To investigate deep and comprehensive analysis of gut microbial communities and biological parameters after prebiotic administration in obese and diabetic mice.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Genetic (ob/ob) or diet-induced obese and diabetic mice were chronically fed with prebiotic-enriched diet or with a control diet. Extensive gut microbiota analyses, including quantitative PCR, pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA, and phylogenetic microarrays, were performed in ob/ob mice. The impact of gut microbiota modulation on leptin sensitivity was investigated in diet-induced leptin-resistant mice. Metabolic parameters, gene expression, glucose homeostasis, and enteroendocrine-related L-cell function were documented in both models.
In ob/ob mice, prebiotic feeding decreased Firmicutes and increased Bacteroidetes phyla, but also changed 102 distinct taxa, 16 of which displayed a >10-fold change in abundance. In addition, prebiotics improved glucose tolerance, increased L-cell number and associated parameters (intestinal proglucagon mRNA expression and plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 levels), and reduced fat-mass development, oxidative stress, and low-grade inflammation. In high fat–fed mice, prebiotic treatment improved leptin sensitivity as well as metabolic parameters.
We conclude that specific gut microbiota modulation improves glucose homeostasis, leptin sensitivity, and target enteroendocrine cell activity in obese and diabetic mice. By profiling the gut microbiota, we identified a catalog of putative bacterial targets that may affect host metabolism in obesity and diabetes.
Hepatitis E virus; homeless persons; HEV transmission; autochthonous hepatitis; injection drug use; France; viruses; letter
Growing evidence supports the role of gut microbiota in the development of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and low-grade inflammation. The endocrine activity of adipose tissue has been found to contribute to the regulation of glucose homeostasis and low-grade inflammation. Among the key hormones produced by this tissue, apelin has been shown to regulate glucose homeostasis. Recently, it has been proposed that gut microbiota participate in adipose tissue metabolism via the endocannabinoid system (eCB) and gut microbiota-derived compounds, namely lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We have investigated gut microbiota composition in obese and diabetic leptin-resistant mice (db/db) by combining pyrosequencing and phylogenetic microarray analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences. We observed a significant higher abundance of Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Fibrobacteres phyla in db/db mice compared to lean mice. The abundance of 10 genera was significantly affected by the genotype. We identified the roles of the eCB and LPS in the regulation of apelinergic system tone (apelin and APJ mRNA expression) in genetic obese and diabetic mice. By using in vivo and in vitro models, we have demonstrated that both the eCB and low-grade inflammation differentially regulate apelin and APJ mRNA expression in adipose tissue. Finally, deep-gut microbiota profiling revealed that the gut microbial community of type 2 diabetic mice is significantly different from that of their lean counterparts. This indicates specific relationships between the gut microbiota and the regulation of the apelinergic system. However, the exact roles of specific bacteria in shaping the phenotype of db/db mice remain to be determined.
gut microbiota; type 2 diabetes; inflammation; LPS; endocannabinoid; apelin; APJ; metabolic endotoxemia
The HIV-1 RNA viral load is commonly used for the monitoring of disease progression and antiretroviral treatment of HIV-1-infected patients. Since the misestimating of values could lead to inappropriate therapeutical management, the comparative performances, especially the ability to span the genetic diversity of HIV-1, of available automated real-time assays need to be evaluated. We conducted a prospective study with 74 consenting patients enrolled between March 2007 and November 2008. A blood sample was obtained at the time of diagnosis of HIV seropositivity and blindly tested for HIV-1 RNA by at least 4 commercial tests: the Abbott m2000 RealTime HIV-1, bioMérieux NucliSens EasyQ HIV-1, version 1.2 (v1.2), and Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan (CAP/CTM) v1.0 and v2.0 assays. The means of difference were null between CAP/CTM v2.0 and Abbott for CRF02_AG subtypes but positive in favor of CAP/CTM v2.0 for genotype B and negative in favor of NucliSens for all genotypes. The standard deviation (SD) of difference ranged from 0.3 to 0.59, depending on the considered couples of assays. Reliabilities of these four tests, appreciated by the standard deviation of difference between the measurement and the estimated “true” viral load and by the coefficient of reliability, were significantly different (P < 10−4) among each other. Significant differences were also observed within each group of HIV-1 genotype. The global disparity was higher for CRF02_AG than for B subtypes. This study indicates a risk of viral load misestimating or discrepancies between techniques, depending on the HIV-1 subtype, and speaks in favor of using the same assay for the monitoring of HIV-1-infected patients.
