This anatomic, radiographic study investigated locational differences in the C2 pedicle and isthmus [pediculoisthmic component (PIC)] and characterized its narrowest section for clinical application in posterior C2 screw fixation.
Structures surrounding the transverse foramina of 30 dry C2s and 10 C3s were compared morphologically. Spinal CT scans of 32 Chinese adults were subjected to volume rendering and multiplanar reconstruction to identify the narrowest C2 PIC, and correlative parameters were measured and analyzed.
Inferior C2 and C3 structures were morphologically similar. In superior view, the C2 superior facets lay on the transverse foramen and the upper portion between superior and inferior facets was flat (average mediolateral angle, 11.1° ± 2.4°). In inferior view, the posteroinferomedial portion of the C2 transverse foramen displayed a partially tubular structure (average mediolateral angle of projection, 42.6° ± 4.9°). Average height and width were 11.6 and 6.9 mm. The inner medullary cavity was elliptical and the middle site of endosteal diameter was 3.3 ± 1.9 mm. Medial internal cortical bone was significantly thicker than lateral bone (P < 0.01).
The PIC is located between superior and inferior C2 facets. The superior flat area is the isthmus and the inferomedial area connecting the inferior facet and vertebral body is the pedicle. The pedicle is partially tubular and projects posteromedially to the transverse foramen. The narrowest PIC section is the narrowest point of the C2 pedicle. Considering its thin lateral cortical bone, medial and superior pedicle screw placement and preoperative CT reconstruction are recommended.
C2; Axis; Pedicle; Isthmus; Reformatted CT
Wheat and rice are important food crops with enormous biomass residues for biofuels. However, lignocellulosic recalcitrance becomes a crucial factor on biomass process. Plant cell walls greatly determine biomass recalcitrance, thus it is essential to identify their key factors on lignocellulose saccharification. Despite it has been reported about cell wall factors on biomass digestions, little is known in wheat and rice. In this study, we analyzed nine typical pairs of wheat and rice samples that exhibited distinct cell wall compositions, and identified three major factors of wall polymer features that affected biomass digestibility.
Based on cell wall compositions, ten wheat accessions and three rice mutants were classified into three distinct groups each with three typical pairs. In terms of group I that displayed single wall polymer alternations in wheat, we found that three wall polymer levels (cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin) each had a negative effect on biomass digestibility at similar rates under pretreatments of NaOH and H2SO4 with three concentrations. However, analysis of six pairs of wheat and rice samples in groups II and III that each exhibited a similar cell wall composition, indicated that three wall polymer levels were not the major factors on biomass saccharification. Furthermore, in-depth detection of the wall polymer features distinctive in rice mutants, demonstrated that biomass digestibility was remarkably affected either negatively by cellulose crystallinity (CrI) of raw biomass materials, or positively by both Ara substitution degree of non-KOH-extractable hemicelluloses (reverse Xyl/Ara) and p-coumaryl alcohol relative proportion of KOH-extractable lignin (H/G). Correlation analysis indicated that Ara substitution degree and H/G ratio negatively affected cellulose crystallinity for high biomass enzymatic digestion. It was also suggested to determine whether Ara and H monomer have an interlinking with cellulose chains in the future.
Using nine typical pairs of wheat and rice samples having distinct cell wall compositions and wide biomass saccharification, Ara substitution degree and monolignin H proportion have been revealed to be the dominant factors positively determining biomass digestibility upon various chemical pretreatments. The results demonstrated the potential of genetic modification of plant cell walls for high biomass saccharification in bioenergy crops.
Cell wall; Cellulose crystallinity; Arabinose substitution degree; p-coumaryl alcohol proportion; Biomass digestibility; Chemical pretreatment; Wheat; Rice
The synthesis of a 4-dibenzocyclooctynol (DIBO) functionalized polyethylene glycol (PEG) and fabrication of hydrogels via strain-promoted, metal-free, azide-alkyne cycloaddition is reported. The resulting hydrogel materials provide a versatile alternative in which to encapsulate cells that are sensitive to photochemical or chemical crosslinking mechanisms.
hydrogel; click chemistry; human mesenchymal stem cell; cycloaddition
Elevated plasma levels of lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) and a higher degree of coronary artery calcification (CAC) are both considered to be risk factors for atherosclerosis. However, previous studies have demonstrated that the relationship between Lp(a) levels and the degree of CAC indicates significant heterogeneity that may be due to varying ethnicities. The purpose of this study was to examine the predictive power of Lp(a) for CAC as measured by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in the Han ethnic group of China.
