Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder with both mitochondrial dysfunction and insufficient autophagy playing a key role in its pathogenesis. Among the risk factors, exposure to the environmental neurotoxin rotenone increases the probability of developing PD. We previously reported that in differentiated SH-SY5Y cells, rotenone-induced cell death is directly related to inhibition of mitochondrial function. How rotenone at nM concentrations inhibits mitochondrial function, and whether it can engage the autophagy pathway necessary to remove damaged proteins and organelles, is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that autophagy plays a protective role against rotenone toxicity in primary neurons. We found that rotenone (10–100 nM) immediately inhibited cellular bioenergetics. Concentrations that decreased mitochondrial function at 2 hr, caused cell death at 24 hr with an LD50 of 10 nM. Overall autophagic flux was decreased by 10 nM rotenone at both 2 and 24 hr, but surprisingly mitophagy, or autophagy of the mitochondria, was increased at 24 hr, suggesting that a mitochondrial-specific lysosomal degradation pathway may be activated. Upregulation of autophagy by rapamycin protected against cell death while inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyladenine (3-MA) exacerbated cell death. Interestingly, while 3-MA exacerbated the rotenone-dependent effects on bioenergetics, rapamycin did not prevent rotenone-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, but caused reprogramming of mitochondrial substrate usage associated with both complex I and complex II activities. Taken together, these data demonstrate that autophagy can play a protective role in primary neuron survival in response to rotenone; moreover, surviving neurons exhibit bioenergetic adaptations to this metabolic stressor.
Atherosclerosis and valvular heart disease often require treatment with corrective surgery to prevent future myocardial infarction, ischemic heart disease, and heart failure. Mechanisms underlying the development of the associated complications of surgery are multifactorial and have been linked to inflammation and oxidative stress, classically as measured in the blood or plasma of patients. Post-operative pericardial fluid (PO-PCF) has not been investigated in depth with respect to the potential to induce oxidative stress. This is important since cardiac surgery disrupts the integrity of the pericardial membrane surrounding the heart, and causes significant alterations in the composition of the pericardial fluid (PCF). This includes contamination with hemolyzed blood and high concentrations of oxidized hemoglobin, which suggests that cardiac surgery results in oxidative stress within the pericardial space. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that PO-PCF is highly pro-oxidant and that the potential interaction between inflammatory cell-derived hydrogen peroxide with hemoglobin is associated with oxidative stress. Blood and PCF were collected from 31 patients at the time of surgery and postoperatively from 4 to 48 hours after coronary artery bypass grafting, valve replacement, or valve repair (mitral or aortic). PO-PCF contained high concentrations of neutrophils and monocytes which are capable of generating elevated amounts of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide through the oxidative burst. In addition, PO-PCF primed naïve neutrophils resulting in an enhanced oxidative burst upon stimulation. The PO-PCF also contained increased concentrations of cell-free oxidized hemoglobin which was associated with elevated levels of F2α-isoprostanes and prostaglandins, consistent with both oxidative stress and activation of cyclooxygenase. Lastly, protein analysis of the PO-PCF revealed evidence of protein thiol oxidation and protein carbonylation. We conclude that PO-PCF is highly pro-oxidant and speculate that it may contribute to the risk of post-operative complications.
The mitochondrion plays a crucial role in the immune system particularly in regulating the responses of monocytes and macrophages to tissue injury, pathogens, and inflammation. In systemic diseases such as atherosclerosis and chronic kidney disease (CKD) it has been established that disruption to monocyte and macrophage function can lead to chronic inflammation. Polarization of macrophages into the pro-inflammatory (M1) and anti-inflammatory (M2) phenotypes results in distinct metabolic reprograming which corresponds to the progression and resolution of inflammation. In this review, we will discuss the role of the mitochondrion in monocyte and macrophage function and how these cells specifically influence the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis and CKD. We propose that assessing monocyte bioenergetics in different disease states could (1) enhance our understanding of the energetic perturbations occurring in systemic inflammatory conditions and (2) aid in identifying therapeutic interventions to mitigate these disorders in patients.