We analyzed mortality among 201 patients with AIDS and tuberculosis in Haiti. Patients who received a diagnosis of tuberculosis during the first 3 months after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy were 3.25 times more likely to die than were other patients with AIDS and tuberculosis. Failure to recognize active tuberculosis at initiation of antiretroviral therapy leads to increased mortality.
We hypothesized that lymph nodes draining sites of cutaneous vaccination could be identified by sentinel node biopsy techniques, and that measuring T-cell response with lymphocytes obtained from these lymph nodes would provide a more sensitive measure of immunogenicity than would the same measurement made with peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL).
ELISpot analysis was used to determine the magnitude of vaccine-specific T-cell response in the sentinel immunized nodes (SIN), random lymph nodes, and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) obtained from patients enrolled in clinical trials of experimental melanoma vaccines.
The SIN biopsy was successful in 97%of cases and morbidity was very low. The T-cell response to vaccination was detected with greater sensitivity in the SIN(57%) than in PBL (39%), and evaluation of T-cell responses in the SIN and the PBL together yielded T-cell responses in 63% of patients. When the T-cell responses from a SIN and a random lymph node were compared in four patients, immune responses were detected to one of the vaccine peptides in three of these four patients. In all of those cases, responses were present in the SIN but absent from the random lymph node.
Measurements of T-cell responsiveness to cutaneous immunization are more frequently positive in the SIN than they are in the PBL, however evaluation of both the SIN and PBL permit a more sensitive measure of T-cell immunogenicity than use of either single source.
Understanding how hepatitis C virus (HCV) induces and circumvents the host's natural killer (NK) cell-mediated immunity is of critical importance in efforts to design effective therapeutics. We report here the decreased expression of the NKG2D activating receptor as a novel strategy adopted by HCV to evade NK-cell mediated responses. We show that chronic HCV infection is associated with expression of ligands for NKG2D, the MHC class I-related Chain (MIC) molecules, on hepatocytes. However, NKG2D expression is downmodulated on circulating NK cells, and consequently NK cell-mediated cytotoxic capacity and interferon-γ production are impaired. Using an endotoxin-free recombinant NS5A protein, we show that NS5A stimulation of monocytes through Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4) promotes p38- and PI3 kinase-dependent IL-10 production, while inhibiting IL-12 production. In turn, IL-10 triggers secretion of TGFβ which downmodulates NKG2D expression on NK cells, leading to their impaired effector functions. Moreover, culture supernatants of HCV JFH1 replicating Huh-7.5.1 cells reproduce the effect of recombinant NS5A on NKG2D downmodulation. Exogenous IL-15 can antagonize the TGFβ effect and restore normal NKG2D expression on NK cells. We conclude that NKG2D-dependent NK cell functions are modulated during chronic HCV infection, and demonstrate that this alteration can be prevented by exogenous IL-15, which could represent a meaningful adjuvant for therapeutic intervention.
Natural killer (NK) cells are part of the innate immune response against virus infection. Their activation is the net result of signals emanating from a panel of inhibitory and activating receptors, among which the NKG2D activating receptor plays a major role. NKG2D ligands, the MHC class I related Chain (MIC) molecules, are induced on HCV-infected hepatocytes. In this paper, we show that NKG2D expression is decreased on NK cells from chronically infected HCV patients. As a consequence, NK cell cytolytic and IFNγ-producing functions are impaired. We show that this phenomenon is mediated by TGFβ produced by monocytes upon stimulation by the non-structural HCV-NS5A protein. NS5A could bind to TLR4 on monocytes, thus inducing the production of IL-10 and TGFβ, while inhibiting the production of IL-12. We further showed that TLR4-dependent IL-10 production by monocytes upon NS5A stimulation was mediated through the p38 and PI3 kinase pathways. In addition, we demonstrated that IL-15 could inhibit the TGFβ-mediated effects on NKG2D expression and NK cell functions. Collectively, these results identify a new dampening signal used by HCV to subvert innate immune response, and may provide new insights into the design of new strategies to restore NK cell functions in chronic hepatitis C.
