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author:("Cao, yucheng")
1.  Polymorphism of the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 gene and fracture risk 
Several molecular epidemiological studies have been conducted to examine the association between low-density lipoprotein receptor-related proteins (LRP5) Ala1330Val polymorphism and fracture; however, the conclusions remained controversial. We therefore performed an extensive meta-analysis on 10 published studies with 184479 subjects. Electronic databases, including PubMed, Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), Cochrane, Elsevier Science Direct and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases were searched. Summary odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using random-effects models. LRP5 Ala1330Val polymorphism was associated with a significantly increased risk of fracture (OR = 1.10; 95% CI, 1.06-1.14; I2 = 29%). We also found that this polymorphism increased fracture risk in Caucasians. In the subgroup analysis according to gender, women was significantly associated with risk of fracture. In the subgroup analysis by type of fracture, LRP5 Ala1330Val polymorphism showed increased osteoporotic fracture risk. In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggested that an increased risk of fracture was associated with the LRP5 Ala1330Val polymorphism.
PMCID: PMC4307457  PMID: 25664010
Fracture; low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein; meta-analysis; polymorphism
2.  Heel reconstruction with free instep flap: a case report 
Introduction
Reconstruction of weight-bearing heel defects remains a challenge because of the unique characteristics of the plantar skin. Though numerous surgical reconstructive options have been reported, the instep flap represents an ideal option and seems to be more acceptable to patients than others. However, when the heel defect expands to the instep area, the ipsilateral instep is not available for flap elevation. A free instep flap harvested from the contralateral foot can be a good solution, but this method has been scarcely reported.
Case presentation
A 41-year-old Asian man presented to our institution with a soft-tissue lesion in the weight-bearing heel and instep area. His heel was reconstructed with a free instep flap from the other foot, end-to-side anastomosis of its medial plantar artery to the recipient posterior tibial artery and end-to-side coaptation of the cutaneous sensory fascicles of the flap to the medial plantar nerve.
Conclusion
The flap survived successfully, and no ulceration occurred in the flap. At the last follow-up appointment at 30 months post-surgery, a very good functional and aesthetic outcome was verified, indicating that the suggested approach may prove to be the treatment of choice in selected cases of weight-bearing heel reconstruction.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-8-319
PMCID: PMC4181468  PMID: 25260532
Free instep flap; Heel reconstruction; Medial plantar artery; Trauma
3.  A Comparative Study of Four Types of Free Flaps from the Ipsilateral Extremity for Finger Reconstruction 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(8):e104014.
Aim
To compare the outcomes of finger reconstruction using arterialized venous flap (AVF), superficial palmar branch of the radial artery (SPBRA) flap, posterior interosseous perforator flap (PIPF), and ulnar artery perforator free (UAPF) flap harvested from the ipsilateral extremity.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed the outcomes for 41 free flaps from the ipsilateral extremity in the reconstruction of finger defects in 41 patients with small/moderate skin defects, including 11 AVFs, 10 SPBRA flaps, 10 PIPFs, and 10 UAPF flaps. Standardized assessment of outcomes was performed, including duration of operation, objective sensory recovery, cold intolerance, time of returning to work, active total range of motion (ROM) of the injured fingers, and the cosmetic appearance of the donor/recipient sites.
Results
All flaps survived completely, and the follow-up duration was 13.5 months. The mean duration of the complete surgical procedure for AVFs was distinctly shorter than that of the other flaps (p<0.05). AVFs were employed to reconstruct skin defects and extensor tendon defects using a vascularized palmaris longus graft in 4 fingers. Digital blood supply was reestablished in 4 fingers by flow-through technique when using AVFs. Optimal sensory recovery was better with AVFs and SPBRA flaps as compared with UAPF flaps and PIPFs (p<0.05). No significant differences were noted in ROM or cold intolerance between the 4 groups. Optimal cosmetic satisfaction was noted for the recipient sites of AVFs and the donor sites of SPBRA flaps. The number of second-stage defatting operations required for AVFs was considerably lesser than that for the other flaps.
Conclusion
All 4 types of free flaps from the ipsilateral extremity are a practical choice in finger reconstruction for small/moderate-sized skin defects. AVFs play an important role in such operations due to the wider indications, and better sensory recovery and cosmetic appearance associated with this method.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0104014
PMCID: PMC4123926  PMID: 25098605
4.  Open reduction and closed reduction internal fixation in treatment of femoral neck fractures: a meta-analysis 
Background
A meta-analysis was performed to assess the association between healing rate, avascular necrosis (AVN) of femoral head and two reductions-open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) and closed reduction internal fixation (CRIF) for femoral neck fracture.
