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2.  Differential expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α in non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer 
Clinics  2012;67(12):1373-1378.
OBJECTIVES:
The aim of this study was to compare the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α and vascular endothelial growth factor in small cell lung cancer and subtypes of non-small cell lung cancer and examine their relationships with clinicopathologic factors, response to treatment and survival.
METHODS:
We examined samples obtained by bronchial endoscopic biopsy from 55 patients with inoperable lung cancer (16 with adenocarcinoma, 17 with squamous cell carcinoma, and 22 with small cell lung cancer). Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α and vascular endothelial growth factor were detected using immunohistochemistry. The diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of patients were conducted according to the standard practice.
RESULTS:
A significant difference (p = 0.022) in hypoxia-inducible factor 1α expression was observed between non-small cell lung cancer (75.8% positive) and small cell lung cancer (45.5% positive). The frequency of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α nuclear expression was 88.2% in squamous cell carcinoma, 62.5% in adenocarcinoma, and 45.5% in small cell lung cancer. A significant correlation was observed between hypoxia-inducible factor 1α and vascular endothelial growth factor expression (Fisher's exact test, p = 0.001) when all types of lung cancer were examined, either collectively or separately.
CONCLUSIONS:
The expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α differs significantly between subtypes of lung cancer. These findings could help elucidate the biology of the different types of non-operable lung carcinomas and have implications for the design of new therapeutic approaches for lung cancer.
doi:10.6061/clinics/2012(12)05
PMCID: PMC3521798  PMID: 23295589
Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1α; Lung Cancer; Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor; Small Cell Lung Cancer; Non-small Cell Lung Cancer
3.  Matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 increase permeability of sheep pleura in vitro 
BMC Physiology  2012;12:2.
Background
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 2 and 9 are two gelatinase members which have been found elevated in exudative pleural effusions. In endothelial cells these MMPs increase paracellular permeability via the disruption of tight junction (TJ) proteins occludin and claudin. In the present study it was investigated if MMP2 and MMP9 alter permeability properties of the pleura tissue by degradation of TJ proteins in pleural mesothelium.
Results
In the present study the transmesothelial resistance (RTM) of sheep pleura tissue was recorded in Ussing chambers after the addition of MMP2 or MMP9. Both enzymes reduced RTM of the pleura, implying an increase in pleural permeability. The localization and expression of TJ proteins, occludin and claudin-1, were assessed after incubation with MMPs by indirect immunofluorescence and western blot analysis. Our results revealed that incubation with MMPs did not alter neither proteins localization at cell periphery nor their expression.
Conclusions
MMP2 and MMP9 increase the permeability of sheep pleura and this finding suggests a role for MMPs in pleural fluid formation. Tight junction proteins remain intact after incubation with MMPs, contrary to previous studies which have shown TJ degradation by MMPs. Probably MMP2 and MMP9 augment pleural permeability via other mechanisms.
doi:10.1186/1472-6793-12-2
PMCID: PMC3337816  PMID: 22424238
4.  CRM1-mediated Recycling of Snurportin 1 to the Cytoplasm  
The Journal of Cell Biology  1999;145(2):255-264.
Importin β is a major mediator of import into the cell nucleus. Importin β binds cargo molecules either directly or via two types of adapter molecules, importin α, for import of proteins with a classical nuclear localization signal (NLS), or snurportin 1, for import of m3G-capped U snRNPs. Both adapters have an NH2-terminal importin β–binding domain for binding to, and import by, importin β, and both need to be returned to the cytoplasm after having delivered their cargoes to the nucleus. We have shown previously that CAS mediates export of importin α. Here we show that snurportin 1 is exported by CRM1, the receptor for leucine-rich nuclear export signals (NESs). However, the interaction of CRM1 with snurportin 1 differs from that with previously characterized NESs. First, CRM1 binds snurportin 1 50-fold stronger than the Rev protein and 5,000-fold stronger than the minimum Rev activation domain. Second, snurportin 1 interacts with CRM1 not through a short peptide but rather via a large domain that allows regulation of affinity. Strikingly, snurportin 1 has a low affinity for CRM1 when bound to its m3G-capped import substrate, and a high affinity when substrate-free. This mechanism appears crucial for productive import cycles as it can ensure that CRM1 only exports snurportin 1 that has already released its import substrate in the nucleus.
PMCID: PMC2133107  PMID: 10209022
nuclear transport; nuclear pore complex; importin; exportin; snurportin 1
5.  Ribosomal Pausing and Scanning Arrest as Mechanisms of Translational Regulation from Cap-Distal Iron-Responsive Elements 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  1999;19(1):807-816.
Iron regulatory protein 1 (IRP-1) binding to an iron-responsive element (IRE) located close to the cap structure of mRNAs represses translation by precluding the recruitment of the small ribosomal subunit to these mRNAs. This mechanism is position dependent; reporter mRNAs bearing IREs located further downstream exhibit diminished translational control in transfected mammalian cells. To investigate the underlying mechanism, we have recapitulated this position effect in a rabbit reticulocyte cell-free translation system. We show that the recruitment of the 43S preinitiation complex to the mRNA is unaffected when IRP-1 is bound to a cap-distal IRE. Following 43S complex recruitment, the translation initiation apparatus appears to stall, before linearly progressing to the initiation codon. The slow passive dissociation rate of IRP-1 from the cap-distal IRE suggests that the mammalian translation apparatus plays an active role in overcoming the cap-distal IRE–IRP-1 complex. In contrast, cap-distal IRE–IRP-1 complexes efficiently repress translation in wheat germ and yeast translation extracts. Since inhibition occurs subsequent to 43S complex recruitment, an efficient arrest of productive scanning may represent a second mechanism by which RNA-protein interactions within the 5′ untranslated region of an mRNA can regulate translation. In contrast to initiating ribosomes, elongating ribosomes from mammal, plant, and yeast cells are unaffected by IRE–IRP-1 complexes positioned within the open reading frame. These data shed light on a characteristic aspect of the IRE-IRP regulatory system and uncover properties of the initiation and elongation translation apparatus of eukaryotic cells.
PMCID: PMC83937  PMID: 9858603

Results 1-5 (5)