The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a eukaryotic expression vector expressing hsa-miR-203 on the sensitivity of K562 leukemia cells to arsenic trioxide (ATO) and the possible mechanism of action. The eukaryotic expression vector expressing the hsa-miR-203 plasmid (PmiR-203) was transfected into K562 cells using Lipofectamine 2000. bcr/abl 3′ untranslated region (UTR) and bcr/abl mutated 3′UTR dual luciferase report vectors (psi-CHECK-2) were used to validate the regulation of bcr/abl by miR-203. The inhibitory effects of ATO and PmiR-203, used singly or in combination, on cell proliferation were detected by MTT assay. Apoptosis of the K562 cells was detected by flow cytometry using double-staining with Annexin V and propidium iodide (PI). The activities of caspase-3 and caspase-9 were detected by a colorimetric method and the cytochrome c protein levels were detected by western blotting. When used in combination with PmiR-203, the IC50 of ATO was reduced from 6.49 to 2.45 μg/ml and the sensitivity of cells to ATO increased 2.64-fold. In addition, PmiR-203 and ATO caused growth inhibition, apoptosis and G1-phase arrest in K562 cells. Furthermore, PmiR-203 significantly promoted ATO-mediated growth inhibition and apoptosis, affecting the G1 phase. JC-1 fluorescent staining revealed that the membrane potential of the mitochondria had changed. The activities of caspase-3 and caspase-9 increased, the expression levels of cytochrome c were upregulated and the expression level of bcr/abl mRNA was significantly suppressed. Furthermore, the dual-luciferase reporter vector, containing tandem miR-203 binding sites from the bcr/abl 3′UTR, demonstrated that bcr/abl was directly regulated by miR-203. PmiR-203 sensitized K562 leukemia cells to ATO by inducing apoptosis and downregulating bcr/ abl gene levels. The induction of apoptosis may occur through the mitochondrial pathway. The combination of ATO and PmiR-203 presents therapeutic potential for chronic myelogenous leukemia.
hsa-miR-203; chronic myelogenous leukemia; arsenic trioxide; apoptosis; eukaryotic expression vector
Testes-specific protease 50 (TSP50), a newly discovered threonine enzyme, has similar amino acid sequences and enzymatic structures to those of many serine proteases. It may be an oncogene. TSP50 is up-regulated in breast cancer epithelial cells, and ectopic expression of TSP50 in TSP50-deficient Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells has been found to promote cell proliferation. However, the mechanisms by which TSP50 exerts its growth-promoting effects are not yet fully understood.
To delineate whether the threonine protease activity of TSP50 is essential to its function in cell proliferation, we constructed and characterized a mutant TSP50, called TSP50 T310A, which was identified as a protease-dead mutant of TSP50. By a series of proliferation analyses, colony formation assays and apoptosis analyses, we showed that T310A mutation significantly depresses TSP50-induced cell proliferation in vitro. Next, the CHO stable cell line expressing either wild-type or T310A mutant TSP50 was injected subcutaneously into nude mice. We found that the T310A mutation could abolish the tumorigenicity of TSP50 in vivo. A mechanism investigation revealed that the T310A mutation prevented interaction between TSP50 and the NF-κBIκBα complex, which is necessary for TSP50 to perform its function in cell proliferation.
Our data highlight the importance of threonine 310, the most critical protease catalytic site in TSP50, to TSP50-induced cell proliferation and tumor formation.
Striatal transplantation of dopaminergic (DA) neurons or neural stem cells (NSCs) has been reported to improve the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD), but the low rate of cell survival, differentiation, and integration in the host brain limits the therapeutic efficacy. We investigated the therapeutic effects of intracranial co-transplantation of mesencephalic NSCs stably overexpressing human glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF-mNSCs) together with fetal DA neurons in the 6-OHDA rat model of PD. Striatal injection of mNSCs labeled by the contrast enhancer superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) resulted in a hypointense signal in the striatum on T2-weighted magnetic resonance images that lasted for at least 8 weeks post-injection, confirming the long-term survival of injected stem cells in vivo. Co-transplantation of GDNF-mNSCs with fetal DA neurons significantly reduced apomorphine-induced rotation, a behavioral endophenotype of PD, compared to sham-treated controls, rats injected with mNSCs expressing empty vector (control mNSCs) plus fetal DA neurons, or rats injected separately with either control mNSCs, GDNF-mNSCs, or fetal DA neurons. In addition, survival and differentiation of mNSCs into DA neurons was significantly greater following co-transplantation of GDNF-mNSCs plus fetal DA neurons compared to the other treatment groups as indicated by the greater number of cell expressing both the mNSCs lineage tracer enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) and the DA neuron marker tyrosine hydroxylase. The success of cell-based therapies for PD may be greatly improved by co-transplantation of fetal DA neurons with mNSCs genetically modified to overexpress trophic factors such as GDNF that support differentiation into DA cells and their survival in vivo.
