This study was performed to compare the mucosal findings after esophagogastroduodenoscopy in two groups before and after the use of alendronate only and following administration of the enteric-coated alendronate (5 mg) and calcitriol (0.5 µg) combined drug (Maxmarvil, Yuyu Co.).
The study population consisted of 33 postmenopausal healthy female volunteers, aged 50 to 70 years (mean age, 58 ± 5) without gastrointestinal symptoms and with normal baseline endoscopic findings. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy was performed at baseline and was repeated 2 weeks later after daily intake of Maxmarvil (n = 17 subjects) or alendronate only (n = 16 subjects). Mucosal injury scores were reported by an endoscopist after 2 weeks of treatment with each medication schedule.
Esophageal mucosal injuries developed in two of 16 subjects in the alendronate only group and 0 of 17 in the Maxmarvil group. Gastric mucosal injuries developed in eight subjects in the alendronate group and four subjects in the Maxmarvil group; this difference was statistically significant.
The mucosal damage scores for the alendronate group (total score 24) were significantly higher than those for the Maxmarvil group (total score 9) in the esophagus and stomach. Therefore, this study suggested that enteric-coated Maxmarvil is less harmful to gastrointestinal mucosa than alendronate, and may improve the tolerability of osteoporosis medication in clinical practice.
Alendronate; Safety; Osteoporosis
Untreated HIV infection is associated with endothelial dysfunction and subsequent cardiovascular disease, likely due to both direct effects of the virus and to indirect effects of systemic inflammation on the vasculature. We have recently shown that treatment with the antiinflammatory agent pentoxifylline (PTX) improved in vivo endothelial function and reduced circulating levels of the inflammatory markers vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and interferon-gamma-induced protein (IP-10) in HIV-infected patients. To delineate the mechanisms underlying this therapeutic effect, we tested whether clinically relevant concentrations of PTX suppress VCAM-1 or IP-10 release in cultivated human lung microvascular endothelial cells. Indeed, we found that tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-induced VCAM-1 was reduced with concentrations of PTX in the low nanomolar range, comparable to plasma levels in PTX-treated groups. We also investigated the effect of HIV proteins and found that HIV transactivator of transcription (HIV-Tat) and HIV-envelope-derived recombinant gp120 enhanced TNF-α-induced VCAM-1 gene expression in lung microvascular and coronary macrovascular endothelial cells, respectively. In addition, PTX and a NF-κB-specific inhibitor reduced this enhanced VCAM-1 gene induction in microvascular and macrovascular endothelial cells. These results provide novel insights in how the antiinflammatory agent PTX can directly reduce HIV-associated proinflammatory endothelial activation, which may underlie vascular dysfunction and coronary vascular diseases.
The purpose of this article is to report on the first known Korean case of Susac syndrome. An 18-year-old female came to our clinic reporting blurred vision of the left eye for 2 days. She also complained of decreased hearing with tinnitus of the right ear and mild headache. She was previously healthy and had no remarkable medical history. Best-corrected visual acuity was 20 / 50 in the left eye and 20 / 20 in the right eye. An axiomatic triad of ocular, cochlear, and neurologic involvement was observed in the patient. Fluorescein angiography showed branched retinal arterial occlusions in the left eye. A sudden right sensorineural hearing loss was observed on audimetry. Magnetic resonance images showed a hyperintense lesion in the white matter around the corpus callosum. The patient was treated with high doses of systemic corticosteroids, and no neuropsychological sequelae were observed. This is the first case report of Susac syndrome in Korea. In cases of retinal arterial occlusion with hearing loss or neuropsychological symptoms, Susac syndrome should be suspected.
Encephalopathy; Hearing loss; Retinal artery occlusion; Susac syndrome
To identify the unique pathologic findings of retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP) in optical coherence tomography (OCT).
Retrospectively, 29 eyes of 25 patients with age-related macular degeneration and complicated RAP were analyzed. All 29 eyes had choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in the area of pigment epithelial detachment (PED) or adjacent to it, which was visible with fluorescein angiography or indocyanine green angiography. Cross-sectional images were obtained by OCT scanning through the CNV lesions.
Six distinctive findings of OCT included drusen (100%), inner retinal cyst (80%), outer retinal cyst (68%), fibrovascular PED (84%), serous retinal detachment (40%), and PED (68%).
Through analysis of OCT findings, we revealed six different types of lesions distinctive of RAP which may provide helpful diagnostic information for subsequent treatment and predicting the prognosis of RAP.