Background and aims
An algorithm based on a 2 log10 decline in hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA at week (W) 12 has been proposed in US and European recommendations for the management of patients with chronic hepatitis C treated with pegylated‐interferon and ribavirin.
We examined rapid virological response (RVR; at W2 and W4 after the initiation of therapy) in HIV/HCV co‐infected patients. Using HCV RNA measurements (Versant HCV RNA 3.0, Cobas Amplicor HCV 2.0), RVR was studied in 323 patients from the ANRS HC02 RIBAVIC trial, comparing interferon α2b 3 MU ×3/week with pegylated interferon α2b 1.5 μg/kg/week, each combined with ribavirin 800 mg/day over 48 weeks.
The best positive and negative predictive values of sustained virological response (SVR) were obtained with an undetectable HCV RNA at W4 (97%) and with more than a 2 log10 decrease at W12 (99%), respectively. Prediction of non‐SVR was obtained in all patients by using HCV RNA cut‐off levels above 460 000 IU/ml at W4 and above 39 000 UI/ml at W12 irrespective of the HCV genotype and arm of treatment.
We propose a new algorithm based on RVR thresholds using HCV RNA that allows for excellent prediction of non‐SVR as early as W4.
HIV/HCV co‐infection; hepatitis C therapy; HCV viral load; rapid and early viral decline; prediction of response
A phase I/II trial was performed to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of a novel melanoma vaccine comprising six melanoma-associated peptides defined as antigenic targets for melanoma-reactive helper T cells. Source proteins for these peptides include MAGE proteins, MART-1/MelanA, gp100, and tyrosinase.
Patients and Methods
Thirty-nine patients with stage IIIB to IV melanoma were vaccinated with this six-peptide mixture weekly at three dose levels, with a preceding phase I dose escalation and subsequent random assignment among the dose levels. Helper T-lymphocyte responses were assessed by in vitro proliferation assay and delayed-type hypersensitivity skin testing. Patients with measurable disease were evaluated for objective clinical response by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors.
Vaccination with the helper peptide vaccine was well tolerated. Proliferation assays revealed induction of T-cell responses to the melanoma helper peptides in 81% of patients. Among 17 patients with measurable disease, objective clinical responses were observed in two patients (12%), with response durations of 1 and 3.9+ years. Durable stable disease was observed in two additional patients for periods of 1.8 and 4.6+ years.
Results of this study support the safety and immunogenicity of a vaccine comprised of six melanoma helper peptides. There is also early evidence of clinical activity.
OBJECTIVE—Synthetic ligands for peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) improve insulin sensitivity in obesity, but it is still unclear whether inflammatory signals modulate their metabolic actions. In this study, we tested whether targeted disruption of inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS), a key inflammatory mediator in obesity, modulates the metabolic effects of rosiglitazone in obese mice.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—iNOS−/− and iNOS+/+ were subjected to a high-fat diet or standard diet for 18 weeks and were then treated with rosiglitazone for 2 weeks. Whole-body insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance were determined and metabolic tissues harvested to assess activation of insulin and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathways and the levels of inflammatory mediators.
RESULTS—Rosiglitazone was found to similarly improve whole-body insulin sensitivity and insulin signaling to Akt/PKB in skeletal muscle of obese iNOS−/− and obese iNOS+/+ mice. However, rosiglitazone further improved glucose tolerance and liver insulin signaling only in obese mice lacking iNOS. This genotype-specific effect of rosiglitazone on glucose tolerance was linked to a markedly increased ability of the drug to raise plasma adiponectin levels. Accordingly, rosiglitazone increased AMPK activation in muscle and liver only in obese iNOS−/− mice. PPAR-γ transcriptional activity was increased in adipose tissue of iNOS−/− mice. Conversely, treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with a NO donor blunted PPAR-γ activity.