Medication errors are common, life threatening, costly but preventable. Information technology and automated systems are highly efficient for preventing medication errors and therefore widely employed in hospital settings. The aim of this study was to construct a probabilistic model that can reduce medication errors by identifying uncommon or rare associations between medications and diseases.
Methods and Finding(s)
Association rules of mining techniques are utilized for 103.5 million prescriptions from Taiwan’s National Health Insurance database. The dataset included 204.5 million diagnoses with ICD9-CM codes and 347.7 million medications by using ATC codes. Disease-Medication (DM) and Medication-Medication (MM) associations were computed by their co-occurrence and associations’ strength were measured by the interestingness or lift values which were being referred as Q values. The DMQs and MMQs were used to develop the AOP model to predict the appropriateness of a given prescription. Validation of this model was done by comparing the results of evaluation performed by the AOP model and verified by human experts. The results showed 96% accuracy for appropriate and 45% accuracy for inappropriate prescriptions, with a sensitivity and specificity of 75.9% and 89.5%, respectively.
We successfully developed the AOP model as an efficient tool for automatic identification of uncommon or rare associations between disease-medication and medication-medication in prescriptions. The AOP model helps to reduce medication errors by alerting physicians, improving the patients’ safety and the overall quality of care.
MicroRNAs are a group of intracellular non-coding RNA molecules that have been implicated in a variety of human diseases. Due to their high stability in blood, microRNAs released into circulation could be potentially utilized as non-invasive biomarkers for diagnosis or prognosis. Current microRNA isolation protocols are specifically designed for solid tissues and are impractical for biomarker development utilizing small-volume serum samples on a large scale. Thus, a protocol for microRNA isolation from serum is needed to accommodate these conditions in biomarker development. To establish such a protocol, we developed a simplified approach to normalize sample input by using single synthetic spike-in microRNA. We evaluated three commonly used commercial microRNA isolation kits for the best performance by comparing RNA quality and yield. The manufacturer’s protocol was further modified to improve the microRNA yield from 200 μL of human serum. MicroRNAs isolated from a large set of clinical serum samples were tested on the miRCURY LNA real-time PCR panel and confirmed to be suitable for high-throughput microRNA profiling. In conclusion, we have established a proven method for microRNA isolation from clinical serum samples suitable for microRNA biomarker development.
serum; microRNA; real-time PCR; biomarker
Osteoarthritis is a highly prevalent and debilitating joint disorder. There is no effective medical therapy for osteoarthritis due to limited understanding of osteoarthritis pathogenesis. We show that TGF–β1 is activated in the subchondral bone in response to altered mechanical loading in an anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) osteoarthritis mouse model. TGF–β1 concentrations also increased in human osteoarthritis subchondral bone. High concentrations of TGF–β1 induced formation of nestin+ mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) clusters leading to aberrant bone formation accompanied by increased angiogenesis. Transgenic expression of active TGF–β1 in osteoblastic cells induced osteoarthritis. Inhibition of TGF–β activity in subchondral bone attenuated degeneration of osteoarthritis articular cartilage. Notably, knockout of the TGF–β type II receptor (TβRII) in nestin+ MSCs reduced development of osteoarthritis in ACLT mice. Thus, high concentrations of active TGF–β1 in the subchondral bone initiated the pathological changes of osteoarthritis, inhibition of which could be a potential therapeutic approach.
