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1.  Reduction of gastrointestinal motility by unilateral thyroparathyroidectomy plus subdiaphragmatic vagotomy in rats 
AIM: To investigate whether the combined methods of unilateral thyroparathyroidectomy (TPX) and subdiaphragmatic vagotomy (VAX) can be adapted for rats and used as a reliable method to produce a rat model of long-term reduction of gastrointestinal (GI) motor function.
METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups, normal, sham-operated and unilateral TPX plus VAX. The TPX plus VAX rats received VAX 7 d after application of TPX, and dietary intake and fecal output were then measured daily for 1 wk. After completion of the experiments, gastric emptying and small bowel transit were measured in vivo, and the contractile responses of colonic strips to excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters were estimated using isometric force transducers in vitro.
RESULTS: In comparison with normal and sham-operated rats, rats which received unilateral TPX plus VAX showed a significant decrease in body weight and in fecal pellet number and weight throughout the entire week. Application of TPX plus VAX to rats markedly delayed gastric emptying and small bowel transit. In TPX plus VAX rats, the longitudinal muscles of the proximal colon showed a significant reduction in contractile responses to acetylcholine (5 × 10-6 mol/L), and a dramatic attenuation of contractile responses was also observed in both the longitudinal and circular muscles of the distal colon. However, the spontaneous contractility of the colonic strips from TPX plus VAX rats was not significantly affected by treatment with N-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (0.1 mol/L).
CONCLUSION: The results indicate that unilateral TPX plus VAX reduced the motor function of the GI tract in rats, and the reduced gut motility is likely mediated, at least in part, by inhibition of the excitatory neurotransmitter system.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v18.i33.4570
PMCID: PMC3435783  PMID: 22969231
Unilateral thyroparathyroidectomy; Subdiaphragmatic vagotomy; Gastric emptying; Small bowel transit; Rat
3.  Clinical Course of Segmental Vitiligo: A Retrospective Study of Eighty-Seven Patients 
Annals of Dermatology  2014;26(1):61-65.
Background
Vitiligo is an acquired disorder characterized by a progressive loss of melanocytes, which is difficult to manage and has an unknown prognosis. The subtype of segmental vitiligo (SV) has been established but it has not been adequately characterized.
Objective
To collect long-term follow-up data for evaluating the clinical course of SV.
Methods
This study included 87 patients who were diagnosed with SV and were monitored at a clinic. Patients were classified into the following three groups according to disease activity.
Results
Among the patients with SV, 63.2% had stable disease, 14.9% had disease recurrence between two and four years after disease onset, and 21.8% had disease recurrence at four or more than four years after disease onset. Among the 44 patients (50.2%) who were monitored continuously over a four-year period, 19 (43.2%) experienced a recurrence at four or more than four years after disease onset.
Conclusion
Our results suggest that, contrary to previous reports, some patients with SV may not experience disease stability over an extended period of time. Disease recurrence can occur after years of stability, and we propose that long-term follow-up data can be used to characterize SV. This information about the clinical course of SV has implications for treatment and prognosis.
doi:10.5021/ad.2014.26.1.61
PMCID: PMC3956796  PMID: 24648687
Prognosis; Recurrence; Segmental; Vitiligo
4.  Comparison of emergence agitation between sevoflurane/nitrous oxide administration and sevoflurane administration alone in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy with preemptive ketorolac 
Background
Sevoflurane anesthesia commonly causes emergence agitation (EA) in children. One previous study has reported that the use of nitrous oxide (N2O) during the washout of sevoflurane may reduce EA by decreasing the residual sevoflurane concentration, while many animal studies suggest that N2O poses a potential risk to children. The present study was designed to compare EA in children assigned to receive sevoflurane with N2O (group N) or sevoflurane alone (group S).
Methods
We enrolled 80 children aged 3-10 years. Anesthesia was induced with 5 mg/kg thiopental sodium, 0.6 mg/kg rocuronium and 0.5 mg/kg ketorolac, and was maintained with 50% N2O and sevoflurane in group N or with sevoflurane alone in group S. The sevoflurane concentration was adjusted with a bispectral index (BIS) of 40-60. After completion of the surgery, N2O and sevoflurane were simultaneously discontinued and replaced with oxygen (O2) at 6 L/min. End-tidal sevoflurane concentration (Et Sevo) (%), BIS at the end of surgery, Et Sevo at recovery of self-respiration and emergence profiles were recorded. EA occurrence, pain score and rescue fentanyl consumption were assessed in the postanesthesia care unit.
