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1.  Temperature variability analysis using wavelets and multiscale entropy in patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome, sepsis, and septic shock 
Critical Care  2012;16(2):R51.
Even though temperature is a continuous quantitative variable, its measurement has been considered a snapshot of a process, indicating whether a patient is febrile or afebrile. Recently, other diagnostic techniques have been proposed for the association between different properties of the temperature curve with severity of illness in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), based on complexity analysis of continuously monitored body temperature. In this study, we tried to assess temperature complexity in patients with systemic inflammation during a suspected ICU-acquired infection, by using wavelets transformation and multiscale entropy of temperature signals, in a cohort of mixed critically ill patients.
Twenty-two patients were enrolled in the study. In five, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS, group 1) developed, 10 had sepsis (group 2), and seven had septic shock (group 3). All temperature curves were studied during the first 24 hours of an inflammatory state. A wavelet transformation was applied, decomposing the signal in different frequency components (scales) that have been found to reflect neurogenic and metabolic inputs on temperature oscillations. Wavelet energy and entropy per different scales associated with complexity in specific frequency bands and multiscale entropy of the whole signal were calculated. Moreover, a clustering technique and a linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were applied for permitting pattern recognition in data sets and assessing diagnostic accuracy of different wavelet features among the three classes of patients.
Statistically significant differences were found in wavelet entropy between patients with SIRS and groups 2 and 3, and in specific ultradian bands between SIRS and group 3, with decreased entropy in sepsis. Cluster analysis using wavelet features in specific bands revealed concrete clusters closely related with the groups in focus. LDA after wrapper-based feature selection was able to classify with an accuracy of more than 80% SIRS from the two sepsis groups, based on multiparametric patterns of entropy values in the very low frequencies and indicating reduced metabolic inputs on local thermoregulation, probably associated with extensive vasodilatation.
We suggest that complexity analysis of temperature signals can assess inherent thermoregulatory dynamics during systemic inflammation and has increased discriminating value in patients with infectious versus noninfectious conditions, probably associated with severity of illness.
PMCID: PMC3681376  PMID: 22424316
2.  Study of multiparameter respiratory pattern complexity in surgical critically ill patients during weaning trials 
BMC Physiology  2011;11:2.
Separation from mechanical ventilation is a difficult task, whereas conventional predictive indices have not been proven accurate enough, so far. A few studies have explored changes of breathing pattern variability for weaning outcome prediction, with conflicting results. In this study, we tried to assess respiratory complexity during weaning trials, using different non-linear methods derived from theory of complex systems, in a cohort of surgical critically ill patients.
Thirty two patients were enrolled in the study. There were 22 who passed and 10 who failed a weaning trial. Tidal volume and mean inspiratory flow were analyzed for 10 minutes during two phases: 1. pressure support (PS) ventilation (15-20 cm H2O) and 2. weaning trials with PS: 5 cm H2O. Sample entropy (SampEn), detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) exponent, fractal dimension (FD) and largest lyapunov exponents (LLE) of the two respiratory parameters were computed in all patients and during the two phases of PS. Weaning failure patients exhibited significantly decreased respiratory pattern complexity, reflected in reduced sample entropy and lyapunov exponents and increased DFA exponents of respiratory flow time series, compared to weaning success subjects (p < 0.001). In addition, their changes were opposite between the two phases of the weaning trials. A new model including rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI), its product with airway occlusion pressure at 0.1 sec (P0.1), SampEn and LLE predicted better weaning outcome compared with RSBI, P0.1 and RSBI* P0.1 (conventional model, R2 = 0.874 vs 0.643, p < 0.001). Areas under the curve were 0.916 vs 0.831, respectively (p < 0.05).
We suggest that complexity analysis of respiratory signals can assess inherent breathing pattern dynamics and has increased prognostic impact upon weaning outcome in surgical patients.
PMCID: PMC3031268  PMID: 21255420

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