Fibrovascular pigment epithelial detachment; Inner retinal cyst; Optical coherence tomography; Retinal angiomatous proliferation
In Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected gastric carcinoma, EBV-encoded BARF1 has been hypothesized to function as an oncogene. To evaluate cellular changes induced by BARF1, we isolated the full-length BARF1 gene from gastric carcinoma cells that were naturally infected with EBV and transfected BARF1 into EBV-negative gastric carcinoma cells. BARF1 protein was primarily secreted into culture supernatant and only marginally detectable within cells. Compared with gastric carcinoma cells containing empty vector, BARF1-expressing gastric carcinoma cells exhibited increased cell proliferation (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in apoptosis, invasion, or migration between BARF1-expressing gastric carcinoma cells and empty vector-transfected cells. BARF1-expressing gastric carcinoma cells demonstrated increased nuclear expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) RelA protein and increased NF-κB-dependent cyclin D1. The expression of p21WAF1 was diminished by BARF1 transfection and increased by NF-κB inhibition. Proliferation of naturally EBV-infected gastric carcinoma cells was suppressed by BARF1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemical analysis of 120 human gastric carcinoma tissues demonstrated increased expression of cyclin D1 and reduced expression of p21WAF1 in EBV-positive samples versus EBV-negative gastric carcinomas (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the secreted BARF1 may stimulate proliferation of EBV-infected gastric carcinoma cells via upregulation of NF-κB/cyclin D1 and reduction of the cell cycle inhibitor p21WAF1, thereby facilitating EBV-induced cancer progression.
Due to the inconvenience of performing oral glucose tolerance tests and day to day variability in glucose level, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) has been recommended by the American Diabetes Association as a method to diagnose diabetes. In addition, the Korean Diabetes Association has also recommended the use of HbA1c as a diagnostic test for diabetes. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of diabetes according to fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level only or the combination of FPG and HbA1c tests.
Data from the 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) were analyzed. Among 5,811 subjects aged 30 years or older, 5,020 were selected after excluding the data of fasting time <8 hours, missing values from fasting glucose or HbA1c level, previous diagnosis of diabetes made by physicians, or current use of antidiabetic medications. Diabetes was defined as FPG ≥126 mg/dL, previous diagnosis of diabetes made by a medical doctor, current use of antidiabetic medications, and/or HbA1c ≥6.5%. Prediabetes was defined as FPG of 100 to 125 mg/dL and/or HbA1c of 5.7% to 6.4%.
When we used FPG only, the prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes were 10.5% (men, 12.6%; women, 8.5%) and 19.3% (men, 23.8%; women, 14.9%), respectively. When HbA1c was included as a diagnostic test, the prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes increased to 12.4% (men, 14.5%; women, 10.4%) and 38.3% (men, 41%; women, 35.7%), respectively. Participants with HbA1c ≥6.5% and fasting glucose level <126 mg/dL were older and had lower estimated glomerular filtration rate.
We concluded that using fasting glucose level only may result in an underestimation of diabetes and prediabetes. HbA1c is an acceptable complementary diagnostic test for diabetes in Korean patients. However, national standardization is needed to order to use HbA1c as a diagnostic method of diabetes and prediabetes.
Diabetes mellitus; Hemoglobin A, glycosylated; Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; Prediabetic state; Prevalence
Stroke is the second leading cause of death. Experimental animal models of cerebral ischemia are widely used for researching mechanisms of ischemic damage and developing new drugs for the prevention and treatment of stroke. The present study aimed to comparatively investigate neuroprotective effects of aspirin (ASA), decursinol (DA) and new synthetic aspirin-decursinol adduct (ASA-DA) against transient focal and global cerebral ischemic damage. We found that treatment with 20 mg/kg, not 10 mg/kg, ASA-DA protected against ischemia-induced neuronal death after transient focal and global ischemic damage, and its neuroprotective effect was much better than that of ASA or DA alone. In addition, 20 mg/kg ASA-DA treatment reduced the ischemia-induced gliosis and maintained antioxidants levels in the corresponding injury regions. In brief, ASA-DA, a new synthetic drug, dramatically protected neurons from ischemic damage, and neuroprotective effects of ASA-DA may be closely related to the attenuation of ischemia-induced gliosis and maintenance of antioxidants.