Results
Et Sevo was significantly lower in group N (1.9%) than in group S (2.3%) at the end of surgery. However, there were no differences in Et Sevo at recovery of self-respiration, emergence times, the incidence of EA, pain score or dose of rescue fentanyl between the groups.
Conclusions
In children undergoing adenotonsillectomy with preemptive ketorolac, anesthetic maintenance using sevoflurane alone does not affect the incidence of EA or emergence profiles compared to anesthetic maintenance using sevoflurane with N2O.
doi:10.4097/kjae.2014.66.1.34
PMCID: PMC3926999  PMID: 24567811
Emergence agitation; Nitrous oxide; Sevoflurane; Tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy
5.  Extensive Tuberculous Lymphadenitis Mimicking Distant Lymph Node Metastasis on F-18FDG PET/CT in a Patient with a History of Malignant Melanoma 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2013;54(6):1554-1556.
18-Fluoredeoxyglucose position emission tomography and computed tomography (F-18FDG PET/CT) scanning has been useful in the evaluation of malignant disorders and has been extensively used in cancer screening.1 However, F-18FDG uptake was not found to be specific for cancer diagnosis. Here, we describe increased F-18FDG uptake on PET/CT caused by extensive tuberculous lymphadenitis in a 62-year-old woman with malignant melanoma.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2013.54.6.1554
PMCID: PMC3809874  PMID: 24142667
Tuberculous lymphadenitis; PET/CT; FDG; malignant melanoma
7.  Staphylococcus aureus Colonization in Acute and Chronic Skin Lesions of Patients with Atopic Dermatitis 
Annals of Dermatology  2013;25(4):410-416.
Background
Staphylococcus aureus (SA) has peculiar abilities to colonize the skin in atopic dermatitis (AD) patients.
Objective
We sought to determine the colonization rates of SA in acute and chronic skin lesions of AD patients, to find any difference in colonization rates according to age and to find the influences of total immunoglobulin E (IgE) and eosinophil counts to the colonization of SA.
Methods
We evaluated the total IgE level and eosinophil counts, and cultured SA from the skin lesions of 687 AD patients (131 acute and 556 chronic skin lesions) and 247 control urticaria patients (July 2009 to November 2010; Samsung Medical Center Dermatology Clinic, Seoul, Korea).
Results
The SA colonization rates were 74%, 38% and 3% in acute, chronic skin lesions and control skin, respectively, and they were increased with age in AD patients. The colonization rate in chronic skin lesions was higher in the high IgE/eosinophilia groups as compared to the normal IgE/eosinophil groups.
Conclusion
The SA colonization rate was higher in AD patients and especially in acute lesions, and had a tendency to increase with age. As the colonization rates were only higher in the high IgE/eosinophilia groups of chronic skin lesions, we suggested that SA may invade the skin through barrier defects in acute skin lesions, but the colonization in chronic lesions may be orchestrated through many different factors.
doi:10.5021/ad.2013.25.4.410
PMCID: PMC3870207  PMID: 24371386
Atopic dermatitis; Colonization rate; Eosinophil counts; Serum total IgE; Staphylococcus aureus
8.  Generalized Schamberg Disease in a Child 
Annals of Dermatology  2013;25(4):524-525.
doi:10.5021/ad.2013.25.4.524
PMCID: PMC3870235  PMID: 24371414
9.  Intramural Recurrence Without Mucosal Lesions After an Endoscopic Mucosal Resection for Early Colorectal Cancer 
Annals of Coloproctology  2013;29(3):126-129.
