Cellular senescence is a defense mechanism in response to molecular damage which accumulates with aging. Correspondingly, the number of senescent cells has been reported to be greater in older than in younger subjects and furthermore associates with age-related pathologies. Inter-individual differences exist in the rate at which a person ages (biological age). Here, we studied whether younger biological age is related to fewer senescent cells in middle- aged individuals with the propensity for longevity, using p16INK4a as a marker for cellular senescence. We observed that a younger biological age associates with lower levels of p16INK4a positive cells in human skin.
p16INK4a; biological age; familial longevity; cellular senescence
Here we describe a carefully optimized method for the preparation of high quality RNA by flow sorting of formaldehyde fixed senescent cells immunostained for any intracellular antigen. Replicative cellular senescence is a phenomenon of irreversible growth arrest triggered by the accumulation of a discrete number of cell divisions. The underlying cause of senescence due to replicative exhaustion is telomere shortening. We document here a spontaneous and apparently stochastic process that continuously generates senescent cells in cultures fully immortalized with telomerase. In the course of studying this phenomenon we developed a preparative fluorescence activated flow sorting method based on immunofluorescent staining of intracellular antigens that can also deliver RNA suitable for quantitative analysis of global gene expression. The protocols were developed using normal human diploid fibroblasts (HDF) and up to 5×107 cells could be conveniently processed in a single experiment. The methodology is based on formaldehyde crosslinking of cells, followed by permeabilization, antibody staining, flow sorting, reversal of the crosslinks, and recovery of the RNA. We explored key parameters such as crosslink reversal that affect the fragmentation of RNA. The recovered RNA is of high quality for downstream molecular applications based on short range sequence analysis, such qPCR, hybridization microarrays, and next generation sequencing. The RNA was analyzed by Affymetrix Gene Chip expression profiling and compared to RNA prepared by the direct lysis of cells. The correlation between the data sets was very high, indicating that the procedure does not introduce systematic changes in the mRNA transcriptome. The methods presented in this communication should be of interest to many investigators working in diverse model systems.
Cellular senescence; flow cytometry; immunostaining; RNA purification; transcriptome profiling
Cellular senescence, a stress induced growth arrest of somatic cells, was first documented in cell cultures over forty years ago, however its physiological significance has only recently been demonstrated. Using novel biomarkers of cellular senescence we examined whether senescent cells accumulate in tissues from baboons of ages encompassing the entire lifespan of this species. We show that dermal fibroblasts, displaying markers of senescence such as telomere damage, active checkpoint kinase ATM, high levels of heterochromatin proteins and elevated levels of p16, accumulate in skin biopsies from baboons with advancing age. The number of dermal fibroblasts containing damaged telomeres reaches a value of over 15% of total fibroblasts, whereas 80% of cells contain high levels of the heterochromatin protein HIRA. In skeletal muscle, a postmitotic tissue, only a small percentage of myonuclei containing damaged telomeres were detected regardless of animal age. The presence of senescent cells in mitotic tissues might therefore be a contributing factor to aging and age related pathology and provides further evidence that cellular senescence is a physiological event.
Senescence; telomeres; DNA damage; aging; p16; p21
Human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) represent an attractive cell source for clinic applications. Besides being multi-potent, recent clinical trials suggest that they secrete both trophic and immunomodulatory factors, allowing allogenic MSCs to be used in a wider variety of clinical situations. The yield of prospective isolation is however very low, making expansion a required step toward clinical applications. Unfortunately, this leads to a significant decrease in their stemness. To identify the mechanism behind loss of multi-potency, hMSCs were expanded until replicative senescence and the concomitant molecular changes were characterized at regular intervals. We observed that, with time of culture, loss of multi-potency was associated with both the accumulation of DNA damage and the respective activation of the DNA damage response pathway, suggesting a correlation between both phenomena. Indeed, exposing hMSCs to DNA damage agents led to a significant decrease in the differentiation potential. We also showed that hMSCs are susceptible to accumulate DNA damage upon in vitro expansion, and that although hMSCs maintained an effective nucleotide excision repair activity, there was a progressive accumulation of DNA damage. We propose a model in which DNA damage accumulation contributes to the loss of differentiation potential of hMSCs, which might not only compromise their potential for clinical applications but also contribute to the characteristics of tissue ageing.