Mechanically gated ion channels convert sound into an electrical signal for the sense of hearing. In Drosophila melanogaster, several transient receptor potential (TRP) channels have been implicated to be involved in this process. TRPN (NompC) and TRPV (Inactive) channels are localized in the distal and proximal ciliary zones of auditory receptor neurons, respectively. This segregated ciliary localization suggests distinct roles in auditory transduction. However, the regulation of this localization is not fully understood. Here we show that the Drosophila Tubby homolog, King tubby (hereafter called dTULP) regulates ciliary localization of TRPs. dTULP-deficient flies show uncoordinated movement and complete loss of sound-evoked action potentials. Inactive and NompC are mislocalized in the cilia of auditory receptor neurons in the dTulp mutants, indicating that dTULP is required for proper cilia membrane protein localization. This is the first demonstration that dTULP regulates TRP channel localization in cilia, and suggests that dTULP is a protein that regulates ciliary neurosensory functions.
Tubby is a member of the Tubby-like protein (TULP) family. Tubby mutations in mice (tubby mice) cause late-onset obesity and neurosensory deficits such as retinal degeneration and hearing loss. However, the exact molecular mechanism of Tubby has not been determined. Here we show that Drosophila Tubby homolog, King tubby (dTULP), regulates ciliary localization of transient receptor potential protein (TRP). dTULP-deficient flies showed uncoordinated movement and complete loss of sound-evoked action potentials. dTULP was localized in the cilia of chordotonal neurons of Johnston's organ. Two TRP channels essential for auditory transduction, Inactive and NompC, were mislocalized in the cilia of chordotonal neurons in the dTulp mutants, indicating that dTULP is required for proper cilia membrane protein localization. This is the first demonstration that dTULP regulates TRP channel localization in cilia, and thus provides novel insights into the pathogenic mechanism of tubby mice.
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) play an important role in tumor microenvironment. Particularly, M2 macrophages contribute to tumor progression, depending on the expression of NF-κB. Tumor-derived exosomes can modulate tumor microenvironment by transferring miRNAs to immune cells. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) has well known anti-tumor effects; however, no data are available on the influence of EGCG on communication with cancer cells and TAM.
Murine breast cancer cell lines, 4T1, was used for in vivo and ex vivo studies. Exosome was extracted from EGCG-treated 4T1 cells, and the change of miRNAs was screened using microarray. Tumor cells or TAM isolated from murine tumor graft were incubated with exosomes derived from EGCG-treated and/or miR-16 inhibitor-transfected 4T1 cells. Chemokines for monocytes (CSF-1 and CCL-2), cytokines both with high (IL-6 and TGF-β) and low (TNF-α) expression in M2 macrophages, and molecules in NF-κB pathway (IKKα and Iκ-B) were evaluated by RT-qPCR or western blot.
EGCG suppressed tumor growth in murine breast cancer model, which was associated with decreased TAM and M2 macrophage infiltration. Expression of chemokine for monocytes (CSF-1 and CCL-2) were low in tumor cells from EGCG-treated mice, and cytokines of TAM was skewed from M2- into M1-like phenotype by EGCG as evidenced by decreased IL-6 and TGF-β and increased TNF-α. Ex vivo incubation of isolated tumor cells with EGCG inhibited the CSF-1 and CCL-2 expression. Ex vivo incubation of TAM with exosomes from EGCG-treated 4T1 cells led to IKKα suppression and concomitant I-κB accumulation; increase of IL-6 and TGF-β; and, decrease of TNF-α. EGCG up-regulated miR-16 in 4T1 cells and in the exosomes. Treatment of tumor cells or TAM with exosomes derived from EGCG-treated and miR-16-knock-downed 4T1 cells restored the above effects on chemokines, cytokines, and NF-κB pathway elicited by EGCG-treated exosomes.
Our data demonstrate that EGCG up-regulates miR-16 in tumor cells, which can be transferred to TAM via exosomes and inhibits TAM infiltration and M2 polarization. We suggest a novel mechanism by which EGCG exerts anti-tumor activity via regulation of TAM in tumor microenvironment.
EGCG; Exosomes; miR-16; Tumor microenvironment; Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM)
Laryngomicrosurgery (LMS) is used to manage most vocal fold lesions. However, the functional voice outcome of the LMS might be diverse due to the influence of various factors. We intend to evaluate the incidence and etiologic factors of persistent dysphonia after LMS for benign vocal fold disease (BVFD).
We performed a retrospective review of 755 patients who underwent LMS for BVFD. We analyzed the clinical characteristics, preoperative and postoperative two onths voice studies. Postsurgical dysphonia was defined as grade 1 or above in GRBAS (grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenia, and strain) scale. Thirty nine patients (5.2%; 25 males and 14 females; average, 42.9 years; range, 21 to 70 years) were diagnosed with postsurgical dysphonia.
