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HvCEBiP, a gene homologous to rice chitin receptor CEBiP, contributes to basal resistance of barley to Magnaporthe oryzae
BMC Plant Biology
Rice CEBiP recognizes chitin oligosaccharides on the fungal cell surface or released into the plant apoplast, leading to the expression of plant disease resistance against fungal infection. However, it has not yet been reported whether CEBiP is actually required for restricting the growth of fungal pathogens. Here we evaluated the involvement of a putative chitin receptor gene in the basal resistance of barley to the ssd1 mutant of Magnaporthe oryzae, which induces multiple host defense responses.
The mossd1 mutant showed attenuated pathogenicity on barley and appressorial penetration was restricted by the formation of callose papillae at attempted entry sites. When conidial suspensions of mossd1 mutant were spotted onto the leaves of HvCEBiP-silenced plants, small brown necrotic flecks or blast lesions were produced but these lesions did not expand beyond the inoculation site. Wild-type M. oryzae also produced slightly more severe symptoms on the leaves of HvCEBiP-silenced plants. Cytological observation revealed that these lesions resulted from appressorium-mediated penetration into plant epidermal cells.
These results suggest that HvCEBiP is involved in basal resistance against appressorium-mediated infection and that basal resistance might be triggered by the recognition of chitin oligosaccharides derived from M. oryzae.
Kelch Repeat Protein Clakel2p and Calcium Signaling Control Appressorium Development in Colletotrichum lagenarium▿ †
Kelch repeat proteins are important mediators of fundamental cellular functions and are found in diverse organisms. However, the roles of these proteins in filamentous fungi have not been characterized. We isolated a kelch repeat-encoding gene of Colletotrichum lagenarium ClaKEL2, a Schizosaccharomyces pombe tea1 homologue. Analysis of the clakel2 mutant indicated that ClaKEL2 was required for the establishment of cellular polarity essential for proper morphogenesis of appressoria and that there is a plant signal-specific bypass pathway for appressorium development which circumvents ClaKEL2 function. Clakel2p was localized in the polarized region of growing hyphae and germ tubes, and the localization was disturbed by a microtubule assembly blocker. The clakel2 mutants formed abnormal appressoria, and those appressoria were defective in penetration hypha development into cellulose membranes, an artificial model substrate for fungal infection. Surprisingly, the clakel2 mutants formed normal appressoria on the host plant and retained penetration ability. Normal appressorium formation on the artificial substrate by the clakel2 mutants was restored when cells were incubated in the presence of CaCl2 or exudates from cucumber cotyledon. Furthermore, calcium channel modulators inhibited restoration of normal appressorium formation. These results suggest that there could be a bypass pathway that transduces a plant-derived signal for appressorium development independent of ClaKEL2 and that a calcium signal is involved in this transduction pathway.
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