ageing; senescence; human mesenchymal stem cells; DNA damage; in vitro expansion; clinical application
Phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) was identified almost three decades ago as an abundant protein in bovine brain. PEBP is the prototype of a highly conserved family of proteins represented in all three major phylogenetic divisions, eukaryota, bacteria, and archaea, with no significant sequence homology to other proteins. PEBP proteins have been studied in many species. The most thoroughly explored biological role of PEBP is that of a modulator of intracellular signaling pathways, which is mediated by its ability to bind and inhibit a number of protein kinases. The first such interaction that came to light was with the Raf1 kinase, and PEBP is thus widely referred to in the literature under its alternate name RKIP (Raf kinase inhibitory protein). The activity of RKIP itself is subject to regulation by phosphorylation. Intriguingly, PEBP has also been reported to possess additional, and diverse, biological functions unrelated to protein kinase networks that remain to be investigated in detail. Recent findings that RKIP may function as a suppressor of cancer metastasis are of great interest and importance. Prognostic and therapeutic applications of RKIP in human cancer were the subject of the first international workshop on RKIP that was held at the University of California, Los Angeles, in March 2010. This paper was presented at the workshop as a summary of the history of this still small but rapidly evolving field.
cancer; signal transduction; metastasis; tumor suppression; phosphorylation; apoptosis; MAP kinase pathway; NF-κB pathway; G protein–coupled receptor pathway
Replicative cellular senescence was discovered some 50 years ago. The phenotypes of senescent cells have been investigated extensively in cell culture, and found to affect essentially all aspects of cellular physiology. The relevance of cellular senescence in the context of age-associated pathologies as well as normal aging is a topic of active and ongoing interest. Considerable effort has been devoted to biomarker discovery to enable the microscopic detection of single senescent cells in tissues. One characteristic of senescent cells documented very early in cell culture studies was an increase in cell size and total protein content, but whether this occurs in vivo is not known. A limiting factor for studies of protein content and localization has been the lack of suitable fluorescence microscopy tools. We have developed an easy and flexible method, based on the merocyanine dye known as NanoOrange, to visualize and quantitatively measure total protein levels by high resolution fluorescence microscopy. NanoOrange staining can be combined with antibody-based immunofluorescence, thus providing both specific target and total protein information in the same specimen. These methods are optimally combined with automated image analysis platforms for high throughput analysis. We document here increasing protein content and density in nuclei of senescent human and mouse fibroblasts in vitro, and in liver nuclei of aged mice in vivo. Additionally, in aged liver nuclei NanoOrange revealed protein-dense foci that colocalize with centromeric heterochromatin.
Aging; cellular senescence; quantitative protein assay; fluorescence microscopy; NanoOrange® reagent
Mammalian c-Myc is a member of a small family of three closely related transcription factors. The Myc family of protooncogenes are among the most potent activators of tumorigenesis and are frequently overexpressed in diverse cancers. c-Myc has an unusually broad array of regulatory functions, which include, in addition to roles in the cell cycle and apoptosis, effects on a variety of metabolic functions, cell differentiation, senescence and stem cell maintenance. A significant number of c-Myc interacting proteins have already been defined, but it is widely believed that the c-Myc interactome is vastly larger than currently documented. In addition to interactions with components of the transcription machinery, transcription independent nuclear interactions with the DNA replication and RNA processing pathways have been reported. Cytoplasmic roles of c-Myc have also been recently substantiated. Recent advances in proteomics have opened new possibilities for the isolation of protein complexes under native conditions and confidently identifying the components using ultrasensitive, high mass accuracy and high resolution mass spectrometry techniques. In this communication we report a new tandem affinity purification (TAP) c-Myc interaction screen that employed new cell lines with near-physiological levels of c-Myc expression with multi-dimensional protein identification techniques (MudPIT) for the detection and quantification of proteins. Both label-free and the recently developed stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) methodologies were used. Combined data from multiple biological replicates provided a dataset of 418 non-redundant proteins, 389 of which are putative novel interactors. This new information should significantly advance our understanding of this interesting and important master regulator.