A total of 1082 subjects were recruited in this study. The patients were divided into four groups: patients without hypertension or diabetes were group 1, patients with hypertension were group 2, patients with diabetes were group 3 and patients with both hypertension and diabetes were group 4. CAC score (CACs), lipid profiles (Lp(a), LDL, HDL, TG, TC), HbA1C, glucose, personal health history and body morphology were measured in all participants. The predictive power of Lp(a) for calcified atherosclerotic plaque was determined by correlations and ordinal logistic regression.
There was no significant difference in the CACs between group 2 and group 3 (z = 1.790, p = 0.736), and there were significant differences among the other groups. However, there was no significant difference in the total Lp(a) among the 4 groups (χ2 = 0.649, p = 0.885). Only In group 1, Lp(a) was a statistically significant predictor of the presence of calcified coronary plaque using ordinal logistic regression.
Levels of Lp(a) positively correlate with CACs among Chinese Han people who are without diabetes and hypertension, suggesting that Lp(a) may be an important risk factor for the presence of calcified atheromas.
Low back pain due to lumbar disc herniation (LDH) is very common in clinic. This randomized controlled trial was designed to investigate the effects of integrative TCM conservative therapy for low back pain due to LDH. A total of 408 patients with low back pain due to LDH were randomly assigned to an experimental group with integrative TCM therapy and a control group with normal conservative treatment by the ratio of 3 : 1. The primary outcome was the pain by the visual analogue scale (VAS). The secondary outcome was the low back functional activities by Chinese Short Form Oswestry Disability Index (C-SFODI). Immediately after treatment, patients in the experimental group experienced significant improvements in VAS and C-SFODI compared with the control group (between-group difference in mean change from baseline, −16.62 points, P < 0.001 in VAS; −15.55 points, P < 0.001 in C-SFODI). The difference remained at one-month followup, but it is only significant in C-SFODI at six-month followup (−7.68 points, P < 0.001). No serious adverse events were observed. These findings suggest that integrative TCM therapy may be a beneficial complementary and alternative therapy for patients with low back pain due to LDH.
This study aimed to evaluate how excess selenium induces oxidative stress by determining antioxidant enzyme activity and changes in expression of selected selenoproteins in mice. BALB/c mice (n = 20 per group) were fed a diet containing 0.045 (Se-marginal), 0.1 (Se-adequate), 0.4 (Se-supernutrition), or 0.8 (Se-excess) mg Se/kg. Gene expression was quantified in RNA samples extracted from the liver, kidney, and testis by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. We found that glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase activities decreased in livers of mice fed the marginal or excess dose of Se as compared to those in the Se-adequate group. Additionally, superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase activities were significantly reduced only in mice fed the excess Se diet, compared to animals on the adequate Se diet. Se-supernutrition had no effect on hepatic mRNA levels of GPx isoforms 1 and 4 (GPx1 and GPx4), down-regulated GPx isoform 3 (GPx3), and upregulated selenoprotein W (SelW) mRNA expression. The excess Se diet led to decreased hepatic mRNA levels of GPx1, GPx3 and GPx4 but no change in testicular mRNA levels of GPx1, GPx3 or SelW. Dietary Se had no effect on testicular mRNA levels of GPx4. Thus, our results suggest that Se exposure can reduce hepatic antioxidant capacity and cause liver dysfunction. Dietary Se was found to differentially regulate mRNA levels of the GPx family or SelW, depending on exposure. Therefore, these genes may play a role in the toxicity associated with Se.
Selenium; Antioxidant; Overexposure; mRNA
There are two independent molecules in the asymmetric unit of the title compound, C9H6N2S, which is an intermediate compound of a cardiovascular drug. The two molecules are nearly planar, displaying dihedral angles of 3.5 (2) and 5.7 (2)° between the thiophene ring and the malononitrile moiety. In the crystal, C—H⋯N interactions lead to the formation of a sheet structure that packs in a parallel fashion.
Plant glycoside hydrolase family 9 (GH9) comprises typical endo-β-1,4-glucanase (EGases, EC126.96.36.199). Although GH9A (KORRIGAN) family genes have been reported to be involved in cellulose biosynthesis in plants, much remains unknown about other GH9 subclasses. In this study, we observed a global gene co-expression profiling and conducted a correlation analysis between OsGH9 and OsCESA among 66 tissues covering most periods of life cycles in 2 rice varieties. Our results showed that OsGH9A3 and B5 possessed an extremely high co-expression with OsCESA1, 3, and 8 typical for cellulose biosynthesis in rice. Using two distinct rice non-GH9 mutants and wild type, we performed integrative analysis of gene expression level by qRT-PCR, cellulase activities in situ and in vitro, and lignocellulose crystallinity index (CrI) in four internodes of stem tissues. For the first time, OsGH9B1, 3, and 16 were characterized with the potential role in lignocellulose crystallinity alteration in rice, whereas OsGH9A3 and B5 were suggested for cellulose biosynthesis. In addition, phylogenetic analysis and gene co-expression comparison revealed GH9 function similarity in Arabidopsis and rice. Hence, the data can provide insights into GH9 function in plants and offer the potential strategy for genetic manipulation of plant cell wall using the five aforementioned novel OsGH9 genes.
