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1.  FIDEL—a retrovirus-like retrotransposon and its distinct evolutionary histories in the A- and B-genome components of cultivated peanut 
Chromosome Research  2010;18(2):227-246.
In this paper, we describe a Ty3-gypsy retrotransposon from allotetraploid peanut (Arachis hypogaea) and its putative diploid ancestors Arachis duranensis (A-genome) and Arachis ipaënsis (B-genome). The consensus sequence is 11,223 bp. The element, named FIDEL (Fairly long Inter-Dispersed Euchromatic LTR retrotransposon), is more frequent in the A- than in the B-genome, with copy numbers of about 3,000 (±950, A. duranensis), 820 (±480, A. ipaënsis), and 3,900 (±1,500, A. hypogaea) per haploid genome. Phylogenetic analysis of reverse transcriptase sequences showed distinct evolution of FIDEL in the ancestor species. Fluorescent in situ hybridization revealed disperse distribution in euchromatin and absence from centromeres, telomeric regions, and the nucleolar organizer region. Using paired sequences from bacterial artificial chromosomes, we showed that elements appear less likely to insert near conserved ancestral genes than near the fast evolving disease resistance gene homologs. Within the Ty3-gypsy elements, FIDEL is most closely related with the Athila/Calypso group of retrovirus-like retrotransposons. Putative transmembrane domains were identified, supporting the presence of a vestigial envelope gene. The results emphasize the importance of FIDEL in the evolution and divergence of different Arachis genomes and also may serve as an example of the role of retrotransposons in the evolution of legume genomes in general.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10577-009-9109-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s10577-009-9109-z
PMCID: PMC2844528  PMID: 20127167
peanut; Arachis; retrotransposon; retrovirus-like; fluorescent in situ hybridization
2.  Identification of candidate genome regions controlling disease resistance in Arachis 
BMC Plant Biology  2009;9:112.
Background
Worldwide, diseases are important reducers of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) yield. Sources of resistance against many diseases are available in cultivated peanut genotypes, although often not in farmer preferred varieties. Wild species generally harbor greater levels of resistance and even apparent immunity, although the linkage of agronomically un-adapted wild alleles with wild disease resistance genes is inevitable. Marker-assisted selection has the potential to facilitate the combination of both cultivated and wild resistance loci with agronomically adapted alleles. However, in peanut there is an almost complete lack of knowledge of the regions of the Arachis genome that control disease resistance.
Results
In this work we identified candidate genome regions that control disease resistance. For this we placed candidate disease resistance genes and QTLs against late leaf spot disease on the genetic map of the A-genome of Arachis, which is based on microsatellite markers and legume anchor markers. These marker types are transferable within the genus Arachis and to other legumes respectively, enabling this map to be aligned to other Arachis maps and to maps of other legume crops including those with sequenced genomes. In total, 34 sequence-confirmed candidate disease resistance genes and five QTLs were mapped.
Conclusion
Candidate genes and QTLs were distributed on all linkage groups except for the smallest, but the distribution was not even. Groupings of candidate genes and QTLs for late leaf spot resistance were apparent on the upper region of linkage group 4 and the lower region of linkage group 2, indicating that these regions are likely to control disease resistance.
doi:10.1186/1471-2229-9-112
PMCID: PMC2739205  PMID: 19698131

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