Advances in endoscopic instruments and techniques have enabled increased detection and removal of early colorectal cancer (ECC), which is defined as a tumor whose invasion is limited to the mucosa or submucosa. Some cases can be treated by endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR). However, local recurrence frequently occurs after an EMR for ECC. The recurrence pattern is usually intramural recurrence with a mucosal lesion at the EMR's site. We report the cases of two patients with intramural recurrence without mucosal lesions after an EMR for ECC. These cases indicate that a local recurrence after an EMR for ECC can appear as an intramural recurrence without mucosal lesions at a previous EMR site or another site, although this presentation is very unusual.
doi:10.3393/ac.2013.29.3.126
PMCID: PMC3710774  PMID: 23862131
Colorectal neoplasms; Endoscopic mucosal resection; Local neoplasm recurrences; Local neoplasm recurrence
10.  Impact of Diabetes on Oncologic Outcome of Colorectal Cancer Patients: Colon vs. Rectal Cancer 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(2):e55196.
Background
To evaluate the impact of diabetes on outcomes in colorectal cancer patients and to examine whether this association varies by the location of tumor (colon vs. rectum).
Patients and methods
This study includes 4,131 stage I-III colorectal cancer patients, treated between 1995 and 2007 (12.5% diabetic, 53% colon, 47% rectal) in South Korea. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to determine the prognostic influence of DM on survival endpoints.
Results
Colorectal cancer patients with DM had significantly worse disease-free survival (DFS) [hazard ratio (HR) 1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00–1.37] compared with patients without DM. When considering colon and rectal cancer independently, DM was significantly associated with worse overall survival (OS) (HR: 1.46, 95% CI: 1.11–1.92), DFS (HR: 1.45, 95% CI: 1.15–1.84) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) (HR: 1.32, 95% CI: 0.98–1.76) in colon cancer patients. No association for OS, DFS or RFS was observed in rectal cancer patients. There was significant interaction of location of tumor (colon vs. rectal cancer) with DM on OS (P = 0.009) and DFS (P = 0.007).
Conclusions
This study suggests that DM negatively impacts survival outcomes of patients with colon cancer but not rectal cancer.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055196
PMCID: PMC3566217  PMID: 23405123
11.  Primary Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma of the Breast: Cytologic Finding and Expression of MUC5 Are Different from Mucinous Carcinoma 
Korean Journal of Pathology  2012;46(6):611-616.
Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma (MCA) in the breast is a rare neoplasm. There have been 13 cases of primary breast MCA reported. The MCA presents as a large, partially cystic mass in postmenopausal woman with a good prognosis. The microscopic findings resemble those of ovarian, pancreatic, or appendiceal MCA. The aspiration findings showed mucin-containing cell clusters in the background of mucin and necrotic material. The cell clusters had intracytoplasmic mucin displacing atypical nuclei to the periphery. Histologically, the tumor revealed an abundant mucin pool with small floating clusters of mucin-containing tumor cells. There were also small cysts lined by a single layer of tall columnar mucinous cells, resembling those of the uterine endocervix. The cancer cells were positive for mucin (MUC) 5 and negative for MUC2 and MUC6. This mucin profile is different from ordinary mucinous carcinoma and may be a unique characteristic of breast MCA.
doi:10.4132/KoreanJPathol.2012.46.6.611
PMCID: PMC3540343  PMID: 23323116
Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma; Breast; MUC5; MUC2
12.  Skin-sparing mastectomy and immediate latissimus dorsi flap reconstruction: a retrospective analysis of the surgical and patient-reported outcomes 
Background
Skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM) and latissimus dorsi (LD) flap immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) is a tailored surgical procedure. The surgical and patient-reported outcome (PRO) of SSM and LD IBR were assessed.
Methods
Retrospective data of 146 SSMs performed by a single surgeon was reviewed. Among patients included in the data, 65 patients underwent SSM and LD IBR without a prosthetic implant. A survey estimating the degree of patient satisfaction (poor, fair, good, and excellent) as regards the cosmetic outcomes of surgery was performed. The patients were divided into two groups according to their degree of satisfaction (excellent group versus non- excellent group), and analysis was done to identify factors affecting the highest patient satisfaction.
Results
The mean age of the patients was 48.4 years, and pathological results were: infiltrating ductal carcinoma (n = 48, 73.8%), ductal carcinoma in situ (n = 15, 23.1%), and others (n = 2, 3.1%). One patient received postmastectomy radiotherapy. After a mean follow-up of 34 months, no local recurrence occurred. There was no skin necrosis or LD flap loss. Donor site morbidities were seroma (n = 8, 12.3%), scarring (n = 8, 12.3%), and back pain (n = 6, 9.2%). Fifty patients (76.9%) were satisfied and 40% reported their degree of satisfaction as excellent. Breast symmetry (P <0.001), nipple cosmesis (P <0.001), visual difference of bilateral breasts (P = 0.021), and panel assessment score (P <0.001) were factors that affected the highest patient satisfaction.