CONCLUSIONS—Our results identify the iNOS/NO pathway as a critical modulator of PPAR-γ activation and circulating adiponectin levels and show that invalidation of this key inflammatory mediator improves the efficacy of PPAR-γ agonism in an animal model of obesity and insulin resistance.
Breast cancer is a complex and heterogeneous disease at the molecular level. Evolution is difficult to predict according to classical histoclinical prognostic factors. Different studies highlight the importance of large-scale molecular expression analyses to improve taxonomy of breast cancer and prognostic classification. Identification of new molecular markers that refine this taxonomy and improve patient management is a priority in the field of breast cancer research.
Nectins are cell adhesion molecules involved in the regulation of epithelial physiology. We present here Nectin-4/PVRL4 as a new histological and serological tumor associated marker for breast carcinoma.
Expression of Nectin-4 protein was measured on a panel of 78 primary cells and cell lines from different origins and 57 breast tumors by FACS analysis and immunohistochemistry (IHC), respectively. mRNA expression was measured by quantitative PCR.
Serum Nectin-4 was detected by ELISA and compared with CEA and CA15.3 markers, on panels of 45 sera from healthy donors, 53 sera from patients with non-metastatic breast carcinoma (MBC) at diagnosis, and 182 sera from patients with MBC. Distribution of histological/serological molecular markers and histoclinical parameters were compared using the standard Chi-2 test.
Nectin-4 was not detected in normal breast epithelium. By contrast, Nectin-4 was expressed in 61% of ductal breast carcinoma vs 6% in lobular type. Expression of Nectin-4 strongly correlated with the basal-like markers EGFR, P53, and P-cadherin, and negatively correlated with the luminal-like markers ER, PR and GATA3. All but one ER/PR-negative tumors expressed Nectin-4. The detection of Nectin-4 in serum improves the follow-up of patients with MBC: the association CEA/CA15.3/Nectin-4 allowed to monitor 74% of these patients compared to 67% with the association CEA/CA15.3. Serum Nectin-4 is a marker of disease progression, and levels correlate with the number of metastases (P = 0.038). Serum Nectin-4 is also a marker of therapeutic efficiency and correlates, in 90% of cases, with clinical evolution.
Nectin-4 is a new tumor-associated antigen for breast carcinoma. Nectin-4 is a new bio-marker whose use could help refine breast cancer taxonomy and improve patients' follow-up. Nectin-4 emerges as a potential target for breast cancer immunotherapy.
We report the isolation of chikungunya virus from a patient during an outbreak of a denguelike syndrome in Cameroon in 2006. The virus was phylogenetically grouped in the Democratic Republic of the Congo cluster, indicating a continuous circulation of a genetically similar chikungunya virus population during 6 years in Central Africa.
Chikungunya virus; alphavirus; Dengue viruses; arbovirus; Cameroon; dispatch
PAPRICA is a research program designed to estimate the impact on the health of patients with chronic respiratory insufficiency of a prevention strategy based on notification of ozone pollution. The first year of this study was conducted during the 2003 heat wave, and high temperatures were therefore considered as a confounding factor in the data analysis. The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between ozone and temperature in order to propose a methodology to distinguish between the effects of ozone and temperature on the impact of a prevention strategy with regard to ozone pollution.
Multivariate analyses were used to identify associated climate and ozone pollution profiles. This descriptive method is of great value to highlight the complexity of interactions between these parameters.
Ozone concentration and temperature were strongly correlated, but the health impact of ozone pollution alone will be evaluated by focusing on situations characterized by ozone concentrations above 110 μg/m3/8h (air quality guidelines to protect human health defined by the French legislation) and temperatures lower than 26°C, below the discomfort threshold.
The precise relationship between ambient ozone concentration and temperature identified during the PAPRICA 2003 study period will be used in analysing the PAPRICA health data.
The retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) contains CO2-responsive neurons that regulate breathing frequency and amplitude. These neurons (RTN-Phox2b neurons) contain the transcription factor Phox2b, vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2) mRNA, and a subset contains preprogalanin mRNA. We wished to determine whether the terminals of RTN-Phox2b neurons contain galanin and VGLUT2 proteins, to identify the specific projections of the galaninergic subset, to test whether RTN-Phox2b neurons contact neurons in the pre-Bötzinger complex, and to identify the ultrastructure of these synapses. The axonal projections of RTN-Phox2b neurons were traced by using biotinylated dextran amine (BDA), and many BDA-ir boutons were found to contain galanin immunoreactivity. RTN galaninergic neurons had ipsilateral projections that were identical with those of this nucleus at large: the ventral respiratory column, the caudolateral nucleus of the solitary tract, and the pontine Köliker-Fuse, intertrigeminal region, and lateral parabrachial nucleus. For ultrastructural studies, RTN-Phox2b neurons (galaninergic and others) were transfected with a lentiviral vector that expresses mCherry almost exclusively in Phox2b-ir neurons. After spinal cord injections of a catecholamine neuron-selective toxin, there was a depletion of C1 neurons in the RTN area; thus it was determined that the mCherry-positive terminals located in the pre-Bötzinger complex originated almost exclusively from the RTN-Phox2b (non-C1) neurons. These terminals were generally VGLUT2-immunoreactive and formed numerous close appositions with neurokinin-1 receptor-ir pre-Bötzinger complex neurons. Their boutons (n = 48) formed asymmetric synapses filled with small clear vesicles. In summary, RTN-Phox2b neurons, including the galaninergic subset, selectively innervate the respiratory pattern generator plus a portion of the dorsolateral pons. RTN-Phox2b neurons establish classic excitatory glutamatergic synapses with pre-Bötzinger complex neurons presumed to generate the respiratory rhythm.
central respiratory chemoreception; respiratory network; brainstem
Myelinated axons are organized into specialized domains critical to their function in saltatory conduction, i.e. nodes, paranodes, juxtaparanodes, and internodes. Here, we describe the distribution and role of the 4.1B protein in this organization. 4.1B is expressed by neurons, and at lower levels by Schwann cells, which also robustly express 4.1G. Immunofluorescence and immuno-EM demonstrates 4.1B is expressed subjacent to the axon membrane in all domains except the nodes. Mice deficient in 4.1B have preserved paranodes, based on marker staining and EM in contrast to the juxtaparanodes, which are substantially affected in both the PNS and CNS. The juxtaparanodal defect is evident in developing and adult nerves and is neuron-autonomous based on myelinating cocultures in which wt Schwann cells were grown with 4.1B-deficient neurons. Despite the juxtaparanodal defect, nerve conduction velocity is unaffected. Preservation of paranodal markers in 4.1B deficient mice is associated with, but not dependent on an increase of 4.1R at the axonal paranodes. Loss of 4.1B in the axon is also associated with reduced levels of the internodal proteins, Necl-1 and Necl-2, and of alpha-2 spectrin. Mutant nerves are modestly hypermyelinated and have increased numbers of Schmidt-Lanterman incisures, increased expression of 4.1G, and express a residual, truncated isoform of 4.1B. These results demonstrate that 4.1B is a key cytoskeletal scaffold for axonal adhesion molecules expressed in the juxtaparanodal and internodal domains and, unexpectedly, that it regulates myelin sheath thickness.
nodes of Ranvier; myelin; axons; paranodes; cytoskeleton
A 51-year-old man with a history of stage IV angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma was diagnosed with osteomyelitis of the patella. Legionella anisa was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and culture. The patient had pneumonia 2 months prior to this osteomyelitis episode. L. anisa was retrospectively detected in his lung tissue by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and was considered the source of the L. anisa that caused his patella osteomyelitis.
