristic acid, pentadecanoic acid, palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, heptadecanoic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, α-linolenic acid, arachidic acid and eicosadienoic acid, obviously varied among three species, suggesting each species has its own fatty acid pattern. Principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis according to the absolute and relative contents of fatty acids, showed that 30 tested samples could be clearly differentiated according to the species.
These findings demonstrated that GC-MS-based fatty acid profiling coupled with multivariate statistical analysis provides reliable platform to classify these three Panax species, which is helpful for ensuring their safety and efficacy.
Panax species; Fatty acids; Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry; Multivariate statistical analysis; Principal component analysis; Hierarchical cluster analysis
In the title compound, C33H25F2NO2, the acenaphthene ring system forms dihedral angles of 50.93 (14) and 36.89 (14)° with the benzene rings. The pyrrolidine and cyclopentanone rings adopt envelope (with the N atom as the flap) and twisted conformations, respectively. In the crystal, C—H⋯O and C—H⋯F interactions link the molecules.
A rate-limiting step in determining a connectome, the set of all synaptic connections in a nervous system, is extraction of the relevant information from serial electron micrographs. Here we introduce a software application, Elegance, that speeds acquisition of the minimal dataset necessary, allowing the discovery of new connectomes. We have used Elegance to obtain new connectivity data in the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans. We analyze the accuracy that can be obtained, which is limited by unresolvable ambiguities at some locations in electron microscopic images. Elegance is useful for reconstructing connectivity in any region of neuropil of sufficiently small size.
Objective: An imbalance in CD4+CD25+ regulatory T (Treg) cells and Th17 cells has been found to correlate to occurrence of acute coronary syndrome [ACS, including unstable angina (UA) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI)]. However, the mechanisms of Th17/Treg imbalance in ACS patients are still unclear. The purpose of this study is to investigate the possibility of differences in sensitivity of Th17 and Tregs to Fas-mediated apoptosis which could lead to Th17/Treg imbalance in ACS patients. Methods: We examined the apoptosis of Th17 and Treg cells, apoptosis-related Fas/Fas ligand(FasL) pathway, and inflammatory markers in patients with AMI, UA, stable angina (SA) and controls by Flow cytometry and ELISA. Then we analysed the correlation of inflammatory markers and sFasL to Treg apoptosis, and the effect of anti-FasL antibody on Treg apoptois in vitro. Results: Our study demonstrated that apoptotic Tregs, Fas and FasL expression, Caspase-3 activity of Tregs were significantly higher in ACS patients than those in NCA and SA patients (all P < 0.05). The percentage of apoptotic Tregs is positively correlated with the levels of inflammatory markers and sFasL. In vitro incubation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from ACS patients with anti-FasL antibody resulted in a markedly reduction of apoptotic Treg cells. However, there were no significant differences in apoptotic Th17 cells and in Fas and FasL expression for Th17 cells between the four groups (all P >0.05). Conclusions: Tregs, but not Th17 cells, become apoptotic through Fas/FasL pathway, which contributed to reduction of Tregs leading to an imbalance between Th17 and Treg cells. This could be the mechanism underlying Th17/Treg imbalance and occurrence of ACS.
Apoptosis; Fas; Fas ligand; T helper 17; regulatory T cells; acute coronary syndrome
Neuroglobin (Ngb) is a globin protein that is highly and specifically expressed in brain neurons. A large volume of evidence has proven that Ngb is a neuroprotective molecule against hypoxic/ischemic brain injury and other related neurological disorder; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Aiming to provide more clues in understanding the molecular mechanisms of Ngb’s neuroprotection, we performed yeast two-hybrid screening to search for proteins that interact with Ngb. From a mouse brain cDNA library, we found totally 36 proteins that potentially interact with Ngb, and 10 of them were each identified in multiple positive clones. The shared sequences within these multiple clones are more likely to be Ngb-interacting domains. In primary cultured mouse cortical neurons, immuno-precipitation was performed to confirm the interactions of selected proteins with Ngb. The discovered Ngb-interacting proteins in this study include those involved in energy metabolism, mitochondria function and signaling pathways for cell survival and proliferation. Our findings provide molecular targets for investigating protein interaction-based biological functions and neuroprotective mechanisms of Ngb.