Conclusions
Our SSM and LD IBR was safe, with no local recurrence and low morbidities, and produced a sufficiently high level of patient satisfaction. Achieving breast symmetry and nipple cosmesis would be the key to meeting the patient’s expectation.
doi:10.1186/1477-7819-10-259
PMCID: PMC3551768  PMID: 23192102
Breast cancer; Breast neoplasm; Mastectomy; Latissimus dorsi flap; Breast reconstruction; Patient satisfaction
13.  Neurogenic pulmonary edema following intracranial coil embolization for subarachnoid hemorrhage -A case report- 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2012;63(4):368-371.
Neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE) is a well-known complication of acute central neurologic injury, particularly aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Both increased intracranial pressure and severe over-activation of the sympathetic nervous system seem to be pathogenetic for the onset of NPE. Although intracranial endovascular therapy is minimally invasive, it may affect brain stem regions and result in sympathetic activation. We now report the case of a 70-year-old woman who suddenly developed pulmonary edema during coil embolization of a ruptured aneurysm. During the intervention, oxygen saturation declined suddenly and a chest radiograph revealed pulmonary edema. The delayed appearance of NPE in this patient implies a risk for sympathetically mediated NPE during endovascular therapy.
doi:10.4097/kjae.2012.63.4.368
PMCID: PMC3483499  PMID: 23115693
Endovascular procedure; Pulmonary edema; Subarachnoid hemorrhage
14.  Associations between Fatness, Fitness, IGF and IMT among Obese Korean Male Adolescents 
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal  2011;35(6):610-618.
Background
The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between obesity, fitness levels and cardiovascular (CVD) risk factors, and to identify the correlation between of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), and carotid intima media thickness (IMT) in Korean adolescents.
Methods
A total of 225 high school males with a mean age of 16.96±0.23 years participated in this study, and their fatness and fitness levels, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), blood lipids, IGF-1, IGFBP-3, and IMT were measured.
Results
The results showed that total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, IGF-1, and IGFBP-3 levels were significantly higher in the most obese group than in the other two groups (tertiles). Muscular and cardiopulmonary fitness were negatively associated with weight, body mass index (BMI), fat mass, body fat, waist circumference (WC), fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, and IMT. IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels were correlated with WC, hip circumference (HC), fasting glucose, TG, HDL-C, fasting insulin, and HOMA-IR. IMT levels were significantly associated with weight, BMI, muscle mass, fat mass, percent body fat, WC, HC, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein.
Conclusion
There was a significant association between increased obesity and decreased fitness and HOMA-IR, IGF, and IMT among adolescents.
doi:10.4093/dmj.2011.35.6.610
PMCID: PMC3253972  PMID: 22247904
Adolescent; Insulin-like growth factor 1; Insulin resistance; Intima media thickness; Obesity
15.  A Case of Celecoxib Induced Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis 
Annals of Dermatology  2011;23(Suppl 3):S380-S382.
Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is manifested by rapid development of many sterile, nonfollicular pustules on a background of edematous erythema. More than 90 percent of AGEP are induced by medication, mostly antibiotics. Drug patch test can be helpful in the diagnosis of AGEP. This paper reports the first case of celecoxib-induced AGEP confirmed by patch test in Korean literature.
doi:10.5021/ad.2011.23.S3.S380
PMCID: PMC3276802  PMID: 22346283
Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis; Celecoxib; Patch test
16.  Isolation and functional characterization of CE1 binding proteins 
BMC Plant Biology  2010;10:277.