The interaction of nanomaterials with biological macromolecules is an important foundation of the design and the biological safety assessments of nanomaterials. This work aims to investigate the interaction between pristine C60 and serum albumins (human serum albumin and bovine serum albumin) in solution. Stable aqueous dispersion of C60 was prepared by simple direct ultrasonic method and characterized by UV–vis spectrophotometry, transmission electronic microscopy and dynamic light scattering techniques, and spectroscopic methods (fluorescence spectroscopy, synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism spectroscopy) were utilized for the investigation. It was found that the fluorescence of serum albumins could be quenched by C60 nanoparticles in a substantially similar way. Slight changes of the surrounding microenvironment of amino residues were observed, while little effects on the protein secondary structure occurred. The different effects of dispersion methods on the interaction of C60 nanoparticles with serum protein were also compared and discussed.
Bovine serum albumin; Fluorescence; Fullerene; Human serum albumin; Spectroscopy
In the title compound, C12H13ClO4, the 1,3-dioxane ring adopts a chair conformation and the 2-chlorobenzene and methyl substituents occupy equatorial sites. The carboxyl group is in an axial inclination. In the crystal, carboxylic acid inversion dimers linked by pairs of O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds generate R
In the crystal structure of the title compound, C8H6Br2FNO, C—H⋯O and N—H⋯O hydrogen bonding results in six-membered rings and links the molecules into chains running parallel to the c axis. The dihedral angle between the fluorophenyl ring and the acetamide group is 29.5 (5)°.
The crystal packing in the title compound, C11H14FNO, features N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, resulting in chains of molecules running parallel to the c axis. The dihedral angle between the ring and the amide group is 39.1 (3)°.
In the title compound, C12H14N2O2, the indole ring is essentially planar, with an r.m.s. deviation of 0.0136 Å. In the crystal, pairs of N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the molecules into inversion dimers..
In the title compound, C18H17ClO4, the dihedral angle between the mean planes of the benzene rings is 53.4 (1)°. Weak intermolecular C—H⋯O interactions are observed.
In the title molecule, C17H12N2O, the dihedral angle between the two benzene rings is 84.98 (10)°. The dicyanoethylene group is coplanar with the benzene ring to which it is bonded. No classic hydrogen bonds were found in the crystal.
The anti-neoplastic agent, paclitaxel, causes a dose-limiting distal, symmetrical, sensory peripheral neuropathy that is often accompanied by a neuropathic pain syndrome. In a low-dose model of paclitaxel-evoked painful peripheral neuropathy in the rat, we have shown that the drug causes degeneration of intraepidermal nerve fibers (IENFs), i.e., the fibers which give rise to the sensory afferent’s terminal receptor arbour. However, we did not find any evidence for axonal degeneration in samples taken at the mid-nerve level. Here we aimed to determine whether the absence of degenerating peripheral nerve axons was due to sampling a level that was too proximal. We used electron microscopy to study the distal-most branches of the nerves innervating the hind paw glabrous skin of normal and paclitaxel-treated rats. We confirmed that we sampled at a time when IENF degeneration was prominent. Because degeneration might be easier to detect with higher paclitaxel doses, we examined a four-fold cumulative dose range (8–32 mg/kg). We found no evidence of degeneration in the superficial subepidermal axon bundles (sSAB) that are located just a few microns below the epidermal basal lamina. Specifically, for all three dose groups there was no change in the number of sSAB per mm of epidermal border, no change in the number of axons per sSAB, and no change in the diameter of sSAB axons. We conclude that paclitaxel produces a novel type of lesion that is restricted to the afferent axon’s terminal arbor; we name this lesion “terminal arbor degeneration (TAD)”.
chemotherapy neuropathy; intraepidermal nerve fiber; neuropathic pain; sensory neuropathy; rat; taxol
A chest wall approach combined with a gasless technique appears to make single-incision endoscopic thyroidectomy feasible and practicable.
Endoscopic thyroidectomy making the scar outside the neck area has a cosmetic appeal for patients. Based on an anterior chest wall approach combined with the gasless technique, we developed a novel method for gasless endoscopic thyroidectomy with a single incision.