Neuroglobin; yeast two-hybrid screening; molecular interaction
The inactivation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is associated with anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects in cerebral ischemia, which can be induced by an imbalance between upstream phosphatases and kinases.
Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 7 (MKP-7) was upregulated significantly at 4 h of reperfusion postischemia in rat hippocampi. By administration of cycloheximide or siRNA against mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 7 (MKP-7) in a rat model of ischemia/reperfusion, an obvious enhancement of JNK activity was observed in 4 h of reperfusion following ischemia, suggesting MKP-7 was involved in JNK inactivation after ischemia. The subcellular localization of MKP-7 altered after ischemia, and the inhibition of MKP-7 nuclear export by Leptomycin B up-regulated JNK activity. Although PI3K/Akt inhibition could block downregulation of JNK activity through SEK1 and MKK-7 activation, PI3K/Akt activity was not associated with the regulation of JNK by MKP-7.
MKP-7, independently of PI3K/Akt pathway, played a key role in downregulation of JNK activity after ischemia in the rat hippocampus, and the export of MKP-7 from the nucleus was involved in downregulation of cytoplasmic JNK activity in response to ischemic stimuli.
Cerebral ischemia; JNK; PI3K/Akt; MKP-7
This article presents a three-dimensional analytical model to investigate cross-stream diffusion transport in rectangular microchannels with arbitrary aspect ratios under pressure-driven flow. The Fourier series solution to the three-dimensional convection–diffusion equation is obtained using a double integral transformation method and associated eigensystem calculation. A phase diagram derived from the dimensional analysis is presented to thoroughly interrogate the characteristics in various transport regimes and examine the validity of the model. The analytical model is verified against both experimental and numerical models in terms of the concentration profile, diffusion scaling law, and mixing efficiency with excellent agreement (with <0.5% relative error). Quantitative comparison against other prior analytical models in extensive parameter space is also performed, which demonstrates that the present model accommodates much broader transport regimes with significantly enhanced applicability.
Cross-stream diffusion; Mixing; Microfluidics; Pressure-driven flow
Aging and age-related diseases can be viewed as the result of the lifelong accumulation of stress insults. The identification of mutant strains and genes which are responsive to stress and can alter longevity profiles provides new therapeutic targets for age-related diseases. Here we reported that a Drosophila strain with reduced expression of ribose-5-phosphate isomerase (rpi), EP2456, exhibits increased resistance to oxidative stress and enhanced lifespan. In addition, the strain also displays higher levels of NADPH. The knockdown of rpi in neurons by double-stranded RNA interference recapitulated the lifespan extension and oxidative stress resistance in Drosophila. This manipulation was also found to ameliorate the effects of genetic manipulations aimed at creating a model for studying Huntington’s disease by overexpression of polyglutamine in the eye, suggesting that modulating rpi levels could serve as a treatment for normal aging as well as for polyglutamine neurotoxicity.
ribose-5-phosphate isomerase; pentose phosphate pathway; neuron; oxidative stress; longevity; polyglutamine toxicity; Drosophila
Anti-Bacterial Agents; Aseptic; Analysis
Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is a key factor for the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), whose function is known to be mediated by TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) or 2. However, the precise role of the two receptors in IBD remains poorly understood. Herein, acute colitis was induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) instillation in TNFR1 or 2−/− mice. TNFR1 ablation led to exacerbation of signs of colitis, including more weight loss, increased mortality, colon shortening and oedema, severe intestinal damage, and higher levels of myeloperoxidase compared to wild-type counterparts. While, TNFR2 deficiency had opposite effects. This discrepancy was reflected by alteration of proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine production in the colons. Importantly, TNFR1 ablation rendered enhanced apoptosis of colonic epithelial cells and TNFR2 deficiency conferred pro-apoptotic effects of lamina propria (LP)-immune cells, as shown by the decreased ratio of Bcl-2/Bax and enhanced nuclear factor (NF)-κB activity.