Background
Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone that controls seed germination, protective responses to various abiotic stresses and seed maturation. The ABA-dependent processes entail changes in gene expression. Numerous genes are regulated by ABA, and promoter analyses of the genes revealed that cis-elements sharing the ACGTGGC consensus sequence are ubiquitous among ABA-regulated gene promoters. The importance of the core sequence, which is generally known as ABA response element (ABRE), has been demonstrated by various experiments, and its cognate transcription factors known as ABFs/AREBs have been identified. Although necessary, ABRE alone is not sufficient, and another cis-element known as "coupling element (CE)" is required for full range ABA-regulation of gene expression. Several CEs are known. However, despite their importance, the cognate transcription factors mediating ABA response via CEs have not been reported to date. Here, we report the isolation of transcription factors that bind one of the coupling elements, CE1.
Results
To isolate CE1 binding proteins, we carried out yeast one-hybrid screens. Reporter genes containing a trimer of the CE1 element were prepared and introduced into a yeast strain. The yeast was transformed with library DNA that represents RNA isolated from ABA-treated Arabidopsis seedlings. From the screen of 3.6 million yeast transformants, we isolated 78 positive clones. Analysis of the clones revealed that a group of AP2/ERF domain proteins binds the CE1 element. We investigated their expression patterns and analyzed their overexpression lines to investigate the in vivo functions of the CE element binding factors (CEBFs). Here, we show that one of the CEBFs, AtERF13, confers ABA hypersensitivity in Arabidopsis, whereas two other CEBFs enhance sugar sensitivity.
Conclusions
Our results indicate that a group of AP2/ERF superfamily proteins interacts with CE1. Several CEBFs are known to mediate defense or abiotic stress response, but the physiological functions of other CEBFs remain to be determined. Our in vivo functional analysis of several CEBFs suggests that they are likely to be involved in ABA and/or sugar response. Together with previous results reported by others, our current data raise an interesting possibility that the coupling element CE1 may function not only as an ABRE but also as an element mediating biotic and abiotic stress responses.
doi:10.1186/1471-2229-10-277
PMCID: PMC3016407  PMID: 21162722
17.  A Case of Hydroa Vacciniforme 
Annals of Dermatology  2010;22(3):312-315.
Hydroa vacciniforme (HV) is a rare and chronic pediatric disorder that is characterized by photosensitivity and recurrent vesicles that heal with vacciniforme scarring. The pathogenesis of HV is unknown; no chromosome abnormality has been identified. HV patients have no abnormal laboratory results, so the diagnosis of HV is based on identifying the associated histological findings in a biopsy specimen and using repetitive ultraviolet phototesting to reproduce the characteristic vesicles on a patient's skin. Herein, we present a case of HV in a 7-year-old female who was diagnosed with HV according to histopathology and ultraviolet phototesting.
doi:10.5021/ad.2010.22.3.312
PMCID: PMC2917685  PMID: 20711268
Hydroa vacciniforme; Photodermatosis; Phototest
18.  Ovarian cancer-derived lysophosphatidic acid stimulates secretion of VEGF and stromal cell-derived factor-1α from human mesenchymal stem cells 
Experimental & Molecular Medicine  2010;42(4):280-293.
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) stimulates growth and invasion of ovarian cancer cells and tumor angiogenesis. Cancer-derived LPA induces differentiation of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hASCs) to α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA)-positive cancer-associated fibroblasts. Presently, we explored whether cancer-derived LPA regulates secretion of pro-angiogenic factors from hASCs. Conditioned medium (CM) from the OVCAR-3 and SKOV3 ovarian cancer cell lines stimulated secretion angiogenic factors such as stromal-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) and VEGF from hASCs. Pretreatment with the LPA receptor inhibitor Ki16425 or short hairpin RNA lentiviral silencing of the LPA1 receptor abrogated the cancer CM-stimulated expression of α-SMA, SDF-1, and VEGF from hASCs. LPA induced expression of myocardin and myocardin-related transcription factor-A, transcription factors involved in smooth muscle differentiation, in hASCs. siRNA-mediated depletion of endogenous myocardin and MRTF-A abrogated the expression of α-SMA, but not SDF-1 and VEGF. LPA activated RhoA in hASCs and pretreatment with the Rho kinase inhibitor Y27632 completely abrogated the LPA-induced expression of α-SMA, SDF-1, and VEGF in hASCs. Moreover, LPA-induced α-SMA expression was abrogated by treatment with the ERK inhibitor U0126 or the phosphoinositide-3-kinase inhibitor LY294002, but not the PLC inhibitor U73122. LPA-induced VEGF secretion was inhibited by LY294002, whereas LPA-induced SDF-1 secretion was markedly attenuated by U0126, U73122, and LY294002. These results suggest that cancer-secreted LPA induces differentiation of hASCs to cancer-associated fibroblasts through multiple signaling pathways involving Rho kinase, ERK, PLC, and phosphoinositide-3-kinase.