There was no correlation between the diagnosis, coexistence with laryngopharyngeal reflux disease, habit of smoking, or occupational voice abuse and voice outcome. The patients with a worse preoperative acoustic parameter had aworse voice outcome. Stroboscopic findings showed excessive scarring or bowing in 21 cases, presence of lesion remnant in eight cases, prolonged laryngeal edema in five and no abnormal findings in three.
Great care should be taken in patients with worse preoperative jitter. With a few exceptions, postoperative dysphonia can be avoided by the use of an ppropriate surgical technique.
Persistent dysphonia; Laryngomicrosurgery; Benign vocal fold disease
Diabetes is characterized by chronic hyperglycemia, which can increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The formation of ROS induces oxidative stress and activates oxidative damage-inducing genes in cells. No research has been published on oxidative damage-related extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) protein levels in human diabetic skin. We investigated the expression of EC-SOD in diabetic skin compared with normal skin tissue in vivo.
The expression of EC-SOD protein was evaluated by western blotting in 6 diabetic skin tissue samples and 6 normal skin samples. Immunohistochemical staining was also carried out to confirm the EC-SOD expression level in the 6 diabetic skin tissue samples.
The western blotting showed significantly lower EC-SOD protein expression in the diabetic skin tissue than in the normal tissue. Immunohistochemical examination of EC-SOD protein expression supported the western blotting analysis.
Diabetic skin tissues express a relatively small amount of EC-SOD protein and may not be protected against oxidative stress. We believe that EC-SOD is related to the altered metabolic state in diabetic skin, which elevates ROS production.
Skin; Diabetes mellitus; Superoxide dismutase
Novel reassortant swine H1N2 influenza viruses were isolated from pigs in a commercial slaughterhouse in the Republic of Korea. Genome sequence analyses revealed that these isolates contain segments from Eurasian avian-like swine (hemagglutinin [HA]), Korean swine H1N2 (neuraminidase [NA]), and North American H3N2pM-like (remaining genes) viruses. Further characterization is needed to gauge the potential threats of these viruses to public health.
Xanthium stramarium (XAS) and Psoralea corylifolia (PSC), phototoxic oriental medicinal plants, has been used in traditional medicines in Asian countries.
The effects of highly purified XAS or PSC extract combined with ultraviolet A1 (UVA1) irradiation on cell proliferation and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1) expression of the keloid fibroblast were being investigated to define potential therapeutic uses for keloid treatments.
The keloid fibroblasts were treated with XAS or PSC alone or in the combination with UVA1 irradiation. The cell viability, apoptosis, and expression of TGF-β1 and collagen I were investigated.
XAS and PSC in combination with UVA1 irradiation suppressed cell proliferation and induced apoptosis of keloid fibroblasts. Furthermore, the XAS and PSC in combination with UVA1 irradiation inhibited TGF-β1 expression and collagen synthesis in keloid fibroblasts.
These findings may open up the possibility of clinically used XAS or PSC in combination with UVA1 irradiation for keloid treatments.
Apoptosis; Keloid; Psoralea corylifolia; Transforming growth factor-beta 1; Xanthium stramarium
Radiation-induced oral mucositis limits the delivery of high-dose radiation to head and neck cancer. This study investigated the effectiveness of epicatechin (EC), a component of green tea extracts, on radiation-induced oral mucositis in vitro and in vivo.
The effect of EC on radiation-induced cytotoxicity was analyzed in the human keratinocyte line HaCaT. Radiation-induced apoptosis, change in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and changes in the signaling pathway were investigated. In vivo therapeutic effects of EC for oral mucositis were explored in a rat model. Rats were monitored by daily inspections of the oral cavity, amount of oral intake, weight change and survival rate. For histopathologic evaluation, hematoxylin-eosin staining and TUNEL staining were performed.
EC significantly inhibited radiation-induced apoptosis, change of MMP, and intracellular ROS generation in HaCaT cells. EC treatment markedly attenuated the expression of p-JNK, p-38, and cleaved caspase-3 after irradiation in the HaCaT cells. Rats with radiation-induced oral mucositis showed decreased oral intake, weight and survival rate, but oral administration of EC significantly restored all three parameters. Histopathologic changes were significantly decreased in the EC-treated irradiated rats. TUNEL staining of rat oral mucosa revealed that EC treatment significantly decreased radiation-induced apoptotic cells.