monocyte; macrophage; atherosclerosis; chronic kidney disease; oxidative stress; metabolic shift; biomarker
Platelet thrombus formation includes several integrated processes involving aggregation, secretion of granules, release of arachidonic acid and clot retraction, but it is not clear which metabolic fuels are required to support these events. We hypothesized that there is flexibility in the fuels that can be utilized to serve the energetic and metabolic needs for resting and thrombin-dependent platelet aggregation. Using platelets from healthy human donors, we found that there was a rapid thrombin-dependent increase in oxidative phosphorylation which required both glutamine and fatty acids but not glucose. Inhibition of fatty acid oxidation or glutamine utilization could be compensated for by increased glycolytic flux. No evidence for significant mitochondrial dysfunction was found, and ATP/ADP ratios were maintained following the addition of thrombin, indicating the presence of functional and active mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation during the early stages of aggregation. Interestingly, inhibition of fatty acid oxidation and glutaminolysis alone or in combination is not sufficient to prevent platelet aggregation, due to compensation from glycolysis, whereas inhibitors of glycolysis inhibited aggregation approximately 50%. The combined effects of inhibitors of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation were synergistic in the inhibition of platelet aggregation. In summary, both glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation contribute to platelet metabolism in the resting and activated state, with fatty acid oxidation and to a smaller extent glutaminolysis contributing to the increased energy demand.
Mitochondrial dysfunction is known to play a significant role in a number of pathological conditions such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, septic shock, and neurodegenerative diseases but assessing changes in bioenergetic function in patients is challenging. Although diseases such as diabetes or atherosclerosis present clinically with specific organ impairment, the systemic components of the pathology, such as hyperglycemia or inflammation, can alter bioenergetic function in circulating leukocytes or platelets. This concept has been recognized for some time but its widespread application has been constrained by the large number of primary cells needed for bioenergetic analysis. This technical limitation has been overcome by combining the specificity of the magnetic bead isolation techniques, cell adhesion techniques, which allow cells to be attached without activation to microplates, and the sensitivity of new technologies designed for high throughput microplate respirometry. An example of this equipment is the extracellular flux analyzer. Such instrumentation typically uses oxygen and pH sensitive probes to measure rates of change in these parameters in adherent cells, which can then be related to metabolism. Here we detail the methods for the isolation and plating of monocytes, lymphocytes, neutrophils and platelets, without activation, from human blood and the analysis of mitochondrial bioenergetic function in these cells. In addition, we demonstrate how the oxidative burst in monocytes and neutrophils can also be measured in the same samples. Since these methods use only 8-20 ml human blood they have potential for monitoring reactive oxygen species generation and bioenergetics in a clinical setting.
Immunology; Issue 85; bioenergetics; translational; mitochondria; oxidative stress; reserve capacity; leukocytes
Bioenergetics has become central to our understanding of pathological mechanisms, the
development of new therapeutic strategies and as a biomarker for disease progression
in neurodegeneration, diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular disease. A key concept is
that the mitochondrion can act as the ‘canary in the coal mine’ by
serving as an early warning of bioenergetic crisis in patient populations. We propose
that new clinical tests to monitor changes in bioenergetics in patient populations
are needed to take advantage of the early and sensitive ability of bioenergetics to
determine severity and progression in complex and multifactorial diseases. With the
recent development of high-throughput assays to measure cellular energetic function
in the small number of cells that can be isolated from human blood these clinical
tests are now feasible. We have shown that the sequential addition of
well-characterized inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation allows a bioenergetic
profile to be measured in cells isolated from normal or pathological samples. From
these data we propose that a single value–the Bioenergetic Health Index
(BHI)–can be calculated to represent the patient's composite mitochondrial
profile for a selected cell type. In the present Hypothesis paper, we discuss how BHI
could serve as a dynamic index of bioenergetic health and how it can be measured in
platelets and leucocytes. We propose that, ultimately, BHI has the potential to be a
new biomarker for assessing patient health with both prognostic and diagnostic
aging; cardiovascular disease; haplotype; hepatotoxicity; neurodegenerative disease; oxidative stress; reserve capacity; BHI, Bioenergetic Health Index; ETC, electron transport chain; FCCP, carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone; HNE, hydroxynonenal; LDA, linear discriminant analysis; mtDNA, mitochondrial DNA; OCR, oxygen consumption rate; RNS, reactive nitrogen species; ROS, reactive oxygen species
The assessment of metabolic function in cells isolated from human blood for treatment and diagnosis of disease is a new and important area of translational research. It is now becoming clear that a broad range of pathologies which present clinically with symptoms predominantly in one organ, such as the brain or kidney, also modulate mitochondrial energetics in platelets and leukocytes allowing these cells to serve as “the canary in the coal mine” for bioenergetic dysfunction. This opens up the possibility that circulating platelets and leukocytes can sense metabolic stress in patients and serve as biomarkers of mitochondrial dysfunction in human pathologies such as diabetes, neurodegeneration and cardiovascular disease. In this overview we will describe how the utilization of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation differs in platelets and leukocytes and discuss how they can be used in patient populations. Since it is clear that the metabolic programs between leukocytes and platelets are fundamentally distinct the measurement of mitochondrial function in distinct cell populations is necessary for translational research.