The causative agent of Glasser's disease in swine is Haemophilus parasuis. Commercial bacterins are widely used for protection of the swine population. However, cross protection is limited because H. parasuis has more than 15 serovars. Transferrin-binding protein A has shown potential as a broad-spectrum vaccine candidate against homologous and heterologous strains. Here we amplified the full-length tbpA gene from an H. parasuis serovar 13 isolate and cloned it into a pET-SUMO expression vector. We then expressed and purified the TbpA protein by Ni affinity chromatography. First, the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the protein were evaluated in guinea pigs by two subcutaneous immunizations with different doses of Montanide IMS 206 VG adjuvant. The immunized guinea pigs were, respectively, challenged on week 3 after a booster immunization with homologous strain LJ3 (serovar 13) and heterologous strain FX1 (serovar 4), and vaccine-inoculated groups were compared with nonvaccinated controls. All immunized groups showed serum antibody titers higher than those of negative-control groups. Furthermore, the cytokine and chemokine levels were evaluated at the transcriptional level by the real-time PCR analysis of six cytokines and chemokines. Gamma interferon and interleukin-5 in groups immunized with 100 μg were elevated more than 15-fold over those in negative-control groups. The protection rates were 80 and 60% after a challenge with strains LJ3 and FX1, respectively, in the groups vaccinated with 100 μg of recombinant TbpA protein. Subsequently, the data showed that guinea pigs immunized with a single dose (100 μg) were protected at levels of 80, 80, and 60% against LJ3, FX1, and another heterologous strain, SZ (serovar 14), respectively. The results indicate for the first time that TbpA protein cross protects guinea pigs against serovars 13, 4, and 14 of H. parasuis. Taken together, these results suggest that the recombinant TbpA protein is a promising vaccine candidate that needs to be confirmed in a swine population.
Recent experimental studies provide evidence indicating that manipulation of the mononuclear phagocyte phenotype could be a feasible approach to alter the severity and persistence of pulmonary injury and fibrosis. Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) has been reported as a target to regulate macrophage polarization. The present work was designed to investigate the therapeutic potential of MR antagonism in bleomycin-induced acute lung injury and fibrosis.
We first demonstrated the expression of MR in magnetic bead-purified Ly6G-/CD11b+ circulating monocytes and in alveolar macrophages harvested in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from C57BL/6 mice. Then, a pharmacological intervention study using spironolactone (20mg/kg/day by oral gavage) revealed that MR antagonism led to decreased inflammatory cell infiltration, cytokine production (downregulated monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, transforming growth factor β1, and interleukin-1β at mRNA and protein levels) and collagen deposition (decreased lung total hydroxyproline content and collagen positive area by Masson’ trichrome staining) in bleomycin treated (2.5mg/kg, via oropharyngeal instillation) male C57BL/6 mice. Moreover, serial flow cytometry analysis in blood, BALF and enzymatically digested lung tissue, revealed that spironolactone could partially inhibit bleomycin-induced circulating Ly6Chi monocyte expansion, and reduce alternative activation (F4/80+CD11c+CD206+) of mononuclear phagocyte in alveoli, whereas the phenotype of interstitial macrophage (F4/80+CD11c-) remained unaffected by spironolactone during investigation.
The present work provides the experimental evidence that spironolactone could attenuate bleomycin-induced acute pulmonary injury and fibrosis, partially via inhibition of MR-mediated circulating monocyte and alveolar macrophage phenotype switching.
The clonal spread of Acinetobacter baumannii is a global problem, and carbapenems, such as imipenem, remain the first-choice agent against A. baumannii. Using synergy to enhance the antibiotic activity of carbapenems could be useful. Here, amlodipine (AML) was tested alone and with imipenem against A. baumannii isolates.
Forty-two isolates of A. baumannii were collected. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) assessed the genetic relationship of the isolates. The resistance phenotypes were determined using disc diffusion. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the drugs were determined by broth microdilution. The combined effects of the drugs were determined by a checkerboard procedure. Metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) was determined using the MBL Etest.
Forty-two A. baumannii isolates were collected from 42 patients who were mostly older than 65 years and had long inpatient stays (≥7 days). A. baumannii was mostly recovered from the respiratory system (N = 35, 83.3%). Most patients (N = 27, 64.3%) received care in intensive care units (ICUs). Disc diffusion testing demonstrated that A. baumannii susceptibility to polymyxin B was 100%, while susceptibility to other antimicrobial agents was less than 30%, classifying the isolates into 10 MDR and 32 XDR strains. MLST grouped the A. baumannii isolates into 4 existing STs and 6 new STs. STn4 carried allele G1, with a T → C mutation at nt3 on the gpi111 locus. STn5 carried allele A1, possessing A → C mutations at nt156 and nt159 on the gltA1 locus. ST195 and ST208 accounted for 68.05% (29/42) of the isolates. Clonal relation analysis showed that ST195 and ST208 belonged to clonal complex (CC) 92. The inhibitory concentration of imipenem ranged from 0.5 to 32 μg/ml, and that of AML ranged from 40 to 320 μg/ml. In combination, the susceptibility rate of A. baumannii isolates increased from 16.7% to 54.8% (P = 0.001). In the checkerboard procedure, half of the isolates (N = 21, 50.0%) demonstrated synergy or partial synergy with the drug combination. The MBL Etest revealed that 1 A. baumannii strain (N = 1, 2.4%) produced MBL.