Methods
A literature-based search was conducted to identify all relevant studies published before September 10, 2013. The odd ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used for estimating the effects of the two reduction methods. Data were independently extracted by two investigators who reached a consensus on all of the items. The heterogeneity between studies was examined by χ2-based Q statistic. Egger’s regression analysis was used to evaluate publication bias. Statistical analysis was performed by Stata 10.0 software.
Results
We examined 14 publications. The results of the present meta-analysis showed that AVN of femoral head were significant associated with the two reductions (CRIF vs. ORIF, OR = 1.746, 95% CI 1.159-2.628, p = 0.008), while the healing rate were not (CRIF vs. ORIF, OR = 0.853, 95% CI 0.573-1.270, p = 0.433).
Conclusion
The present meta-analysis indicated the risk of AVN of femoral head was significant higher after CRIF fixation compared with ORIF, but no association between the healing rate and the two reductions for femoral neck fracture.
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-15-167
PMCID: PMC4047776  PMID: 24885566
Femoral neck fracture; Open reduction internal fixation; Closed reduction internal fixation
5.  Safety of denosumab in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis or low bone mineral density: a meta-analysis 
Purpose: The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the safety of denosumab in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis or low bone mineral density (BMD). Methods: Safety of denosumab was compared with placebo or bisphosphonates. A systematic literature search without language restriction was conducted up to January, 2014. The RevMan 5.1 software was used for statistical analysis. Results: A total of 11 English literatures were eventually identified. The pooled data in the overall analysis revealed that there was no significant difference when compared denosumab with placebo or bisphosphonates in any adverse events (AAE) (RR=0.99, 95% CI=0.98-1.01, p=0.29), serious adverse event (SAE) (RR=1.05, 95% CI=0.98-1.13, p=0.18), neoplasm/cancer (RR=1.14, 95% CI=0.95-1.37, p=0.16) and deaths (RR=0.77, 95% CI=0.57-1.04, p=0.09). However, significant differences were found when compared denosumab with placebo or bisphosphonates in SAE related to infection (RR=1.23, 95% CI=1.00-1.52, p=0.05) and non-vertebral fracture (RR=0.86, 95% CI=0.74-1.00, p=0.05). Subgroup analysis was performed by the type of drugs which was used in the control group. The results of subgroup analysis did not demonstrate the differences between denosumab and bisphosphonates in SAE related to infection (RR=1.13, 95% CI=0.63-2.03) and non-vertebral fracture (RR=1.31, 95% CI=0.87-1.98). Conclusions: Compared to placebo, denosumab treatment significantly decreased the risk of non-vertebral fracture but increased the risk of SAE related to infection in the postmenopausal women with osteoporosis or low BMD. However, no difference between the safety of denosumab and bisphosphonates was found.
PMCID: PMC4069896  PMID: 24966919
Denosumab; osteoporosis; postmenopausal women; meta-analysis
6.  Extended Anterolateral Thigh Flaps for Reconstruction of Extensive Defects of the Foot and Ankle 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(12):e83696.
The anterolateral thigh flap has been used for coverage of defects in the foot and ankle for years. Conventional extended anterolateral thigh flaps do not undergo thinning procedures, which limit their application. Here, a clinical series of 24 patients is reported in which extended anterolateral thigh flaps were used for posttraumatic foot and ankle reconstruction. Of the 24 flaps, 14 were simple extended anterolateral thigh fasciocutaneous flaps and 10 were thinned extended anterolateral thigh flaps. One artery and two veins, including a superficial vein and an accompanying vein, were anastomosed to vascularize each flap. Follow-up of the 24 patients ranged from 10 months to 4 years postoperatively. All 24 flaps survived successfully, except one case that had partial flap necrosis distally due to excessive thinning. The cutaneous flap territory ranged from 250 cm2 to 400 cm2 (mean, 297 cm2). Only one patient received a debulking procedure. No ulceration occurred in any of the flaps due to contact with the shoe. The extended anterolateral thigh flap is a good alternative for extensive soft tissue defects of the foot and ankle. This study also supports the high reliability and excellent vascular supply of moderate thinned extended ALT flaps.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0083696
PMCID: PMC3871676  PMID: 24376731
7.  GhWRKY15, a member of the WRKY transcription factor family identified from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), is involved in disease resistance and plant development 
BMC Plant Biology  2012;12:144.
