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1.  Value of a newly sequenced bacterial genome 
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have made high-throughput sequencing available to medium- and small-size laboratories, culminating in a tidal wave of genomic information. The quantity of sequenced bacterial genomes has not only brought excitement to the field of genomics but also heightened expectations that NGS would boost antibacterial discovery and vaccine development. Although many possible drug and vaccine targets have been discovered, the success rate of genome-based analysis has remained below expectations. Furthermore, NGS has had consequences for genome quality, resulting in an exponential increase in draft (partial data) genome deposits in public databases. If no further interests are expressed for a particular bacterial genome, it is more likely that the sequencing of its genome will be limited to a draft stage, and the painstaking tasks of completing the sequencing of its genome and annotation will not be undertaken. It is important to know what is lost when we settle for a draft genome and to determine the “scientific value” of a newly sequenced genome. This review addresses the expected impact of newly sequenced genomes on antibacterial discovery and vaccinology. Also, it discusses the factors that could be leading to the increase in the number of draft deposits and the consequent loss of relevant biological information.
PMCID: PMC4050110  PMID: 24921006
Next-generation sequencing; Drafts; Prokaryotic genomes; Computational tools; Omics
2.  MapRepeat: an approach for effective assembly of repetitive regions in prokaryotic genomes 
Bioinformation  2015;11(6):276-279.
The newest technologies for DNA sequencing have led to the determination of the primary structure of the genomes of organisms, mainly prokaryotes, with high efficiency and at lower costs. However, the presence of regions with repetitive sequences, in addition to the short reads produced by the Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) platforms, created a lot of difficulty in reconstructing the original genome in silico. Thus, even today, genome assembly continues to be one of the major challenges in bioinformatics specifically when repetitive sequences are considered. In this paper, we present an approach to assemble repetitive regions in prokaryotic genomes. Our methodology enables (i) the identification of these regions through visual tools, (ii) the characterization of sequences on the extremities of gaps and (iii) the extraction of consensus sequences based on mapping of raw data to a reference genome. We also present a case study on the assembly of regions that encode ribosomal RNAs (rRNA) in the genome of Corynebacterium ulcerans FRC11, in order to show the efficiency of the strategies presented here. The proposed methods and tools will help in finishing genome assemblies, besides reducing the running time and associated costs.
All scripts are available at
PMCID: PMC4512001
bioinformatics; genome assembly; finishing assemblies; repetitive sequences
3.  Omics profiles used to evaluate the gene expression of Exiguobacterium antarcticum B7 during cold adaptation 
BMC Genomics  2014;15(1):986.
Exiguobacterium antarcticum strain B7 is a Gram-positive psychrotrophic bacterial species isolated in Antarctica. Although this bacteria has been poorly studied, its genome has already been sequenced. Therefore, it is an appropriate model for the study of thermal adaptation. In the present study, we analyzed the transcriptomes and proteomes of E. antarcticum B7 grown at 0°C and 37°C by SOLiD RNA-Seq, Ion Torrent RNA-Seq and two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis tandem mass spectrometry (2D-DIGE-MS/MS).
We found expression of 2,058 transcripts in all replicates from both platforms and differential expression of 564 genes (absolute log2FC ≥1, P-value <0.001) comparing the two temperatures by RNA-Seq. A total of 73 spots were differentially expressed between the two temperatures on 2D-DIGE, 25 of which were identified by MS/MS. Some proteins exhibited patterns of dispersion in the gel that are characteristic of post-translational modifications.
Our findings suggest that the two sequencing platforms yielded similar results and that different omic approaches may be used to improve the understanding of gene expression. To adapt to low temperatures, E. antarcticum B7 expresses four of the six cold-shock proteins present in its genome. The cold-shock proteins were the most abundant in the bacterial proteome at 0°C. Some of the differentially expressed genes are required to preserve transcription and translation, while others encode proteins that contribute to the maintenance of the intracellular environment and appropriate protein folding. The results denote the complexity intrinsic to the adaptation of psychrotrophic organisms to cold environments and are based on two omic approaches. They also unveil the lifestyle of a bacterial species isolated in Antarctica.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1471-2164-15-986) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4247613  PMID: 25407400
Exiguobacterium antarcticum; Psychrotrophic; Proteomic; RNA-Seq; Gene expression
4.  High-throughput sequencing of black pepper root transcriptome 
BMC Plant Biology  2012;12:168.
Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) is one of the most popular spices in the world. It is used in cooking and the preservation of food and even has medicinal properties. Losses in production from disease are a major limitation in the culture of this crop. The major diseases are root rot and foot rot, which are results of root infection by Fusarium solani and Phytophtora capsici, respectively. Understanding the molecular interaction between the pathogens and the host’s root region is important for obtaining resistant cultivars by biotechnological breeding. Genetic and molecular data for this species, though, are limited. In this paper, RNA-Seq technology has been employed, for the first time, to describe the root transcriptome of black pepper.
The root transcriptome of black pepper was sequenced by the NGS SOLiD platform and assembled using the multiple-k method. Blast2Go and orthoMCL methods were used to annotate 10338 unigenes. The 4472 predicted proteins showed about 52% homology with the Arabidopsis proteome. Two root proteomes identified 615 proteins, which seem to define the plant’s root pattern. Simple-sequence repeats were identified that may be useful in studies of genetic diversity and may have applications in biotechnology and ecology.
This dataset of 10338 unigenes is crucially important for the biotechnological breeding of black pepper and the ecogenomics of the Magnoliids, a major group of basal angiosperms.
PMCID: PMC3487918  PMID: 22984782
5.  Analysis of quality raw data of second generation sequencers with Quality Assessment Software 
BMC Research Notes  2011;4:130.
Second generation technologies have advantages over Sanger; however, they have resulted in new challenges for the genome construction process, especially because of the small size of the reads, despite the high degree of coverage. Independent of the program chosen for the construction process, DNA sequences are superimposed, based on identity, to extend the reads, generating contigs; mismatches indicate a lack of homology and are not included. This process improves our confidence in the sequences that are generated.
We developed Quality Assessment Software, with which one can review graphs showing the distribution of quality values from the sequencing reads. This software allow us to adopt more stringent quality standards for sequence data, based on quality-graph analysis and estimated coverage after applying the quality filter, providing acceptable sequence coverage for genome construction from short reads.
Quality filtering is a fundamental step in the process of constructing genomes, as it reduces the frequency of incorrect alignments that are caused by measuring errors, which can occur during the construction process due to the size of the reads, provoking misassemblies. Application of quality filters to sequence data, using the software Quality Assessment, along with graphing analyses, provided greater precision in the definition of cutoff parameters, which increased the accuracy of genome construction.
PMCID: PMC3105940  PMID: 21501521

Results 1-5 (5)