This study suggests that EC significantly inhibited radiation-induced apoptosis in keratinocytes and rat oral mucosa and may be a safe and effective candidate treatment for the prevention of radiation-induced mucositis.
The prognostic value of the peripheral blood absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), absolute monocyte count (AMC), and ALC/AMC ratio at diagnosis in patients with classic Hodgkin's lymphoma was evaluated, and relationships with tumor-associated macrophages were examined.
Although most patients with classical Hodgkin's lymphoma (cHL) have a long survival duration, the current risk stratification is imperfect. A recent study suggested a prognostic role for the peripheral blood absolute lymphocyte count/absolute monocyte count (ALC/AMC) ratio at diagnosis in cHL. It is intriguing to investigate the significance of the ALC/AMC ratio in relation to tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), yet another prognostic factor for cHL.
We examined the prognostic impact of the ALC, AMC, and ALC/AMC ratio in 312 cHL patients (median age, 37 years) using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis for optimal cutoff values, and compared these with TAM content.
The median follow-up was 65 months (range, 0.1–245 months). On univariate analysis, a low ALC/AMC ratio (<2.9) was correlated with a poorer overall survival (OS) outcome. A subgroup analysis of patients with limited-stage disease showed that the ALC/AMC ratio was significantly correlated with the OS time. Multivariate analysis showed the ALC/AMC ratio to be an independent prognostic factor for OS outcome. A Spearman correlation test of TAM content showed a negative correlation with the ALC/AMC ratio and a positive correlation with the peripheral blood macrophage percentage.
This study suggests that the ALC/AMC ratio may be a simple, inexpensive, and independent prognostic factor for OS outcome in patients with cHL and may have a role in the stratification of cHL patients in addition to the International Prognostic Score and TAM content.
Hodgkin's lymphoma; Monocytes; Lymphocytes; Lymphocyte/monocyte ratio; Prognosis
A bacterium, designated M2-6, was isolated from Korean ginseng, Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, roots after high-hydrostatic-pressure processing. On the basis of 16 rRNA gene phylogeny, the isolate was presumptively identified as a Bacillus sp. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Bacillus sp. strain M2-6 (= KACC 16563).
Current examination methods to assess the anatomical variations of flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) tendon in the little finger necessitate a strong external force applied by the examiner and cause false negatives. A new examination method was designed to detect the variations more accurately.
We examined the little fingers of 220 adult hands (110 subjects) by 2 methods: the expanded examination method advocated by Tan et al., and a new examination method. Variations of the FDS in the little finger were examined by both methods and categorized separately as having independent FDS function, FDS connection to the tendons of the ring finger or of the multiple adjacent fingers, and functional substitution of the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) with or without tendinous connection to the ring or multiple adjacent fingers. By our new method, we could further divide the FDS connection or FDP substitution with connection to the ring finger into 2 subtypes: loose and close connections. Data were reported as case numbers and percent. Date on symmetry were statistically analyzed by matched case-control studies.
Among 220 hands, 113 hands (51.4%) had independent FDS function by the new examination method, which was lower than the incidence (55.5%) detected with the existing expanded examination method. In the hands with connections between FDS tendons of the little and the ring fingers, 32 hands (14.5%) demonstrated loose and 37 (16.8%) close connections. Three hands (1.4%) had loose and 19 (8.6%) had close FDP substitution with tendinous connection to the ring finger. Among 110 hands without independent FDS function, variants of 42 hands (38.2%) were asymmetric. There was no statistical significance in symmetry of variations.
This new examination method offers other assessment variations of FDS tendon in the little finger. We recommend using this test to assess the variations and function of the FDS of the little finger.
Anatomical variations; Flexor tendons; Examination test
This study aimed to survey the clinical spectrum of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in terms of epidemiology, pathologic subtypes, stage, and prognostic index as well as treatment outcomes.
In 2007-2008, 13 university hospitals evenly distributed in the Korean peninsula contributed to the online registry of DLBCL at www.lymphoma.or.kr and filed a total of 1,665 cases of DLBCL recorded since 1990.
Our analysis showed a higher prevalence of DLBCL in male than in female individuals (M:F=958:707), and extranodal disease was more common than primary nodular disease (53% vs. 47%). Among the 1,544 patients who had been treated with CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) or rituximab-CHOP (R-CHOP) therapy with or without radiation, 993 (63.9%) were alive, with 80% free of disease, 417 were dead (26.8%), with 13% free of disease, and 144 (9.3%) were lost to follow-up, with 23% free of disease. Age below 60 years, stage at diagnosis, international prognostic index (IPI) score regardless of age, and addition of rituximab to CHOP therapy in low- and low-intermediate-risk groups according to IPI scores significantly increased survival duration.
