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BMC Plant Biology (1)
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Moglia, Andrea (2)
Bourgaud, Frédéric (1)
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Hehn, Alain (1)
Hideg, Éva (1)
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Van den Ende, Wim (1)
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Towards understanding vacuolar antioxidant mechanisms: a role for fructans?
Van den Ende, Wim
Journal of Experimental Botany
Recent in vitro, in vivo, and theoretical experiments strongly suggest that sugar-(like) molecules counteract oxidative stress by acting as genuine reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers. A concept was proposed to include the vacuole as a part of the cellular antioxidant network. According to this view, sugars and sugar-like vacuolar compounds work in concert with vacuolar phenolic compounds and the ‘classic’ cytosolic antioxidant mechanisms. Among the biologically relevant ROS (H2O2, O2·–, and ·OH), hydroxyl radicals are the most reactive and dangerous species since there are no enzymatic systems known to neutralize them in any living beings. Therefore, it is important to study in more detail the radical reactions between ·OH and different biomolecules, including sugars. Here, Fenton reactions were used to compare the ·OH-scavenging capacities of a range of natural vacuolar compounds to establish relationships between antioxidant capacity and chemical structure and to unravel the mechanisms of ·OH–carbohydrate reactions. The in vitro work on the ·OH-scavenging capacity of sugars and phenolic compounds revealed a correlation between structure and ·OH-scavenging capacity. The number and position of the C=C type of linkages in phenolic compounds greatly influence antioxidant properties. Importantly, the splitting of disaccharides and oligosaccharides emerged as a predominant outcome of the ·OH–carbohydrate interaction. Moreover, non-enzymatic synthesis of new fructan oligosaccharides was found starting from 1-kestotriose. Based on these and previous findings, a working model is proposed describing the putative radical reactions involving fructans and secondary metabolites at the inner side of the tonoplast and in the vacuolar lumen.
Fructan; phenols; radicals; ROS; stress; sugars; vacuole.
The isolation and mapping of a novel hydroxycinnamoyltransferase in the globe artichoke chlorogenic acid pathway
BMC Plant Biology
The leaves of globe artichoke and cultivated cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L.) have significant pharmaceutical properties, which mainly result from their high content of polyphenolic compounds such as monocaffeoylquinic and dicaffeoylquinic acid (DCQ), and a range of flavonoid compounds.
Hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:quinate hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (HQT) encoding genes have been isolated from both globe artichoke and cultivated cardoon (GenBank accessions DQ915589 and DQ915590, respectively) using CODEHOP and PCR-RACE. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that their sequences belong to one of the major acyltransferase groups (anthranilate N-hydroxycinnamoyl/benzoyltransferase). The heterologous expression of globe artichoke HQT in E. coli showed that this enzyme can catalyze the esterification of quinic acid with caffeoyl-CoA or p-coumaroyl-CoA to generate, respectively, chlorogenic acid (CGA) and p-coumaroyl quinate. Real time PCR experiments demonstrated an increase in the expression level of HQT in UV-C treated leaves, and established a correlation between the synthesis of phenolic acids and protection against damage due to abiotic stress. The HQT gene, together with a gene encoding hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:shikimate/quinate hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (HCT) previously isolated from globe artichoke, have been incorporated within the developing globe artichoke linkage maps.
A novel acyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of CGA in globe artichoke has been isolated, characterized and mapped. This is a good basis for our effort to understand the genetic basis of phenylpropanoid (PP) biosynthesis in C. cardunculus.
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