Background
As a large family of regulatory proteins, WRKY transcription factors play essential roles in the processes of adaptation to diverse environmental stresses and plant growth and development. Although several studies have investigated the role of WRKY transcription factors during these processes, the mechanisms underlying the function of WRKY members need to be further explored, and research focusing on the WRKY family in cotton crops is extremely limited.
Results
In the present study, a gene encoding a putative WRKY family member, GhWRKY15, was isolated from cotton. GhWRKY15 is present as a single copy gene, and a transient expression analysis indicated that GhWRKY15 was localised to the nucleus. Additionally, a group of cis-acting elements associated with the response to environmental stress and plant growth and development were detected in the promoter. Consistently, northern blot analysis showed that GhWRKY15 expression was significantly induced in cotton seedlings following fungal infection or treatment with salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate or methyl viologen. Furthermore, GhWRKY15-overexpressing tobacco exhibited more resistance to viral and fungal infections compared with wild-type tobacco. The GhWRKY15-overexpressing tobacco also exhibited increased RNA expression of several pathogen-related genes, NONEXPRESSOR OF PR1, and two genes that encode enzymes involved in ET biosynthesis. Importantly, increased activity of the antioxidant enzymes POD and APX during infection and enhanced expression of NtAPX1 and NtGPX in transgenic tobacco following methyl viologen treatment were observed. Moreover, GhWRKY15 transcription was greater in the roots and stems compared with the expression in the cotyledon of cotton, and the stems of transgenic plants displayed faster elongation at the earlier shooting stages compared with wide type tobacco. Additionally, exposure to abiotic stresses, including cold, wounding and drought, resulted in the accumulation of GhWRKY15 transcripts.
Conclusion
Overall, our data suggest that overexpression of GhWRKY15 may contribute to the alteration of defence resistance to both viral and fungal infections, probably through regulating the ROS system via multiple signalling pathways in tobacco. It is intriguing that GhWRKY15 overexpression in tobacco affects plant growth and development, especially stem elongation. This finding suggests that the role of the WRKY proteins in disease resistance may be closely related to their function in regulating plant growth and development.
doi:10.1186/1471-2229-12-144
PMCID: PMC3489871  PMID: 22883108
GhWRKY15; Cotton; Disease resistance; SA; ROS; Plant development
8.  Improved C3-4 transfer for treatment of root avulsion of the brachial plexus upper trunk 
Neural Regeneration Research  2012;7(20):1545-1555.
Experimental rats with root avulsion of the brachial plexus upper trunk were treated with the improved C3-4 transfer for neurotization of C5-6. Results showed that Terzis grooming test scores were significantly increased at 6 months after treatment, the latency of C5-6 motor evoked potential was gradually shortened, and the amplitude was gradually increased. The rate of C3 instead of C5 and the C4 + phrenic nerve instead of C6 myelinated nerve fibers crossing through the anastomotic stoma was approximately 80%. Myelinated nerve fibers were arranged loosely but the thickness of the myelin sheath was similar to that of the healthy side. In clinical applications, 39 patients with root avulsion of the brachial plexus upper trunk were followed for 6 months to 4.5 years after treatment using the improved C3 instead of C5 nerve root transfer and C4 nerve root and phrenic nerve instead of C6 nerve root transfer. Results showed that the strength of the brachial biceps and deltoid muscles recovered to level III–IV, scapular muscle to level III–IV, latissimus dorsi and pectoralis major muscles to above level III, and the brachial triceps muscle to level 0–III. Results showed that the improved C3-4 transfer for root avulsion of the brachial plexus upper trunk in animal models is similar to clinical findings and that C3-4 and the phrenic nerve transfer for neurotization of C5-6 can innervate the avulsed brachial plexus upper trunk and promote the recovery of nerve function in the upper extremity.
doi:10.3969/j.issn.1673-5374.2012.20.004
PMCID: PMC4308750
brachial plexus; cervical plexus; upper trunk; root avulsion; nerve transfer; phrenic nerve; translational medicine; peripheral nerve injury; neural regeneration

Results 1-8 (8)