The critical role of noncoding small RNAs (sRNAs) in the bacterial response to changing conditions is increasingly recognized. However, a specific role for sRNAs during antibiotic exposure has not been investigated in Staphylococcus aureus. Here, we used Illumina RNA-Seq to examine the sRNA response of multiresistant sequence type 239 (ST239) S. aureus after exposure to four antibiotics (vancomycin, linezolid, ceftobiprole, and tigecycline) representing the major classes of antimicrobials used to treat methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infections. We identified 409 potential sRNAs and then compared global sRNA and mRNA expression profiles at 2 and 6 h, without antibiotic exposure and after exposure to each antibiotic, for a vancomycin-susceptible strain (JKD6009) and a vancomycin-intermediate strain (JKD6008). Exploration of this data set by multivariate analysis using a novel implementation of nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) revealed very different responses for mRNA and sRNA. Where mRNA responses clustered with strain or growth phase conditions, the sRNA responses were predominantly linked to antibiotic exposure, including sRNA responses that were specific for particular antibiotics. A remarkable feature of the antimicrobial response was the prominence of antisense sRNAs to genes encoding proteins involved in protein synthesis and ribosomal function. This study has defined a large sRNA repertoire in epidemic ST239 MRSA and shown for the first time that a subset of sRNAs are part of a coordinated transcriptional response to specific antimicrobial exposures in S. aureus. These data provide a framework for interrogating the role of staphylococcal sRNAs in antimicrobial resistance and exploring new avenues for sRNA-based antimicrobial therapies.
Enterobacteriaceae producing the novel carbapenemase New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM-1) are emerging worldwide. While these organisms often display high levels of in vitro resistance to multiple antibiotics, in vivo efficacy data are lacking. Here, the activities of humanized ertapenem and doripenem exposures were characterized against a wild-type K. pneumoniae and its derived isogenic strains harboring either an NDM-1 or KPC-2 plasmid in immunocompetent mice. In addition, four clinical isolates expressing NDM-1 were evaluated. Human-simulated regimens of ertapenem at 1 g every 24 h and high-dose, prolonged infusion of doripenem at 2 g every 8 h as a 4-h infusion were evaluated over 24 h, and efficacy was determined by the change in bacterial density compared to that in 24-h growth controls. CFU reductions in bacterial density of greater than 1 log unit were observed against the wild-type strain as well as the derived isogenic NDM-1 strain, while no reduction was observed against the derived KPC-2 strain. Postexposure MICs confirmed the in vitro maintenance of the ertapenem resistance marker in both the NDM-1 and KPC-2 strains. Similar to the case for the isogenically derived NDM-1 strain, bacterial density was reduced at 24 h against all four clinical NDM-1 isolates showing variable levels of MICs for carbapenems, with near-maximal activity of both agents occurring when the doripenem MIC was ≤8 μg/ml. While carbapenem monotherapy does not appear to be an option against KPC-based infections, these data suggest that carbapenem monotherapy may be a viable option for treating NDM-1-producing Enterobacteriaceae under certain conditions, and this warrants further in vivo exploration.
Aims: We have previously demonstrated that central apelin is implicated in the control of peripheral glycemia, and its action depends on nutritional (fast versus fed) and physiological (normal versus diabetic) states. An intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of a high dose of apelin, similar to that observed in obese/diabetic mice, increase fasted glycemia, suggesting (i) that apelin contributes to the establishment of a diabetic state, and (ii) the existence of a hypothalamic to liver axis. Using pharmacological, genetic, and nutritional approaches, we aim at unraveling this system of regulation by identifying the hypothalamic molecular actors that trigger the apelin effect on liver glucose metabolism and glycemia. Results: We show that icv apelin injection stimulates liver glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis via an over-activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), leading to fasted hyperglycemia. The effect of central apelin on liver function is dependent of an increased production of hypothalamic reactive oxygen species (ROS). These data are strengthened by experiments using lentiviral vector-mediated over-expression of apelin in hypothalamus of mice that present over-activation of SNS associated to an increase in hepatic glucose production. Finally, we report that mice fed a high-fat diet present major alterations of hypothalamic apelin/ROS signaling, leading to activation of glycogenolysis. Innovation/Conclusion: These data bring compelling evidence that hypothalamic apelin is one master switch that participates in the onset of diabetes by directly acting on liver function. Our data support the idea that hypothalamic apelin is a new potential therapeutic target to treat diabetes. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 557–573.