•Monocytes, lymphocytes, neutrophils and platelets have distinct bioenergetic programs that regulate energy production.•Platelets and monocytes exhibit a high level of aerobic glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration.•Lymphocytes have a low glycolytic capacity while neutrophils have little or no detectable oxidative phosphorylation.•The levels of mitochondrial complex IV and III subunits differ substantially between lymphocytes, monocytes and platelets.
ROS/RNS, reactive oxygen species/reactive nitrogen species; OCR, oxygen consumption rate; ECAR, extracellular acidification rate; XF, extracellular flux analyzer; Reserve capacity; Oxidative stress; Metabolic shift; Biomarker; Leukocytes; Platelets
The antiangiogenic activity of rPAI-123, a truncated plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) protein, induces vasa vasorum collapse and significantly reduces plaque area and plaque cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic low-density lipoprotein receptor–deficient/apolipoprotein B48–deficient mice.
The objective of this study was to examine rPAI-123–stimulated mechanisms that cause vasa vasorum collapse.
Methods and Results
The rPAI-123 protein opposed PAI-1 antiproteolytic function by stimulating a 1.6-fold increase in plasmin activity compared with the saline-treated counterpart. The increased proteolytic activity corresponded to increased activity of matrix metalloproteinase-3 and degradation of fibrin(ogen), nidogen, and perlecan in the adventitia of descending aortas. PAI-1 activity was reduced by 48% in response to rPAI-123; however, PAI-1 protein expression levels were similar in the rPAI-123– and saline-treated hypercholesterolemic mice. Coimmunoprecipitation assays demonstrated a novel PAI-1–plasminogen complex in protein from the descending aorta of rPAI-123– and saline-treated mice, but complexed PAI-1 was 1.6-fold greater in rPAI-123–treated mice. Biochemical analyses demonstrated that rPAI-123 and PAI-1 binding interactions with plasminogen increased plasmin activity and reduced PAI-1 antiproteolytic activity.
We conclude that rPAI-123 causes regression or collapse of adventitial vasa vasorum in hypercholesterolemic mice by stimulating an increase in plasmin activity. The rPAI-123–enhanced plasmin activity was achieved through a novel mechanism by which rPAI-123 and PAI-1 bound plasminogen in a cooperative manner to increase plasmin activity and reduce PAI-1 activity.
angiogenesis; atherosclerosis; vasa vasorum; plasminogen activator inhibitor-1; proteolysis
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are an alluring therapeutic resource because of their plasticity, immunoregulatory capacity and
ease of availability. Human BM-derived MSCs have limited proliferative capability, consequently, it is challenging to
use in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. Hence, placental MSCs of maternal origin, which is
one of richest sources of MSCs were chosen to establish long-term culture from the cotyledons of full-term human placenta.
Flow analysis established bonafied MSCs phenotypic characteristics, staining positively for CD29, CD73, CD90, CD105 and negatively for CD14, CD34, CD45 markers. Pluripotency of the cultured MSCs was assessed by in vitro differentiation towards not only intralineage cells like adipocytes, osteocytes, chondrocytes, and myotubules cells but also translineage differentiated towards pancreatic progenitor cells, neural cells, and retinal cells displaying plasticity. These cells did not significantly alter cell cycle or apoptosis pattern while maintaining the normal karyotype; they also have limited expression of MHC-II antigens and are Naive for stimulatory factors CD80 and CD 86. Further soft agar assays revealed that placental MSCs do not have the ability to form invasive colonies. Taking together all these characteristics into consideration, it indicates that placental MSCs could serve as good candidates for development and progress of stem-cell based therapeutics.