Materials and Methods:
From March 2009 to November 2010, 48 patients with benign thyroid nodules underwent thyroidectomy with the gasless single-incision endoscopic surgery technique via the anterior chest wall approach. A 3-cm long skin incision parallel to the clavicle was made on the anterior chest wall on the side of the lesion. The platysma flap was lifted up to maintain working space from the incision to the thyroid cartilage. Dissection of the thyroid was begun from the inferior pole of the thyroid. The line of resection was selected to preserve recurrent laryngeal nerve and parathyroids. A 5-mm drainage tube was inserted into the lower portion of the operative space through the incision after the thyroid gland and the lesion were resected using the Harmonic scalpel.
The overall operating time was 126 minutes (range, 90 to 210), 138 minutes (range, 80 to 160) in first 24 cases; and 112 minutes in the second 24 patients (P<.05). Three cases were converted to the conventional procedure: 2 because of a malignancy diagnosed on frozen section, and one due to uncontrolled bleeding from the middle thyroid vein. Another malignancy diagnosed on final pathological examination was treated with additional surgery to complete the thyroidectomy by using the conventional open method. There were 2 cases of postoperative complications: transient hoarseness and hematoma. No wound infection occurred in our series. The scar was well hidden beneath the clothes, and the patients were satisfied with the cosmetic result of the surgery.
Advantages of the chest wall approach combined with the gasless technique have made single-incision endoscopic thyroidectomy more feasible and practicable.
Endoscopic surgery; Thyroidectomy; Gasless; Single-incision surgery
The cellulose synthase and cellulose synthase-like gene superfamily (CESA/CSL) is proposed to encode enzymes for cellulose and non-cellulosic matrix polysaccharide synthesis in plants. Although the rice (Oryza sativa L.) genome has been sequenced for a few years, the global expression profiling patterns and functions of the OsCESA/CSL superfamily remain largely unknown.
A total of 45 identified members of OsCESA/CSL were classified into two clusters based on phylogeny and motif constitution. Duplication events contributed largely to the expansion of this superfamily, with Cluster I and II mainly attributed to tandem and segmental duplication, respectively. With microarray data of 33 tissue samples covering the entire life cycle of rice, fairly high OsCESA gene expression and rather variable OsCSL expression were observed. While some members from each CSL family (A1, C9, D2, E1, F6 and H1) were expressed in all tissues examined, many of OsCSL genes were expressed in specific tissues (stamen and radicles). The expression pattern of OsCESA/CSL and OsBC1L which extensively co-expressed with OsCESA/CSL can be divided into three major groups with ten subgroups, each showing a distinct co-expression in tissues representing typically distinct cell wall constitutions. In particular, OsCESA1, -3 & -8 and OsCESA4, -7 & -9 were strongly co-expressed in tissues typical of primary and secondary cell walls, suggesting that they form as a cellulose synthase complex; these results are similar to the findings in Arabidopsis. OsCESA5/OsCESA6 is likely partially redundant with OsCESA3 for OsCESA complex organization in the specific tissues (plumule and radicle). Moreover, the phylogenetic comparison in rice, Arabidopsis and other species can provide clues for the prediction of orthologous gene expression patterns.
The study characterized the CESA/CSL of rice using an integrated approach comprised of phylogeny, transcriptional profiling and co-expression analyses. These investigations revealed very useful clues on the major roles of CESA/CSL, their potentially functional complement and their associations for appropriate cell wall synthesis in higher plants.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is an endogenous gaseous molecule in organisms. Despite its reputation as a lethal gas, recent studies have shown that it is one of the most essential cellular components regulating a variety of biological processes. However, whether CO regulates physiological processes of morphological or developmental patterns in plants is largely unknown. In this paper, the observation that exogenous CO was able to promote the formation of tomato lateral roots (LR) is described. The CO stimulation of LR development was supported by analysis of tomato haem oxygenase-1 (LeHO-1), an enzymatic source of intracellular CO. It is shown that the amount of LeHO-1 proteins and transcripts increased parallel to the LR development. In addition, LeHO-1 loss-of-function tomato mutant yg-2 showed a phenotype of impaired LR development. The phenotype of yg-2 could be restored by treatment with CO. Since auxin is required for LR initiation and NO is shown to be a mediator for LR development, the correlation of CO with auxin and NO was tested. Our analysis revealed that the action of CO was blocked by the auxin transport inhibitor N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid and the NO scavenger cPTIO, respectively. Furthermore, the whole seedling assays of IAA show that treatment with CO increased the overall IAA levels in various tissues of tomato. Exposure of tomato roots to CO also enhanced intracellular NO generation. These results indicate that CO plays a critical role in controlling architectural change in tomato roots.
Carbon monoxide; haem oxygenase-1; IAA; lateral root; NO