Polyploidy has pivotal influences on rice (Oryza sativa L.) morphology and physiology, and is very important for understanding rice domestication and improving agricultural traits. Diploid (DP) and triploid (TP) rice shows differences in morphological parameters, such as plant height, leaf length, leaf width and the physiological index of chlorophyll content. However, the underlying mechanisms determining these morphological differences are remain to be defined. To better understand the proteomic changes between DP and TP, tandem mass tags (TMT) mass spectrometry (MS)/MS was used to detect the significant changes to protein expression between DP and TP.
Results indicated that both photosynthesis and metabolic pathways were highly significantly associated with proteomic alteration between DP and TP based on biological process and pathway enrichment analysis, and 13 higher abundance chloroplast proteins involving in these two pathways were identified in TP. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that 5 of the 13 chloroplast proteins ATPF, PSAA, PSAB, PSBB and RBL in TP were higher abundance compared with those in DP.
This study integrates morphology, physiology and proteomic profiling alteration of DP and TP to address their underlying different molecular mechanisms. Our finding revealed that ATPF, PSAA, PSAB, PSBB and RBL can induce considerable expression changes in TP and may affect the development and growth of rice through photosynthesis and metabolic pathways.
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