In vitro studies have suggested that isolated gut bacteria are able to metabolize PUFA into CLA (conjugated linoleic acids) and CLnA (conjugated linolenic acids). However, the bioavailability of fatty acid metabolites produced in vivo by the gut microbes remains to be studied. Therefore, we measured intestinal concentration and plasma accumulation of bacterial metabolites produced from dietary PUFA in mice, first injected with a lipoprotein lipase inhibitor, then force-fed with either sunflower oil (200 µl) rich in n-6 PUFA or linseed oil (200 µl) rich in n-3 PUFA. The greatest production of bacterial metabolites was observed in the caecum and colon, and at a much lesser extent in the jejunum and ileum. In the caecal content, CLA proportions were higher in sunflower oil force-fed mice whereas CLnA proportions were higher in linseed oil force-fed mice. The accumulation of the main metabolites (CLA cis-9,trans-11-18:2 and CLnA cis-9,trans-11,cis-15-18:3) in the caecal tissue was not associated with their increase in the plasma, therefore suggesting that, if endogenously produced CLA and CLnA have any biological role in host metabolism regulation, their effect would be confined at the intestinal level, where the microbiota is abundant.
Hepatitis C virus infection leads to liver disease whose severity can range from mild to serious lifelong illness. However the parameters involved in the evolution of the disease are still unknown. Among other factors, the virus-elicited antibody profile is suspected to play a role in the outcome of the disease. Analysis of the relationship between anti-virus antibodies and disease state requires the analysis of a large number of serums from patients (hepatitis C virus+) and of epitopes from the viral proteins. Such a study would benefit from microarray-based screening systems that are appropriate for high-throughput assays.
We used a method combining peptide chips and surface plasmon resonance imaging previously shown to be suitable for analyzing complex mediums and detecting peptide-protein interactions. 56 peptides covering the entire viral proteome were grafted on chips and their interaction with antibodies present in the 68 injected serums from infected and non-infected donors was measured. Statistical analyses were conducted to determine a possible relationship between antibodies (specificity and amount) and disease states.
A good discrimination between infected and non-infected donors validated our approach, and several correlations between antibodies profiles and clinical parameters have been identified. In particular, we demonstrated that ratios between particular antibodies levels allow for accurate discrimination of patients according to their pathologic states.
Humoral response against hepatitis C virus linear epitopes is partly modified according to the disease state. This study highlights the importance of considering relative quantities of antibodies with different specificities rather than the amount of each antibody.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi: 10.1186/2193-1801-3-56) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Antibody; Epitope; Hepatitis C virus; Peptide chip; SPR imaging
To assess metabolic and endocrine defects in girls genetically predisposed to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
Controlled cross-sectional study.
Nine girls aged 8–14 years having a first-degree relative diagnosed with PCOS (PCOSr) and 10 age-matched girls unrelated to PCOS.
Main outcome measure
Insulin sensitivity determined by frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance testing (ISFSivGTT) and insulin-induced non-esterified fatty acid suppression (NEFAsupp), estimated by the log-linear slope of NEFA levels during the first 20 min of FSivGTT.
In comparison to controls, PCOSr had higher body mass index Z-score (BMI-z), waist circumference and waist/height ratio. Levels of the androgen 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHPg) were significantly increased in PCOSr, independently of adiposity, and inversely correlated with ISFSivGTT. ISFSivGTT was decreased and NEFAsupp was less steep in PCOSr as compared to controls, independently of BMI-z and 17OHPg. NEFAsupp was more pronounced with increasing ISFSivGTT, independently of adiposity.
Girls at high risk of developing PCOS display increased adiposity and 17OHPg levels, but are mainly characterized by global insulin resistance and resistance to insulin-induced suppression of lipolysis that were independent of adiposity and 17OHPg levels. Therefore, genetic predisposition to PCOS may be related to early insulin resistance and adipocyte dysfunction.