CC92 was the major clone spreading in our hospital. AML improved the activity of imipenem against A. baumannii isolates in vitro but did not inhibit MBL.
Acinetobacter baumannii; MLST; Imipenem; Amlodipine
Bupropion, which is widely used in patients with depressive disorder, may cause allergic reactions. However, the real prevalence of these side effects may be overlooked and underreported due to the delayed onset phenomenon.
This study aimed to estimate the real incidence of bupropion-induced urticaria and clarify the delayed onset phenomenon.
We conducted a nationwide cohort study between 2000 and 2009 using Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Dataset. Among 65,988 patients with depressive disorders, we identified new users of bupropion with depressive disorders (bupropion cohort, n = 2,839) and matched them at a ratio of 1:4 regarding age and sex (non-bupropion matched cohort, n = 11,356). The risk of urticaria was compared between the two cohorts.
The risk of urticaria occurrence was higher in bupropion users than in matched controls within 4 weeks of starting the medication (risk ratio 1.81; 95% confidence interval 1.28–2.54; p = 0.001). The occurrence of urticaria in the bupropion cohort were more frequent on Days 15–28 than Day 1–14 (p = 0.002). Cox proportional hazards model showed that a history of urticaria was an independent risk factor for developing bupropion-induced urticaria.
Of the antidepressants, bupropion may pose a higher risk of drug-induced urticaria, and this condition might be ignored due to the delayed onset phenomenon. Depressive patients with a history of urticaria are at higher risk of the adverse drug reaction. This study emphasizes the need for increased clinical awareness of this adverse outcome to bupropion use.
Retropharyngeal lymph node (RPLN) metastasis is an uncommon finding in patients with oral cavity squamous carcinoma (OSCC). We sought to investigate the clinical outcomes, clinicopathological characteristics, and the priority of treatment with curative intent in OSCC patients with RPLN involvement.
Methods and Materials
Between January 2007 and January 2011, we identified 36 patients with primary RPLN metastases (n = 10) or RPLN relapse (n = 26). The follow-up continued until June 2013. Disease-specific survival (DSS), disease-free survival (DFS), and the potential benefits of salvage therapy served as the main outcome measures.
The 2-year DSS and DFS rates of untreated patients with RPLN involvement were 20% and 24%, respectively. Level IV/V neck lymph node involvement was an adverse prognostic factor for DSS (P = 0.048) and DFS (P = 0.018). All of the patients presenting with neck lymph node involvement at level IV/V died within 6 months. Among patients who were treated for RPLN relapse, the 2-year DSS and DFS rates from the relapse day were 12.8% and 9.6%, respectively. Concomitant contralateral neck lymph node metastases (N2c) were associated with lower 2-year DSS (P = 0.005) and DFS (P = 0.011) rates. Moreover, five (55%) of the nine patients with recurrent disease in the contralateral RPLN had distant metastases within 6 months. Salvage therapy yielded the maximum survival benefit in patients without N2c disease and ipsilateral RPLN involvement alone (P = 0.005).
OSCC patients with RPLN involvement have poor outcomes. The risk factor for definitive treatment in OSCC patients with FDG PET/CT defined RPLN disease in primary disease was neck lymph node involvement at level IV/V and N2c and/or contralateral RPLN disease in recurrent disease. Treatment efforts with curative intent should be tailored according to individual risk factors.
Progressive vaccinia (PV) is a rare but potentially lethal complication that develops in smallpox vaccine recipients with severely impaired cellular immunity. We describe a patient with PV who required treatment with vaccinia immune globulin and who received 2 investigational agents, ST-246 and CMX001. We describe the various molecular, pharmacokinetic, and immunologic studies that provided guidance to escalate and then successfully discontinue therapy. Despite development of resistance to ST-246 during treatment, the patient had resolution of PV. This case demonstrates the need for continued development of novel anti-orthopoxvirus pharmaceuticals and the importance of both intensive and timely clinical and laboratory support in management of PV.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that can function as oncogenes or tumor suppressors in human cancer. Abnormally expressed miR-224 was found to play a fundamental role in several types of cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic and biological values of miR-224 in colorectal cancer (CRC).
Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to evaluate expression levels of miR-224. The postoperative survival rate was analyzed with Kaplan–Meier method. The roles of miR-224 in cell proliferation, migration and invasion were analyzed with pre-miR-224 transfected cells. In addition, the regulation of SMAD4 by miR-224 was evaluated by qRT-PCR, Western blotting and luciferase reporter assays.
In the present study, we demonstrated that miR-224 was significantly up-regulated in CRC tissue samples and associated with disease relapse and a relative poorer disease-free survival rate. Moreover, ectopic expression of miR-224 potently promoted tumor cell proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro. Furthermore, the over-expression of miR-224 in CRC cell lines decreased SMAD4 expression at the translational level and decreased SMAD4-driven luciferase-reporter activity.
Our data suggest that miR-224 could play an oncogenic role in the cellular processes of CRC and represent a novel biomarker for tumor relapse of CRC patients.
Colorectal cancer; miR-224; SMAD4; Invasion; Relapse
Lymphocyte apoptosis is one reason for immunoparalysis seen in sepsis, although the triggers are unknown. We hypothesized that molecules in plasma, which are up-regulated during sepsis, may be responsible for this. In this study, peripheral lymphocyte apoptosis caused by extracellular histones was confirmed both in mouse and human primary lymphocytes, in which histones induced lymphocyte apoptosis dose-dependently and time-dependently. To identify which intracellular signal pathways were activated, phosphorylation of various mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) were evaluated during this process, and p38 inhibitor (SB203580) was used to confirm the role of p38 in lymphocyte apoptosis induced by histones. To investigate the mitochondrial injury during these processes, we analyzed Bcl2 degradation and Rhodamine 123 to assess mitochondrial-membrane stability, via cyclosporin A as an inhibitor for mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT). Then, caspase 3 activation was also checked by western-blotting. We found that p38 phosphorylation, mitochondrial injury and caspase 3 activation occurred dose-dependently in histones-mediated lymphocyte apoptosis. We also observed that p38 inhibitor SB203580 decreased lymphocyte apoptotic ratio by 49% (P<0.05), and inhibition of MPT protected lymphocytes from apoptosis. Furthermore, to investigate whether histones are responsible for lymphocyte apoptosis, various concentrations of histone H4 neutralization antibodies were co-cultured with human primary lymphocytes and plasma from cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) mice or sham mice. The results showed that H4 neutralization antibody dose-dependently blocked lymphocyte apoptosis caused by septic plasma in vitro. These data demonstrate for the first time that extracellular histones, especially H4, play a vital role in lymphocyte apoptosis during sepsis which is dependent on p38 phosphorylation and mitochondrial permeability transition. Neutralizing H4 can inhibit lymphocyte apoptosis, indicating that it could be a potential target in clinical interventions for sepsis associated immunoparalysis.
Angiotensin II has progressively been considered to play an important role in the development of liver fibrosis, although the mechanism isn't fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible pro-fibrotic mechanism, by which angiotensin II would enhance the pro-fibrotic effect of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) through up-regulation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and enhancing down-regulation of TGF-β1 inhibitory pseudo-receptor—BAMBI caused by LPS in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Firstly, the synergistic effects of angiotensin II, TGF-β1 and LPS on collagen 1α production were confirmed in vitro by ELISA, in which angiotensin II, LPS and TGF-β1 were treated sequentially, and in vivo by immunofluorescence, in the experiments single or multiple intra-peritoneally implanted osmotic mini-pumps administrating angiotensin II or LPS combined with intra-peritoneal injections of TGF-β1 were used. We also found that only LPS and TGF-β1 weren't enough to induce obvious fibrogenesis without angiotensin II. Secondly, to identify the reason of why angiotensin II is so important, the minute level of TLR4 in activated HSCs - T6 and primary quiescent HSCs of rat, up-regulation of TLR4 by angiotensin II and blockage by different angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1) blockers in HSCs were assayed by western blotting in vitro and immunofluorescence in vivo. Finally, BAMBI expression level, which is regulated by LPS-TLR4 pathway, was detected by qRT-PCR and results showed angiotensin II enhanced the down-regulation of BAMBI mRNA caused by LPS in vitro and in vivo, and TLR4 neutralization antibody blocked this interactive effect. These data demonstrated that angiotensin II enhances LPS-TLR4 pathway signaling and further down-regulates expression of BAMBI through up-regulation of TLR4, which results in facilitation of pro-fibrotic activity of TGF-β1. Angiotensin II, LPS and TGF-β1 act synergistically during hepatic fibrogenesis, showing crosstalks between angiotensin II-AT1, LPS-TLR4 and TGF-β1-BAMBI signal pathways in rat HSCs.