c-Myc; proto-oncogene; proteomics; tandem affinity purification; MudPIT analysis; SILAC; protein-protein interaction; protein complex
Mammalian c-Myc is a member of a small family of three related proto-oncogenic transcription factors. c-Myc has an unusually broad array of regulatory functions, which include roles in cell cycle and apoptosis, a variety of metabolic functions, cell differentiation, senescence and stem cell maintenance. c-Myc modulates the expression of a very large number of genes, but the magnitude of the majority of the regulatory effects is only two-fold or less. c-Myc can both activate and repress the promoters of its target genes. Identification of genes directly regulated by c-Myc has been an enduring question in the field. We report here microarray expression profiling of a high resolution time course of c-Myc induction, using fibroblast cells in which c-Myc activity can be modulated from null to physiological. The c-Myc transcriptome data set presented is the largest reported to date with 4,186 differentially regulated genes (1,826 upregulated, 2,360 downregulated, 1% FDR). The gene expression patterns fit well with the known biological functions of c-Myc. We describe several novel findings and present tools for further data mining. Although the mechanisms of transcriptional activation by c-Myc are well understood, how c-Myc represses an even greater number of genes remains incompletely described. One mechanism involves the binding of c-Myc to other, positively acting transcription factors and interfering with their activities. We identified rapid-response genes likely to be direct c-Myc targets and analyzed the promoters of the repressed genes to identify transcription factors that could be targets of c-Myc repression.
c-Myc; proto-oncogene; transcriptome; expression profiling; microarray; promoter; gene regulation
Mammalian c-Myc is a member of a small family of three closely related transcription factors. The Myc family of proto-oncogenes are among the most potent activators of tumorigenesis and are frequently overexpressed in diverse cancers. c-Myc has an unusually broad array of regulatory functions, which include, in addition to roles in the cell cycle and apoptosis, effects on a variety of metabolic functions, cell differentiation, senescence and stem cell maintenance. A significant number of c-Myc interacting proteins have already been defined, but it is widely believed that the c-Myc interactome is vastly larger than currently documented. In addition to interactions with components of the transcription machinery, transcription independent nuclear interactions with the DNA replication and RNA processing pathways have been reported. Cytoplasmic roles of c-Myc have also been recently substantiated. Recent advances in proteomics have opened new possibilities for the isolation of protein complexes under native conditions and confidently identifying the components using ultrasensitive, high mass accuracy and high resolution mass spectrometry techniques. In this communication we report a new tandem affinity purification (TAP) c-Myc interaction screen that employed new cell lines with near-physiological levels of c-Myc expression with multi-dimensional protein identification techniques (MudPIT) for the detection and quantification of proteins. Both label-free and the recently developed stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) methodologies were used. Combined data from multiple biological replicates provided a dataset of 418 non-redundant proteins, 389 of which are putative novel interactors. This new information should significantly advance our understanding of this interesting and important master regulator.
c-Myc; proto-oncogene; proteomics; tandem affinity purification; MudPIT analysis; SILAC; protein-protein interaction; protein complex
Chromatin is highly dynamic and subject to extensive remodeling under many physiological conditions. Changes in chromatin that occur during the aging process are poorly documented and understood in higher organisms, such as mammals. We developed an immunofluorescence assay to quantitatively detect, at the single cell level, changes in the nuclear content of chromatin-associated proteins. We find increased levels of the heterochromatin-associated proteins histone macro H2A (mH2A) and heterochromatin protein 1 beta (HP1β) in human fibroblasts during replicative senescence in culture, and for the first time, an age-associated increase in these heterochromatin marks in several tissues of mice and primates. Mouse lung was characterized by monophasic mH2A expression histograms at both ages, and an increase in mean staining intensity at old age. In the mouse liver we observed increased age-associated localization of mH2A to regions of pericentromeric heterochromatin. In skeletal muscle we found two populations of cells with either low or high mH2A levels. This pattern of expression was similar in mouse and baboon, and showed a clear increase in the proportion of nuclei with high mH2A levels in older animals. The frequencies of cells displaying evidence of increased heterochromatinization are too high to be readily accounted for by replicative or oncogene-induced cellular senescence, and are prominently found in terminally differentiated, post mitotic tissues that are not conventionally thought to be susceptible to senescence. Our findings distinguish specific chromatin states in individual cells of mammalian tissues, and provide a foundation to further investigate the progressive epigenetic changes that occur during aging.