Polycystic ovary syndrome; Non-esterified fatty acids; Insulin resistance; Adipose Tissue Metabolism and Adolescents/Children
The success of Genome Wide Association Studies in the discovery of sequence variation linked to complex traits in humans has increased interest in high throughput SNP genotyping assays in livestock species. Primary goals are QTL detection and genomic selection. The purpose here was design of a 50–60,000 SNP chip for goats. The success of a moderate density SNP assay depends on reliable bioinformatic SNP detection procedures, the technological success rate of the SNP design, even spacing of SNPs on the genome and selection of Minor Allele Frequencies (MAF) suitable to use in diverse breeds. Through the federation of three SNP discovery projects consolidated as the International Goat Genome Consortium, we have identified approximately twelve million high quality SNP variants in the goat genome stored in a database together with their biological and technical characteristics. These SNPs were identified within and between six breeds (meat, milk and mixed): Alpine, Boer, Creole, Katjang, Saanen and Savanna, comprising a total of 97 animals. Whole genome and Reduced Representation Library sequences were aligned on >10 kb scaffolds of the de novo goat genome assembly. The 60,000 selected SNPs, evenly spaced on the goat genome, were submitted for oligo manufacturing (Illumina, Inc) and published in dbSNP along with flanking sequences and map position on goat assemblies (i.e. scaffolds and pseudo-chromosomes), sheep genome V2 and cattle UMD3.1 assembly. Ten breeds were then used to validate the SNP content and 52,295 loci could be successfully genotyped and used to generate a final cluster file. The combined strategy of using mainly whole genome Next Generation Sequencing and mapping on a contig genome assembly, complemented with Illumina design tools proved to be efficient in producing this GoatSNP50 chip. Advances in use of molecular markers are expected to accelerate goat genomic studies in coming years.
Systemic mastocytosis with associated hematologic clonal non-mast cell disease (SM-AHNMD) is a rare and heterogeneous subtype of SM and few studies on this specific entity have been reported. Sixty two patients with Systemic mastocytosis with associated hematologic clonal non-mast cell disease (SM-AHNMD) were presented. Myeloid AHNMD was the most frequent (82%) cases. This subset of patients were older, had more cutaneous lesions, splenomegaly, liver enlargement, ascites; lower bone mineral density and hemoglobin levels and higher tryptase level than lymphoid AHNMD. Defects in KIT, TET2, ASXL1 and CBL were positive in 87%, 27%, 14%, and 11% of cases respectively. The overall survival of patients with SM-AHNMD was 85.2 months. Within the myeloid group, SM-MPN fared better than SM-MDS or SM-AML (p = 0.044,). In univariate analysis, the presence of C-findings, the AHNMD subtypes (SM-MDS/CMML/AML versus SM-MPN/hypereosinophilia) (p = 0.044), Neutropenia (p = 0.015), high monocyte level (p = 0.015) and the presence of ASXL1 mutation had detrimental effects on OS (p = 0.007). In multivariate analysis and penalized Cox model, only the presence of ASXL1 mutation remained an independent prognostic factor that negatively affected OS (p = 0.035). SM-AHNMD is heterogeneous with variable prognosis according to the type of the AHNMD. ASXL1 is mutated in a subset of myeloid AHNMD and adversely impact on OS.
Mutations in the RPE65 gene are associated with autosomal recessive early onset severe retinal dystrophy. Morphological and functional studies indicate early and dramatic loss of rod photoreceptors and early loss of S-cone function, while L and M cones remain initially functional. The Swedish Briard dog is a naturally occurring animal model for this disease. Detailed information about rod and cone reaction to RPE65 deficiency in this model with regard to their location within the retina remains limited. The aim of this study was to analyze morphological parameters of cone and rod viability in young adult RPE65 deficient dogs in different parts of the retina in order to shed light on local disparities in this disease. In retinae of affected dogs, sprouting of rod bipolar cell dendrites and horizontal cell processes was dramatically increased in the inferior peripheral part of affected retinae, while central inferior and both superior parts did not display significantly increased sprouting. This observation was correlated with photoreceptor cell layer thickness. Interestingly, while L/M cone opsin expression was uniformly reduced both in the superior and inferior part of the retina, S-cone opsin expression loss was less severe in the inferior part of the retina. In summary, in retinae of young adult RPE65 deficient dogs, the degree of rod bipolar and horizontal cell sprouting as well as of S-cone opsin expression depends on the location. As the human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is pigmented similar to the RPE in the inferior part of the canine retina, and the kinetics of photoreceptor degeneration in humans seems to be similar to what has been observed in the inferior peripheral retina in dogs, this area should be studied in future gene therapy experiments in this model.