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2.  Identification of differentially expressed genes induced by Bamboo mosaic virus infection in Nicotiana benthamiana by cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism 
BMC Plant Biology  2010;10:286.
Background
The genes of plants can be up- or down-regulated during viral infection to influence the replication of viruses. Identification of these differentially expressed genes could shed light on the defense systems employed by plants and the mechanisms involved in the adaption of viruses to plant cells. Differential gene expression in Nicotiana benthamiana plants in response to infection with Bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV) was revealed using cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP).
Results
Following inoculation with BaMV, N. benthamiana displayed differential gene expression in response to the infection. Isolation, cloning, and sequencing analysis using cDNA-AFLP furnished 90 cDNA fragments with eight pairs of selective primers. Fifteen randomly selected genes were used for a combined virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) knockdown experiment, using BaMV infection to investigate the roles played by these genes during viral infection, specifically addressing the means by which these genes influence the accumulation of BaMV protein. Nine of the 15 genes showed either a positive or a negative influence on the accumulation of BaMV protein. Six knockdown plants showed an increase in the accumulation of BaMV, suggesting that they played a role in the resistance to viral infection, while three plants showed a reduction in coat protein, indicating a positive influence on the accumulation of BaMV in plants. An interesting observation was that eight of the nine plants showing an increase in BaMV coat protein were associated with cell rescue, defense, death, aging, signal transduction, and energy production.
Conclusions
This study reports an efficient and straightforward method for the identification of host genes involved in viral infection. We succeeded in establishing a cDNA-AFLP system to help track changes in gene expression patterns in N. benthamiana plants when infected with BaMV. The combination of both DNA-AFLP and VIGS methodologies made it possible to screen a large number of genes and identify those associated with infections of plant viruses. In this report, 9 of the 15 analyzed genes exhibited either a positive or a negative influence on the accumulation of BaMV in N. benthamiana plants.
doi:10.1186/1471-2229-10-286
PMCID: PMC3024324  PMID: 21184690
3.  Identification of a novel mutation in a Chinese family with Nance-Horan syndrome by whole exome sequencing*  
Objective: Nance-Horan syndrome (NHS) is a rare X-linked disorder characterized by congenital nuclear cataracts, dental anomalies, and craniofacial dysmorphisms. Mental retardation was present in about 30% of the reported cases. The purpose of this study was to investigate the genetic and clinical features of NHS in a Chinese family. Methods: Whole exome sequencing analysis was performed on DNA from an affected male to scan for candidate mutations on the X-chromosome. Sanger sequencing was used to verify these candidate mutations in the whole family. Clinical and ophthalmological examinations were performed on all members of the family. Results: A combination of exome sequencing and Sanger sequencing revealed a nonsense mutation c.322G>T (E108X) in exon 1 of NHS gene, co-segregating with the disease in the family. The nonsense mutation led to the conversion of glutamic acid to a stop codon (E108X), resulting in truncation of the NHS protein. Multiple sequence alignments showed that codon 108, where the mutation (c.322G>T) occurred, was located within a phylogenetically conserved region. The clinical features in all affected males and female carriers are described in detail. Conclusions: We report a nonsense mutation c.322G>T (E108X) in a Chinese family with NHS. Our findings broaden the spectrum of NHS mutations and provide molecular insight into future NHS clinical genetic diagnosis.
doi:10.1631/jzus.B1300321
PMCID: PMC4129093  PMID: 25091991
Nance-Horan syndrome (NHS); Exome sequencing; X-linked disorder

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