Cellular senescence, first observed and defined using in vitro cell culture studies, is an irreversible cell cycle arrest which can be triggered by a variety of factors. Emerging evidence suggests that cellular senescence acts as an in vivo tumor suppression mechanism by limiting aberrant proliferation. It has also been postulated that cellular senescence can occur independently of cancer and contribute to the physiological processes of normal organismal aging. Recent data have demonstrated the in vivo accumulation of senescent cells with advancing age. Some characteristics of senescent cells, such as the ability to modify their extracellular environment, could play a role in aging and age related pathology. In this review, we examine current evidence that links cellular senescence and organismal aging.
Cellular senescence; Aging; Telomeres
The transcription factor c-myc regulates genes involved in hepatocyte growth, proliferation, metabolism, and differentiation. It has also been assigned roles in liver development and regeneration. In previous studies, we made the unexpected observation that c-Myc protein levels were similar in proliferating fetal liver and quiescent adult liver with c-Myc displaying nucleolar localization in the latter. In order to investigate the functional role of c-Myc in adult liver, we have developed a hepatocyte-specific c-myc knockout mouse, c-mycfl/fl;Alb-Cre.
Liver weight to body weight ratios were similar in control and c-myc deficient mice. Liver architecture was unaffected. Conditional c-myc deletion did not result in compensatory induction of other myc family members or in c-Myc's binding partner Max. Floxed c-myc did have a negative effect on Alb-Cre expression at 4 weeks of age. To explore this relationship further, we used the Rosa26 reporter line to assay Cre activity in the c-myc floxed mice. No significant difference in Alb-Cre activity was found between control and c-mycfl/fl mice. c-myc deficient mice were studied in a nonproliferative model of liver growth, fasting for 48 hr followed by a 24 hr refeeding period. Fasting resulted in a decrease in liver mass and liver protein, both of which recovered upon 24 h of refeeding in the c-mycfl/fl;Alb-Cre animals. There was also no effect of reducing c-myc on recovery of liver mass following 2/3 partial hepatectomy.
c-Myc appears to be dispensable for normal liver growth during the postnatal period, restoration of liver mass following partial hepatectomy and recovery from fasting.
Organismal aging and longevity are influenced by many complex interacting factors. Epigenetics has recently emerged as another possible determinant of aging. Here, we review some of the epigenetic pathways that contribute to cellular senescence and age-associated phenotypes. Strategies aimed to reverse age-linked epigenetic alterations may lead to the development of new therapeutic interventions to delay or alleviate some of the most debilitating age-associated diseases. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 14, 241–259.
Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS) analysis has become a standard tool to analyze cell cycle distributions in populations of cells. These methods require relatively large numbers of cells, and do not provide optimal resolution of the transitions between cell cycle phases. In this report we describe in detail complementary methods that utilize the incorporation of nucleotide analogs combined with microscopic examination. While often more time consuming, these protocols typically require far fewer cells, and allow accurate kinetic assessment of cell cycle progression. We also describe the use of a technique for the synchronization of adherent cells in mitosis by simple mechanical agitation (mitotic shake-off) that eliminates physiological perturbation associated with drug treatments.
