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author:("Fu, taping")
1.  Comparative proteomic analysis reveals alterations in development and photosynthesis-related proteins in diploid and triploid rice 
BMC Plant Biology  2016;16(1):199.
Background
Polyploidy has pivotal influences on rice (Oryza sativa L.) morphology and physiology, and is very important for understanding rice domestication and improving agricultural traits. Diploid (DP) and triploid (TP) rice shows differences in morphological parameters, such as plant height, leaf length, leaf width and the physiological index of chlorophyll content. However, the underlying mechanisms determining these morphological differences are remain to be defined. To better understand the proteomic changes between DP and TP, tandem mass tags (TMT) mass spectrometry (MS)/MS was used to detect the significant changes to protein expression between DP and TP.
Results
Results indicated that both photosynthesis and metabolic pathways were highly significantly associated with proteomic alteration between DP and TP based on biological process and pathway enrichment analysis, and 13 higher abundance chloroplast proteins involving in these two pathways were identified in TP. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that 5 of the 13 chloroplast proteins ATPF, PSAA, PSAB, PSBB and RBL in TP were higher abundance compared with those in DP.
Conclusions
This study integrates morphology, physiology and proteomic profiling alteration of DP and TP to address their underlying different molecular mechanisms. Our finding revealed that ATPF, PSAA, PSAB, PSBB and RBL can induce considerable expression changes in TP and may affect the development and growth of rice through photosynthesis and metabolic pathways.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12870-016-0891-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s12870-016-0891-4
PMCID: PMC5020550  PMID: 27619227
Rice; Polyploidy; Photosynthesis-related proteins; TMT; Morphology; Differential proteomics
2.  Differential Proteomic Analysis Using iTRAQ Reveals Alterations in Hull Development in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(7):e0133696.
Rice hull, the outer cover of the rice grain, determines grain shape and size. Changes in the rice hull proteome in different growth stages may reflect the underlying mechanisms involved in grain development. To better understand these changes, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitative (iTRAQ) MS/MS was used to detect statistically significant changes in the rice hull proteome in the booting, flowering, and milk-ripe growth stages. Differentially expressed proteins were analyzed to predict their potential functions during development. Gene ontology (GO) terms and pathways were used to evaluate the biological mechanisms involved in rice hull at the three growth stages. In total, 5,268 proteins were detected and characterized, of which 563 were differentially expressed across the development stages. The results showed that the flowering and milk-ripe stage proteomes were more similar to each other (r=0.61) than either was to the booting stage proteome. A GO enrichment analysis of the differentially expressed proteins was used to predict their roles during rice hull development. The potential functions of 25 significantly differentially expressed proteins were used to evaluate their possible roles at various growth stages. Among these proteins, an unannotated protein (Q7X8A1) was found to be overexpressed especially in the flowering stage, while a putative uncharacterized protein (B8BF94) and an aldehyde dehydrogenase (Q9FPK6) were overexpressed only in the milk-ripe stage. Pathways regulated by differentially expressed proteins were also analyzed. Magnesium-protoporphyrin IX monomethyl ester [oxidative] cyclase (Q9SDJ2), and two magnesium-chelatase subunits, ChlD (Q6ATS0), and ChlI (Q53RM0), were associated with chlorophyll biosynthesis at different developmental stages. The expression of Q9SDJ2 in the flowering and milk-ripe stages was validated by qRT-PCR. The 25 candidate proteins may be pivotal markers for controlling rice hull development at various growth stages and chlorophyll biosynthesis pathway related proteins, especially magnesium-protoporphyrin IX monomethyl ester [oxidative] cyclase (Q9SDJ2), may provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of rice hull development and chlorophyll associated regulation.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0133696
PMCID: PMC4521873  PMID: 26230730
3.  Rice Hypersensitive Induced Reaction Protein 1 (OsHIR1) associates with plasma membrane and triggers hypersensitive cell death 
BMC Plant Biology  2010;10:290.
Background
In plants, HIR (Hypersensitive Induced Reaction) proteins, members of the PID (Proliferation, Ion and Death) superfamily, have been shown to play a part in the development of spontaneous hypersensitive response lesions in leaves, in reaction to pathogen attacks. The levels of HIR proteins were shown to correlate with localized host cell deaths and defense responses in maize and barley. However, not much was known about the HIR proteins in rice. Since rice is an important cereal crop consumed by more than 50% of the populations in Asia and Africa, it is crucial to understand the mechanisms of disease responses in this plant. We previously identified the rice HIR1 (OsHIR1) as an interacting partner of the OsLRR1 (rice Leucine-Rich Repeat protein 1). Here we show that OsHIR1 triggers hypersensitive cell death and its localization to the plasma membrane is enhanced by OsLRR1.
Result
Through electron microscopy studies using wild type rice plants, OsHIR1 was found to mainly localize to the plasma membrane, with a minor portion localized to the tonoplast. Moreover, the plasma membrane localization of OsHIR1 was enhanced in transgenic rice plants overexpressing its interacting protein partner, OsLRR1. Co-localization of OsHIR1 and OsLRR1 to the plasma membrane was confirmed by double-labeling electron microscopy. Pathogen inoculation studies using transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana expressing either OsHIR1 or OsLRR1 showed that both transgenic lines exhibited increased resistance toward the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. However, OsHIR1 transgenic plants produced more extensive spontaneous hypersensitive response lesions and contained lower titers of the invading pathogen, when compared to OsLRR1 transgenic plants.
Conclusion
The OsHIR1 protein is mainly localized to the plasma membrane, and its subcellular localization in that compartment is enhanced by OsLRR1. The expression of OsHIR1 may sensitize the plant so that it is more prone to HR and hence can react more promptly to limit the invading pathogens' spread from the infection sites.
doi:10.1186/1471-2229-10-290
PMCID: PMC3022912  PMID: 21192820
4.  The Effect of the Crosstalk between Photoperiod and Temperature on the Heading-Date in Rice 
PLoS ONE  2009;4(6):e5891.
Photoperiod and temperature are two important environmental factors that influence the heading-date of rice. Although the influence of the photoperiod on heading has been extensively reported in rice, the molecular mechanism for the temperature control of heading remains unknown. This study reports an early heading mutant derived from tissue culture lines of rice and investigates the heading-date of wild type and mutant in different photoperiod and temperature treatments. The linkage analysis showed that the mutant phenotype cosegregated with the Hd1 locus. Sequencing analysis found that the mutant contained two insertions and several single-base substitutions that caused a dramatic reduction in Hd1mRNA levels compared with wild type. The expression patterns of Hd1 and Hd3a were also analyzed in different photoperiod and temperature conditions, revealing that Hd1 mRNA levels displayed similar expression patterns for different photoperiod and temperature treatments, with high expression levels at night and reduced levels in the daytime. In addition, Hd1 displayed a slightly higher expression level under long-day and low temperature conditions. Hd3a mRNA was present at a very low level under low temperature conditions regardless of the day-length. This result suggests that suppression of Hd3a expression is a principle cause of late heading under low temperature and long-day conditions.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0005891
PMCID: PMC2690821  PMID: 19521518

Results 1-4 (4)