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Metabolomic, Transcriptional, Hormonal, and Signaling Cross-Talk in Superroot2
Olsen, Carl Erik
Møller, Birger Lindberg
Auxin homeostasis is pivotal for normal plant growth and development. The superroot2 (sur2) mutant was initially isolated in a forward genetic screen for auxin overproducers, and SUR2 was suggested to control auxin conjugation and thereby regulate auxin homeostasis. However, the phenotype was not uniform and could not be described as a pure high auxin phenotype, indicating that knockout of CYP83B1 has multiple effects. Subsequently, SUR2 was identified as CYP83B1, a cytochrome P450 positioned at the metabolic branch point between auxin and indole glucosinolate metabolism. To investigate concomitant global alterations triggered by knockout of CYP83B1 and the countermeasures chosen by the mutant to cope with hormonal and metabolic imbalances, 10-day-old mutant seedlings were characterized with respect to their transcriptome and metabolome profiles. Here, we report a global analysis of the sur2 mutant by the use of a combined transcriptomic and metabolomic approach revealing pronounced effects on several metabolic grids including the intersection between secondary metabolism, cell wall turnover, hormone metabolism, and stress responses. Metabolic and transcriptional cross-talks in sur2 were found to be regulated by complex interactions between both positively and negatively acting transcription factors. The complex phenotype of sur2 may thus not only be assigned to elevated levels of auxin, but also to ethylene and abscisic acid responses as well as drought responses in the absence of a water deficiency. The delicate balance between these signals explains why minute changes in growth conditions may result in the non-uniform phenotype. The large phenotypic variation observed between and within the different surveys may be reconciled by the complex and intricate hormonal balances in sur2 seedlings decoded in this study.
Abiotic/environmental stress; hormonal regulation; metabolomics; secondary metabolism/natural products; transcriptome analysis; development
Conservation and diversity of gene families explored using the CODEHOP strategy in higher plants
BMC Plant Biology
Availability of genomewide information on an increasing but still limited number of plants offers the possibility of identifying orthologues, or related genes, in species with major economical impact and complex genomes. In this paper we exploit the recently described CODEHOP primer design and PCR strategy for targeted isolation of homologues in large gene families.
The method was tested with two different objectives. The first was to analyze the evolution of the CYP98 family of cytochrome P450 genes involved in 3-hydroxylation of phenolic compounds and lignification in a broad range of plant species. The second was to isolate an orthologue of the sorghum glucosyl transferase UGT85B1 and to determine the complexity of the UGT85 family in wheat. P450s of the CYP98 family or closely related sequences were found in all vascular plants. No related sequence was found in moss. Neither extensive duplication of the CYP98 genes nor an orthologue of UGT85B1 were found in wheat. The UGT85A subfamily was however found to be highly variable in wheat.
Our data are in agreement with the implication of CYP98s in lignification and the evolution of 3-hydroxylation of lignin precursors with vascular plants. High conservation of the CYP98 family strongly argues in favour of an essential function in plant development. Conversely, high duplication and diversification of the UGT85A gene family in wheat suggests its involvement in adaptative response and provides a valuable pool of genes for biotechnological applications. This work demonstrates the high potential of the CODEHOP strategy for the exploration of large gene families in plants.
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