Supv3L1 is an evolutionarily conserved helicase that plays a critical role in the mitochondrial RNA surveillance and degradation machinery. Conditional ablation of Supv3L1 in adult mice leads to premature aging phenotypes including loss of muscle mass and adipose tissue and severe skin abnormalities. To get insights into the spatial and temporal expression of Supv3L1 in the mouse, we generated knock-in and transgenic strains in which an EGFP reporter was placed under control of the Supv3L1 native promoter. During development, expression of Supv3L1 begins at the blastocyst stage, becomes widespread and strong in all fetal tissues and cell types, and continues during postnatal growth. In mature animals reporter expression is only slightly diminished in most tissues and continues to be highly expressed in the brain, peripheral sensory organs, and testis. Together, these data confirm that Supv3L1 is an important developmentally regulated gene, which continues to be expressed in all mature tissues, particularly the rapidly proliferating cells of testes, but also in the brain and sensory organs. The transgenic mice and cell lines derived from them constitute a valuable tool for the examination of the spatial and temporal aspects of Supv3L1 promoter activity, and should facilitate future screens for small molecules that regulate Supv3L1 expression.
Supv3L1; Suv3; mouse; expression pattern; retina; EGFP reporter
Supv3L1 is a conserved and ubiquitously expressed helicase found in numerous tissues and cell types of many species. In human cells, SUPV3L1 was shown to suppress apoptotic death, sister chromatid exchange, and impair mitochondrial RNA metabolism and protein synthesis. In vitro experiments revealed binding of SUPV3L1 to BLM and WRN proteins suggesting a role in genome maintenance processes. Disruption of the Supv3L1 gene in the mouse has been reported to be embryonic lethal at early developmental stages. We generated a conditional mouse in which the phenotypes associated with the removal of exon 14 can be tested in a variety of tissues. Disruption mediated by a Mx1 promoter-driven Cre displayed a postnatal growth delay, reduced life span, loss of adipose tissue, muscle mass, and severe skin abnormalities manifesting as ichthyosis, thickening of the epidermis, and atrophy of the dermis and subcutaneous tissue. Using a tamoxifen-activatable Esr1/Cre driver, Supv3L1 disruption resulted in growth retardation and aging phenotypes including loss of adipose tissue, muscle mass, kyphosis, cachexia and premature death. Many of the abnormalities seen in the Mx1-Cre mice, such as hyperkeratosis characterized by profound scaling of feet and tail, could also be detected in tamoxifen-inducible Cre mice. Conditional ablation of Supv3L1 in keratinocytes confirmed atrophic changes in the skin and ichthyosis-like changes. Together, these data indicate that Supv3L1 is important for the maintenance of the skin barrier. Additionally, loss of Supv3L1 function leads to accelerated aging-like phenotypes.
Chromatin structure is not fixed. Instead, chromatin is dynamic and is subject to extensive developmental and age-associated remodeling. In some cases, this remodeling appears to counter the aging and age-associated diseases, such as cancer, and extend organismal lifespan. However, stochastic non-deterministic changes in chromatin structure might, over time, also contribute to the break down of nuclear, cell and tissue function, and consequently aging and age-associated diseases.
The Raf kinase inhibitory protein 1 (RKIP-1) and its orthologs are conserved throughout evolution and widely expressed in eukaryotic organisms. In its non-phosphorylated form RKIP-1 negatively regulates the Raf/MEK/ERK pathway by interfering with the activity of Raf-1. In its phosphorylated state, RKIP-1 dissociates from Raf-1 and inhibits GRK-2, a negative regulator of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). Available data indicate that the phosphorylation of RKIP-1 by PKC can stimulate both the Raf/MEK/ERK and GPCR pathways. RKIP-1 has also been implicated as a negative regulator of the NF-κB pathway. Recent studies have shown that phosphorylated RKIP-1 binds to the centrosomal and kinetochore regions of metaphase chromosomes, where it may be involved in regulating the partitioning of chromosomes and the progression through mitosis. The collective evidence indicates that RKIP-1 regulates the activity and mediates the crosstalk between several important cellular signaling pathways. A variety of ablative interventions suggest that reduced RKIP-1 function may influence metastasis, angiogenesis, resistance to apoptosis, and genome integrity. Attenuation of RKIP-1 may also affect cardiac and neurological functions, spermatogenesis, sperm decapactiation, and reproductive behavior. In this review, the role of RKIP-1 in cellular signaling, and especially its functions revealed using a mouse knockout model, are discussed.