This study evaluated the consistency of manual and automated measurements of monodominant follicle diameter with different follicle size in infertile patients. Transvaginal two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound and SonoAVC (Sonography-based Automated Volume Calculation) were both performed in 226 infertile patients with monodominant follicle growth. 2D diameters were separately compared with SonoAVC-generated d(V) and m-d values in different follicle category, i.e. >10 to 14 mm, >14 to 18 mm, >18 to 22 mm and >22 mm. There was moderate degree of consistency between 2D diameter and SonoAVC-generated parameters regardless of follicle size. The mean differences were 0.82 mm between 2D diameter and SonoAVC-generated d(V) value, and 0.22 mm between 2D diameter and SonoAVC-generated m-d value, respectively. The discrepancy of manual and automated measurements tended to increase as follicle size increased. Our study suggested that compared with manual measurement, SonoAVC might underestimate follicle size. The absolute size of a follicle affected the consistency of two techniques.
Insertion of transposable elements (TEs) into introns can lead to their activation as alternatively spliced cassette exons, an event called exonization. Exonization can enrich the complexity of transcriptomes and proteomes. Previously, we performed a genome-wide computational analysis of Ds exonization events in the monocot Oryza sativa (rice). The insertion patterns of Ds increased the number of transcripts and subsequent protein isoforms, which were determined as interior and C-terminal variants. In this study, these variants were scanned with the PROSITE database in order to identify new functional profiles (domains) that were referred to their reference proteins. The new profiles of the variants were expected to be beneficial for a selective advantage and more than 70% variants achieved this. The new functional profiles could be contributed by an exon–intron junction, an intron alone, an intron–TE junction, or a TE alone. A Ds-inserted intron may yield 167 new profiles on average, while some cases can yield thousands of new profiles, of which C-terminal variants were in major. Additionally, more than 90% of the TE-inserted genes were found to gain novel functional profiles in each intron via exonization. Therefore, new functional profiles yielded by the exonization may occur in many local regions of the reference protein.
Ac/Ds transposon; exonization; PROSITE; protein isoforms
It has been proved that hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection alters the metastatic pattern and affects survival in colorectal cancer (CRC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), while the influence of HBV infection on metastatic pattern and survival in patients with pancreatic cancer (PC) has not been investigated yet.
We conducted an investigation to evaluate the impact of HBV infection on metastatic pattern and overall survival in PC. We collected the data of 460 PC patients treated in our hospital from 1999 to 2010. Serum HBV markers were tested with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The impact of HBV infection on metastatic pattern and overall survival was analyzed.
We found that the incidence of synchronous liver metastasis was significantly higher in patients with HBsAg positive than those with HBsAg negative (46.0% vs 32.0%, P < 0.05), and higher in chronic HBV infection (CHB) group than both non HBV infection and resolved HBV infection group (61.1% vs 33.9%, P < 0.05, and 61.1% vs 28.7%, P < 0.05, respectively). What’s more, Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that CHB, resolved HBV infection and non HBV infection group had significant longer overall survival (OS) compared with inactive HBsAg carriers (IC) group (P=0.037, P=0.009, and P=0.019 respectively). But, in the multivariate analysis, only the CHB and non HBV infection group had significant better overall survival compared with IC group (P=0.010 and P=0.018 respectively).
Our study found that HBV infection increased synchronous liver metastasis rate, and HBV infection status was an independent prognostic factor in PC patients.
Hepatitis B virus; Pancreatic cancer; Liver metastasis; Survival
In order to study the effect of microgravity on the proliferation of mammalian osteosarcoma cells and osteoblasts, the changes in cell proliferation, spindle structure, expression of MAD2 or BUB1, and effect of MAD2 or BUB1 on the inhibition of cell proliferation is investigated by keeping mammalian osteosarcoma cells and osteoblasts under simulated microgravity in a rotating wall vessel (2D-RWVS) bioreactor. Experimental results indicate that the effect of microgravity on proliferation inhibition, incidence of multipolar spindles, and expression of MAD2 or BUB1 increases with the extension of treatment time. And multipolar cells enter mitosis after MAD2 or BUB1 is knocked down, which leads to the decrease in DNA content, and decrease the accumulation of cells within multipolar spindles. It can therefore be concluded that simulated microgravity can alter the structure of spindle microtubules, and stimulate the formation of multipolar spindles together with multicentrosomes, which causes the overexpression of SAC proteins to block the abnormal cells in metaphase, thereby inhibiting cell proliferation. By clarifying the relationship between cell proliferation inhibition, spindle structure and SAC changes under simulated microgravity, the molecular mechanism and morphology basis of proliferation inhibition induced by microgravity is revealed, which will give experiment and theoretical evidence for the mechanism of space bone loss and some other space medicine problems.