Neoplastic cells are genetically unstable. Strategies that target pathways affecting genome instability can be exploited to disrupt tumor cell growth potentially with limited consequences to normal cells. Chromosomal instability (CIN) is one type of genome instability characterized by mitotic defects that increase the rate of chromosome mis-segregation. CIN is frequently caused by extra centrosomes that transiently disrupt normal bipolar spindle geometry needed for accurate chromosome segregation. Tumor cells survive with extra centrosomes because of biochemical pathways that cluster centrosomes and promote chromosome segregation on bipolar spindles. Recent work shows that targeted inhibition of these pathways prevents centrosome clustering and forces chromosomes to segregate to multiple daughter cells, an event triggering apoptosis that we refer to as anaphase catastrophe. Anaphase catastrophe specifically kills tumor cells with more than two centrosomes. This death program can occur after genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of cyclin dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2) and is augmented by combined treatment with a microtubule inhibitor. This proapoptotic effect occurs despite the presence of ras mutations in cancer cells. Anaphase catastrophe is a previously unrecognized mechanism that can be pharmacologically induced for apoptotic death of cancer cells. This is an appealing mechanism to engage for cancer therapy and prevention.
anaphase catastrophe; cyclin E-Cdk2; multipolar anaphase; anti-neoplastic target
One of the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease, and several other degenerative disorders such as Inclusion Body Myositis, is the abnormal accumulation of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and its proteolytic amyloid peptides. To better understand the pathological consequences of inappropriate APP expression on developing tissues, we generated transgenic flies that express wild-type human APP in the skeletal muscles, and then performed anatomical, electrophysiological, and behavioral analysis of the adults.
We observed that neither muscle development nor animal longevity was compromised in these transgenic animals. However, human APP expressing adults developed age-dependent defects in both climbing and flying. We could advance or retard the onset of symptoms by rearing animals in vials with different surface properties, suggesting that human APP expression-mediated behavioral defects are influenced by muscle activity. Muscles from transgenic animals did not display protein aggregates or structural abnormalities at the light or transmission electron microscopic levels. In agreement with genetic studies performed with developing mammalian myoblasts, we observed that co-expression of the ubiquitin E3 ligase Parkin could ameliorate human APP-induced defects.
These data suggest that: 1) ectopic expression of human APP in fruit flies leads to age- and activity-dependent behavioral defects without overt changes to muscle development or structure; 2) environmental influences can greatly alter the phenotypic consequences of human APP toxicity; and 3) genetic modifiers of APP-induced pathology can be identified and analyzed in this model.
amyloid precursor protein (APP); Drosophila; muscle; mitochondria; electron microscopy; apoptosis; Parkin
Aromatase (CYP19) is a critical enzyme for estrogen biosynthesis, and aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are established endocrine therapy for post-menopausal women with breast cancer. DNA samples were obtained from 52 women pre- and post-AI treatment in the neoadjuvant setting. 82 breast cancer and 19 normal breast samples were resequenced to test the hypothesis that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CYP19 gene might contribute to response to neoadjuvant AI therapy. There were no differences in CYP19 sequence between tumor and germline DNA in the same patient. Forty-eight CYP19 SNPs were identified, with four being novel when compared with previous resequencing data. Genotype-phenotype association studies performed with levels of aromatase activity, estrone, estradiol and tumor size pre- and post-AI treatment indicated that two tightly linked SNPs, rs6493497 and rs7176005 in the 5’-flanking region of CYP19 exon 1.1, were significantly associated with a greater change in aromatase activity after AI treatment. A follow-up study in 200 women with early breast cancer treated with adjuvant anastrozole showed that these same two SNPs were also associated with higher plasma estradiol levels pre- and post-AI treatment. Electrophoretic mobility shift and reporter gene assays confirmed the potential functional effects of these two SNPs on transcription regulation. These studies provide insight into the role of common genetic polymorphisms in CYP19 in variation in response to AIs by breast cancer patients.
Aromatase; aromatase inhibitors; CYP19; gene resequencing; SNP; functional genomics; genotype-phenotype association
Peripheral blood mononuclear cells and platelets have long been recognized as having the potential to act as sensitive markers for mitochondrial dysfunction in a broad range of pathological conditions. However, the bioenergetic function of these cells has not been examined from the same donors, yet this is important for the selection of cell types for translational studies. Here, we demonstrate the measurement of cellular bioenergetics in isolated human monocytes, lymphocytes, and platelets, including the oxidative burst from neutrophils and monocytes from individual donors. With the exception of neutrophils, all cell types tested exhibited oxygen consumption that could be ascribed to oxidative phosphorylation with each having a distinct bioenergetic profile and distribution of respiratory chain proteins. In marked contrast, neutrophils were essentially unresponsive to mitochondrial respiratory inhibitors indicating that they have a minimal requirement for oxidative phosphorylation. In monocytes and neutrophils, we demonstrate the stimulation of the oxidative burst using phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and its validation in normal human subjects. Taken together, these data suggest that selection of cell type from blood cells is critical for assessing bioenergetic dysfunction and redox biology in translational research.
mitochondria; neutrophils; peripheral blood mononuclear cells; respiratory burst