The treatment of patients with MDR- and XDR-TB is usually more complex, toxic and costly and less effective than treatment of other forms of TB. However, there is little information available on risk factors for poor outcomes in patients with MDR- and XDR-TB in China.
We retrospectively analyzed the clinical records of HIV-negative TB Patients with culture-proven MDR- or XDR-TB who were registered from July 2006 to June 2011 at five large-scale Tuberculosis Specialized Hospitals in China. Among 1662 HIV-seronegative TB cases which were culture-positive for M. tuberculosis complex and had positive sputum-smear microscopy results, 965 cases (58.1%) were DR-TB, and 586 cases (35.3%) were classified as having MDR-TB, accounting for 60.7% of DR-TB. 169 cases (10.2%) were XDR-TB, accounting for 17.5% of DR-TB, 28.8% of MDR-TB. The MDR-TB patients were divided into XDR-TB group (n=169) and other MDR-TB group (non-XDR MDR-TB) (n=417). In total, 240 patients (40.95%) had treatment success, and 346 (59.05%) had poor treatment outcomes. The treatment success rate in other MDR-TB group was 52.2%, significantly higher than that in the XDR-TB group (13%, P<0.001). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, poor outcomes were associated with duration of previous anti-TB treatment of more than one year (OR, 0.077; 95% CI, 0.011-0.499, P<0.001), a BMI less than 18.5 kg/m2 (OR, 2.185; 95% CI, 1.372-3.478, P<0.001), XDR (OR, 13.368; 95% CI, 6.745-26.497, P<0.001), retreatment (OR, 0.171; 95% CI, 0.093-0.314, P<0.001), diabetes (OR, 0.305; 95% CI, 0.140-0.663, P=0.003), tumor (OR, 0.095; 95% CI, 0.011-0.795, P=0.03), decreased albumin (OR, 0.181; 95% CI, 0.118-0.295, P<0.001), cavitation (OR, 0.175; 95% CI, 0.108-0.286, P<0.001).
The patients with MDR-TB and XDR-TB have poor treatment outcomes in China.The presence of extensive drug resistance, low BMI, hypoalbuminemia, comorbidity, cavitary disease and previous anti-TB treatment are independent prognostic factors for poor outcome in patients with MDR-TB.