RKIP-1; PEBP; signaling; mouse model; olfaction; reproduction; metastases
Background & Aims
The Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) has been identified as a suppressor of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Loss of RKIP function promotes tumor metastasis in prostate cancer and melanoma. The IGF-I mediated MAPK cascade is often activated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the role of RKIP in the molecular pathogenesis of these tumors is unknown. This study was performed to evaluate the role of RKIP in HCC development.
The levels of RKIP expression in HCC tumor and corresponding peritumoral tissues were determined by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. The underlying mechanisms of RKIP were assessed with immunoblot analysis, Raf kinase activity assay, cell proliferation and migration assays after either overexpression or knockdown of RKIP expression in HCC cell lines.
RKIP expression is downregulated in human HCC compared to adjacent peritumoral tissues. Low RKIP levels were correlated with enhanced extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase (ERK)/MAPK pathway activation. Reconstitution experiments antagonized IGF-I mediated MAPK pathway activation resulting in reduced nuclear accumulation of phospho-ERK. In contrast, knockdown of RKIP expression using siRNA induced activation of the ERK/MAPK pathway. Ectopic expression of RKIP altered HCC cell proliferation and migration.
Our findings indicate that downregulation of RKIP expression is a major factor in activation of the IGF-I/ERK/MAPK pathway during human hepatocarcinogenesis.
The human polyomavirus, JCV, has a highly restricted tropism and primarily infects glial cells. The mechanisms restricting infection of cells by JCV are poorly understood. Previously we developed and described a glial cell line that was resistant to JCV infection with the aim of using these cells to identify factors that determine JCV tropism. Gene expression profiling of susceptible and resistant glial cells revealed a direct correlation between the expression of inflammatory cytokines and susceptibility to JCV infection. This correlation manifested at the level of viral gene transcription. Previous studies have suggested a link between an increase in cytokine gene expression in HIV patients and the development of PML and these data support this hypothesis.
JC Virus; glial cells; PML; polyomavirus; HIV; AIDS
The c-myc proto-oncogene is rapidly activated by serum and regulates genes involved in metabolism and cell cycle progression. This gene is thereby uniquely poised to coordinate both the metabolic and cell cycle regulatory events required for cell cycle entry. However, this function of Myc has not been evaluated. Using a rat fibroblast model of isogenic cell lines, myc−/−, myc+/−, myc+/+ and myc−/− cells with an inducible c-myc transgene (mycER), we show that the Myc protein programs cells to utilize both oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis to drive cell cycle progression. We demonstrate this coordinate regulation of metabolic networks is essential, as specific inhibitors of these pathways block Myc-induced proliferation. Metabolic events temporally correlated with cell cycle entry include increased oxygen consumption, mitochondrial function, pyruvate and lactate production, and ATP generation. Treatment of normal cells with inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation recapitulates the myc −/−phenotype, resulting in impaired cell cycle entry and reduced metabolism. Combined with a kinetic expression profiling analysis of genes linked to mitochondrial function, our study indicates that Myc's ability to coordinately regulate the mitochondrial metabolic network transcriptome is required for rapid cell cycle entry. This function of Myc may underlie the pervasive presence of Myc in many human cancers.
Myc; metabolism; mitochondria; cell cycle; time-course array
The c-Myc transcription factor is a master regulator and integrates cell proliferation, cell growth and metabolism through activating thousands of target genes. Our identification of direct c-Myc target genes by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) coupled with pair-end ditag sequencing analysis (ChIP-PET) revealed that nucleotide metabolic genes are enriched among c-Myc targets, but the role of Myc in regulating nucleotide metabolic genes has not been comprehensively delineated.