The aim of this study is to compare the secretory profiles and diagnostic power of anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) for the PCOS patient with and without hyperandrogenism.
One hundred and thirty-one PCOS patients with oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea were recruited into the study. Sixty-two and sixty-nine patients had and did not have hyperandrogenism (HA+) hyperandrogenism (HA−), respectively. Sera were collected for determining the levels of AMH, basal sexual hormones, glucose and lipid metabolic indicators.
The AMH serum levels of PCOS patients were significantly higher than the control group, with the highest AMH serum level in the HA+ group. The cut-off value for predicting PCOS patients of all types was 3.92 ng/mL, with a sensitivity of 65 %, and specificity of 62 %. The cut-off value for predicting PCOS patients in the HA+ group was 4.23 ng/mL, with a sensitivity of 82 %, and specificity of 64 %. The cut-off value for predicting PCOS patients in the HA− group was 3.76 ng/mL, with a sensitivity of 64 %, and specificity of 62 %. In the HA+ group, AMH was negatively associated with FSH and positively associated with LH. In the HA− group, AMH was negatively associated with HDL and positively associated with BMI, fasting glucose and LDL.
AMH is only suitable for predicting the PCOS patients with hyperandrogenism. The diagnostic power of AMH is limited when used to predict patients without hyperandrogenism. It reflects the differences in pathophysiology and severity of disrupted folliculogenesis between the two subtypes.
Anti-Mullerian hormone; Polycystic ovary syndrome; Hyperandrogenism; Folliculogenesis
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short non-coding RNA molecules that have attracted tremendous attention from the biological and biomedical research communities over the past decade. With over 1900 miRNAs discovered in humans to date, many of them have already been implicated in common human disorders. Facilitated by high-throughput genomics and bioinformatics in conjunction with traditional molecular biology techniques and animal models, miRNA research is now positioned to make the transition from laboratories to clinics to deliver profound benefits to public health. Herein, we overview the progress of miRNA research related to human diseases, as well as the potential for miRNA to becoming the next generation of diagnostics and therapeutics.
MicroRNA; Human diseases; Diagnostics; Therapeutics; Biomarker
Systemic administration of chemotherapy for cancer often has toxic side effects, limiting the doses that can be used in its treatment. In this study, we developed methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(caprolactone) (MPEG-PCL) micelles loaded with curcumin and doxorubicin (Cur-Dox/MPEG-PCL) that were tolerated by recipient mice and had enhanced antitumor effects and fewer side effects. It was shown that these Cur-Dox/MPEG-PCL micelles could release curcumin and doxorubicin slowly in vitro. The long circulation time of MPEG-PCL micelles and the slow rate of release of curcumin and doxorubicin in vivo may help to maintain plasma concentrations of active drug. We also demonstrated that Cur-Dox/MPEG-PCL had improved antitumor effects both in vivo and in vitro. The mechanism by which Cur-Dox/MPEG-PCL micelles inhibit lung cancer might involve increased apoptosis of tumor cells and inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. We found advantages using Cur-Dox/MPEG-PCL micelles in the treatment of cancer, with Cur-Dox/MPEG-PCL achieving better inhibition of LL/2 lung cancer growth in vivo and in vitro. Our study indicates that Cur-Dox/MPEG-PCL micelles may be an effective treatment strategy for cancer in the future.
methoxy poly(ethylene glycol); poly(caprolactone); curcumin; doxorubicin; micelles; cancer; treatment
Severe dehydration is generally believed to be a cause of significant hyperbilirubinemia in newborn babies. This study aimed to analyze the weight loss of healthy term newborn infants at 24, 48 and 72 hours after birth to predict significant hyperbilirubinemia at 72 hours.
From January 2007 to December 2008, we conducted this retrospective chart review by measuring total bilirubin (transcutaneous and serum) in 343 healthy, term newborns with a birth body weight of more than 2500 g. We then analyzed the association between body weight loss (BWL) and significant hyperbilirubinemia (total bilirubin more than 15 mg/dL) 72 hours after birth. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to evaluate the appropriate cutoff BWL percentages on the first three days after birth for the prediction of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia 72 hours after birth.