doi:10.3858/emm.2010.42.4.027
PMCID: PMC2859327  PMID: 20177148
carcinoma; fibroblasts; lysophosphatidic acid; ovarian neoplasms; receptors, lysophosphatidic acid; rho-associated kinases; vascular endothelial growth factor A
19.  Tip60 Histone Acetyltransferase Acts as a Negative Regulator of Notch1 Signaling by Means of Acetylation▿  
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2007;27(18):6506-6519.
The Notch signaling pathway appears to perform an important function in a wide variety of organisms and cell types. In our present study, we provide evidence that UV irradiation-induced Tip60 proteins reduced Notch1 activity to a marked degree. Accumulated UV irradiation-induced Tip60 suppresses Notch1 transcriptional activity via the dissociation of the Notch1-IC-CSL complex. The binding between endogenous Tip60 and Notch1-IC in UV radiation-exposed cells was verified in this study by coimmunoprecipitation. Interestingly, the physical interaction of Tip60 with Notch1-IC occurs to a more profound degree in the presence of CSL but does not exist in a trimeric complex. Using Notch1-IC and Tip60 deletion mutants, we also determined that the N terminus, which harbors the RAM domain and seven ankyrin repeats of Notch1-IC, interacts with the zinc finger and acetyl coenzyme A domains of Tip60. Furthermore, here we report that Notch1-IC is a direct target of the acetyltransferase activity of Tip60. Collectively, our data suggest that Tip60 is an inhibitor of the Notch1 signaling pathway and that Tip60-dependent acetylation of Notch1-IC may be relevant to the mechanism by which Tip60 suppresses Notch1 signaling.
doi:10.1128/MCB.01515-06
PMCID: PMC2099611  PMID: 17636029
20.  DNA-PK is activated by nucleosomes and phosphorylates H2AX within the nucleosomes in an acetylation-dependent manner 
Nucleic Acids Research  2003;31(23):6819-6827.
Eukaryotic DNA is organized into nucleosomes and higher order chromatin structure, which plays an important role in the regulation of many nuclear processes including DNA repair. Non-homologous end-joining, the major pathway for repairing DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in mammalian cells, is mediated by a set of proteins including DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK). DNA-PK is comprised of a large catalytic subunit, DNA-PKcs, and its regulatory subunit, Ku. Current models predict that Ku binds to the ends of broken DNA and DNA-PKcs is recruited to form the active kinase complex. Here we show that DNA-PK can be activated by nucleosomes through the ability of Ku to bind to the ends of nucleosomal DNA, and that the activated DNA-PK is capable of phosphorylating H2AX within the nucleosomes. Histone acetylation has little effect on the steps of Ku binding to nucleosomes and subsequent activation of DNA-PKcs. However, acetylation largely enhances the phosphorylation of H2AX by DNA-PK, and this acetylation effect is observed when H2AX exists in the context of nucleosomes but not in a free form. These results suggest that the phosphorylation of H2AX, known to be important for DSB repair, can be regulated by acetylation and may provide a mechanistic basis on which to understand the recent observations that histone acetylation critically functions in repairing DNA DSBs.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkg921
PMCID: PMC290281  PMID: 14627815
21.  Spontaneous Regression of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer in a Patient with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: A Case Report 
Treatment of lung cancer in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is difficult because the mortality rate after surgery or chemotherapy is high for these patients. Spontaneous regression of cancer is rare, especially in lung cancer. A 62-year-old man, previously diagnosed with IPF, presented with stage IIIC (T2N3M0) non-small cell lung cancer. About 4 months later, spontaneous regression of the primary tumor was observed without treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of spontaneous regression of lung cancer in a patient with IPF.
doi:10.4046/trd.2013.75.5.214
PMCID: PMC3861378  PMID: 24348670
Lung Neoplasms; Fibrosis; Neoplasm Regression, Spontaneous

Results 1-21 (21)