Here, we report that the majority of genes in human purine and pyrimidine biosynthesis pathway were induced and directly bound by c-Myc in the P493-6 human Burkitt's lymphoma model cell line. The majority of these genes were also responsive to the ligand-activated Myc-estrogen receptor fusion protein, Myc-ER, in a Myc null rat fibroblast cell line, HO.15 MYC-ER. Furthermore, these targets are also responsive to Myc activation in transgenic mouse livers in vivo. To determine the functional significance of c-Myc regulation of nucleotide metabolism, we sought to determine the effect of loss of function of direct Myc targets inosine monophosphate dehydrogenases (IMPDH1 and IMPDH2) on c-Myc-induced cell growth and proliferation. In this regard, we used a specific IMPDH inhibitor mycophenolic acid (MPA) and found that MPA dramatically inhibits c-Myc-induced P493-6 cell proliferation through S-phase arrest and apoptosis.
Taken together, these results demonstrate the direct induction of nucleotide metabolic genes by c-Myc in multiple systems. Our finding of an S-phase arrest in cells with diminished IMPDH activity suggests that nucleotide pool balance is essential for c-Myc's orchestration of DNA replication, such that uncoupling of these two processes create DNA replication stress and apoptosis.
Significance analysis at single gene level may suffer from the limited number of samples and experimental noise that can severely limit the power of the chosen statistical test. This problem is typically approached by applying post hoc corrections to control the false discovery rate, without taking into account prior biological knowledge. Pathway or gene ontology analysis can provide an alternative way to relax the significance threshold applied to single genes and may lead to a better biological interpretation.
Here we propose a new analysis method based on the study of networks of pathways. These networks are reconstructed considering both the significance of single pathways (network nodes) and the intersection between them (links).
We apply this method for the reconstruction of networks of pathways to two gene expression datasets: the first one obtained from a c-Myc rat fibroblast cell line expressing a conditional Myc-estrogen receptor oncoprotein; the second one obtained from the comparison of Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia derived from bone marrow samples.
Our method extends statistical models that have been recently adopted for the significance analysis of functional groups of genes to infer links between these groups. We show that groups of genes at the interface between different pathways can be considered as relevant even if the pathways they belong to are not significant by themselves.
Raf Kinase Inhibitory Protein (RKIP-1) is involved in the regulation of the MAP kinase, NF-κB, and GPCR signaling pathways. It is expressed in numerous tissues and cell types and orthologues have been documented throughout the animal and plant kingdoms. RKIP-1 has also been reported as an inhibitor of serine proteases, and a precursor of a neurostimulatory peptide. RKIP-1 has been implicated as a suppressor of metastases in several human cancers. We generated a knockout strain of mice to further assess RKIP-1’s function in mammals. RKIP-1 is expressed in many tissues with the highest protein levels detectable in testes and brain. In the brain, expression was ubiquitous in limbic formations, and homozygous mice developed olfaction deficits in the first year of life. We postulate that RKIP-1 may be a modulator of behavioral responses.
RKIP; PEBP; gene trap; knockout mouse; brain; behavior; olfaction
The human polyomavirus JC virus (JCV) infects 70% of the population worldwide. In immunosuppressed patients, JCV infection can lead to progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a fatal demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). The majority of PML cases occur in the setting of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and it has been suggested that the link between HIV and the development of PML is in part related to the production of numerous cytokines in the CNS during HIV infection. To examine the link between the expression of inflammatory cytokines and JCV infection, we tested an anti-inflammatory compound, cyclosporine A (CsA), for its ability to block JCV infection of glial cells. We found that CsA inhibited JCV infection by preventing the activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T cells 4 (NFAT4). Luciferase reporter assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that NFAT4 directly bound the JCV promoter during infection and was important for the activation of both early and late transcription. In addition, the expression of the JCV early viral gene products increased NFAT activity to further aid viral transcription. The necessity of NFAT for JCV infection suggests that calcium signaling and the activation of NFAT in glial cells are required for JCV infection of the CNS.