A total of 115 (33.5%) neonates presented with significant hyperbilirubinemia 72 hours after birth, and the percentages of BWL on the first three days were all higher than those in the non-significant hyperbilirubinemia group (all p < 0.05). Breastfeeding was not statistically correlated with significant hyperbilirubinemia (p=0.86). To predict significant hyperbilirubinemia 72 hours after birth, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that the optimum cutoff BWL percentages were 4.48% on the first day of life (sensitivity: 43%, specificity: 70%, positive likelihood ratio [LR+]: 1.43, and negative likelihood ratio [LR-]: 0.82), 7.60% on day 2 (sensitivity: 47%, specificity: 74%, LR+: 1.81, LR-: 0.72), and 8.15% on day 3 (sensitivity: 57%, specificity: 70%, LR+: 1.92, LR-: 0.61) (all p < 0.05).
BWL on the first three days after birth may be a predisposing factor for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, and may also serve as a helpful clinical factor to prevent significant hyperbilirubinemia 72 hours after birth. The optimal BWL cutoff percentages on the first three days after birth presented in this study may predict hyperbilirubinemia and indicate the need for supplementary feeding.
Neonate; Jaundice; Hyperbilirubinemia; Dehydration
Emerging evidence shows that anti-inflammatory strategies targeting inflammatory monocyte subset could reduce excessive inflammation and improve cardiovascular outcomes. Functional expression of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) have been demonstrated in monocytes and macrophages. We hypothesized that mononuclear phagocyte VGSCs are a target for monocyte/macrophage phenotypic switch, and liposome mediated inhibition of mononuclear phagocyte VGSC may attenuate myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and improve post-infarction left ventricular remodeling.
Thin film dispersion method was used to prepare phenytoin (PHT, a non-selective VGSC inhibitor) entrapped liposomes. Pharmacokinetic study revealed that the distribution and elimination half-life of PHT entrapped liposomes were shorter than those of free PHT, indicating a rapid uptake by mononuclear phagocytes after intravenous injection. In rat peritoneal macrophages, several VGSC α subunits (NaV1.1, NaV1.3, NaV1.4, NaV1.5, NaV1.6, NaV1.7, NaVX, Scn1b, Scn3b and Scn4b) and β subunits were expressed at mRNA level, and PHT could suppress lipopolysaccharide induced M1 polarization (decreased TNF-α and CCL5 expression) and facilitate interleukin-4 induced M2 polarization (increased Arg1 and TGF-β1 expression). In vivo study using rat model of myocardial I/R injury, demonstrated that PHT entrapped liposome could partially suppress I/R injury induced CD43+ inflammatory monocyte expansion, along with decreased infarct size and left ventricular fibrosis. Transthoracic echocardiography and invasive hemodynamic analysis revealed that PHT entrapped liposome treatment could attenuate left ventricular structural and functional remodeling, as shown by increased ejection fraction, reduced end-systolic and end-diastolic volume, as well as an amelioration of left ventricular systolic (+dP/dtmax) and diastolic (-dP/dtmin) functions.
Our work for the first time demonstrates the therapeutic potential of VGSC antagonism via liposome mediated monocyte/macrophage targeting in acute phase after myocardial I/R injury. These results suggest that VGSCs in mononuclear phagocyte system might be a novel target for immunomodulation and treatment of myocardial I/R injury.
A novel spectrophotometric method for the quantification of urinary xanthurenic acid (XA) is described. The direct acid ferric reduction (DAFR) procedure was used to quantify XA after it was purified by a solid-phase extraction column. The linearity of proposed method extends from 2.5 to 100.0 mg/L. The method is precise, yielding day-to-day CVs for two pooled controls of 3.5% and 4.6%, respectively. Correlation studies with an established HPLC method and a fluorometric procedure showed correlation coefficients of 0.98 and 0.98, respectively. Interference from various urinary metabolites was insignificant. In a small-scale screening of elderly conducted at Penghu county in Taiwan (n = 80), we were able to identify a group of twenty individuals having hyperhomocysteinemia (>15 μmole/L). Three of them were found to be positive for XA as analyzed by the proposed method, which correlated excellently with the results of the activation coefficient method for RBC's AST/B6 functional test. These data confirm the usefulness of the proposed method for identifying urinary XA as an indicator of vitamin B6 deficiency-associated hyperhomocysteinemic condition.