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1.  Uncovering the genetic architecture of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum resistance through QTL mapping and epistatic interaction analysis in common bean 
Colletotrichum lindemuthianum is a hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen that causes anthracnose disease in common bean. Despite the genetics of anthracnose resistance has been studied for a long time, few quantitative trait loci (QTLs) studies have been conducted on this species. The present work examines the genetic basis of quantitative resistance to races 23 and 1545 of C. lindemuthianum in different organs (stem, leaf and petiole). A population of 185 recombinant inbred lines (RIL) derived from the cross PMB0225 × PHA1037 was evaluated for anthracnose resistance under natural and artificial photoperiod growth conditions. Using multi-environment QTL mapping approach, 10 and 16 main effect QTLs were identified for resistance to anthracnose races 23 and 1545, respectively. The homologous genomic regions corresponding to 17 of the 26 main effect QTLs detected were positive for the presence of resistance-associated gene cluster encoding nucleotide-binding and leucine-rich repeat (NL) proteins. Among them, it is worth noting that the main effect QTLs detected on linkage group 05 for resistance to race 1545 in stem, petiole and leaf were located within a 1.2 Mb region. The NL gene Phvul.005G117900 is located in this region, which can be considered an important candidate gene for the non-organ-specific QTL identified here. Furthermore, a total of 39 epistatic QTL (E-QTLs) (21 for resistance to race 23 and 18 for resistance to race 1545) involved in 20 epistatic interactions (eleven and nine interactions for resistance to races 23 and 1545, respectively) were identified. None of the main and epistatic QTLs detected displayed significant environment interaction effects. The present research provides essential information not only for the better understanding of the plant-pathogen interaction but also for the application of genomic assisted breeding for anthracnose resistance improvement in common bean through application of marker-assisted selection (MAS).
PMCID: PMC4362272  PMID: 25852706
anthracnose; epistasis; Phaseolus vulgaris L.; QTL; resistance gene clusters; NL genes
2.  Marker-based linkage map of Andean common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and mapping of QTLs underlying popping ability traits 
BMC Plant Biology  2012;12:136.
Nuña bean is a type of ancient common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) native to the Andean region of South America, whose seeds possess the unusual property of popping. The nutritional features of popped seeds make them a healthy low fat and high protein snack. However, flowering of nuña bean only takes place under short-day photoperiod conditions, which means a difficulty to extend production to areas where such conditions do not prevail. Therefore, breeding programs of adaptation traits will facilitate the diversification of the bean crops and the development of new varieties with enhanced healthy properties. Although the popping trait has been profusely studied in maize (popcorn), little is known about the biology and genetic basis of the popping ability in common bean. To obtain insights into the genetics of popping ability related traits of nuña bean, a comprehensive quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was performed to detect single-locus and epistatic QTLs responsible for the phenotypic variance observed in these traits.
A mapping population of 185 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between two Andean common bean genotypes was evaluated for three popping related traits, popping dimension index (PDI), expansion coefficient (EC), and percentage of unpopped seeds (PUS), in five different environmental conditions. The genetic map constructed included 193 loci across 12 linkage groups (LGs), covering a genetic distance of 822.1 cM, with an average of 4.3 cM per marker. Individual and multi-environment QTL analyses detected a total of nineteen single-locus QTLs, highlighting among them the co-localized QTLs for the three popping ability traits placed on LGs 3, 5, 6, and 7, which together explained 24.9, 14.5, and 25.3% of the phenotypic variance for PDI, EC, and PUS, respectively. Interestingly, epistatic interactions among QTLs have been detected, which could have a key role in the genetic control of popping.
The QTLs here reported constitute useful tools for marker assisted selection breeding programs aimed at improving nuña bean cultivars, as well as for extending our knowledge of the genetic determinants and genotype x environment interaction involved in the popping ability traits of this bean crop.
PMCID: PMC3490973  PMID: 22873566

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