The epidemiology, clinical spectrum, and biological behavior of DLBCL in Korea are similar to those observed in Western countries, and the advent of rituximab improved survival.
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; Epidemiology; Survival; Rituximab; CHOP regimen
Naked cuticle Drosophila 1 (NKD1) has been related to non-small cell lung cancer in that decreased NKD1 levels have been associated with both poor prognosis and increased invasive quality.
Forty cases of lung adenocarcinoma staged as Tis or T1a were selected. Cases were subclassified into adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA), and small adenocarcinoma (SAD). Immunohistochemical studies for NKD1 were performed.
Forty samples comprised five cases of AIS (12.5%), eight of MIA (20.0%), and 27 of SAD (67.5%). AIS and MIA showed no lymph node metastasis and 100% disease-free survival, whereas among 27 patients with SAD, 2 (7.4%) had lymph node metastasis, and 3 (11.1%) died from the disease. Among the 40 cases, NKD1-reduced expression was detected in 8 (20%) samples, whereas normal expression was found in 15 (37.5%) and overexpression in 17 (42.5%). Loss of NKD1 expression was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis (p=0.001). All cases with predominant papillary pattern showed overexpression of NKD1 (p=0.026).
Among MIA and SAD, MIA had better outcomes than SAD. Down-regulated NKD1 expression was closely associated with nodal metastasis, and overexpression was associated with papillary predominant adenocarcinoma.
NKD1; Immunohistochemistry; Lung; Adenocarcinoma
Myxoid liposarcoma is a subtype of liposarcoma. This specific subtype can be identified based on its characteristic histological and cytogenetical features. The tumor has a fusion transcript of the CHOP and TLS genes, which is caused by t(12;16)(q13;p11). Most of the fusion transcripts that have been identified fall into three categories, specifically type I (exons 7-2), type II (exons 5-2), and type III (exons 8-2). A total of seven myxoid liposarcomas associated with the rare phenomenon of cartilaginous differentiation have been documented in the literature. Currently, only one of these cases has been cytogenetically analyzed, and the analysis indicated that it was a type II TLS-CHOP fusion transcript in both the typical myxoid liposarcoma and cartilaginous areas. This study presents a second report of myxoid liposarcoma with cartilaginous differentiation, and includes a cytogenetical analysis of both the myxoid and cartilaginous areas.
Liposarcoma, myxoid; Cartilaginous differentiation; Cartilage; Heterologous component; TLS/CHOP fusion transcript
The aim of this study is to exam the effects of exercise modes on the systolic blood pressure and rate-pressure product during a gradually increasing exercise load from low to high intensity.
Fifteen apparently healthy men aged 19 to 23 performed the graded exercise tests on cycle ergometer (CE) and treadmill (TM). During the low-to-maximal exercises, oxygen uptake (VO2), heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and rate-pressure product were measured.
CE had a significantly lower maximum VO2 than TM (CE vs. TM: 48.51±1.30 vs. 55.4±1.19 mL/kg/min; p<0.001). However, CE showed a higher maximum SBP (SBPmax) at the all-out exercise load than TM (CE vs. TM: 170±2.4 vs. 154±1.7 mmHg; p<0.001). During the low-to-maximal intensity increment, the slope of the HR with VO2 was the same as VO2 increased in times of the graded exercise test of CE and TM (CE vs. TM: 2.542±0.100 vs. 2.506±0.087; p=0.26). The slope of increase on SBP accompanied by VO2 increase was significantly higher in CE than in TM (CE vs. TM: 1.669±0.117 vs. 1.179±0.063; p<0.001).
The SBP response is stronger in CE than in TM during the graded exercise test. Therefore, there is a possibility that CE could induce a greater burden on workloads to cardiovascular system in humans than TM.
Cardiovascular system; Cardiopulmonary exercise test; Ergometry; Systolic pressure; Hemodynamics
Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian CNS and acts on both ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). The mGluRs are widely distributed in the CNS and modulate a variety of neuronal processes including neurotransmitter release and ion channel function. In hippocampus and cortex, mGluR5 is highly expressed and plays an important role in the regulation of synaptic plasticity. CaM binding dynamically regulates mGluR5 surface expression; however, the mechanisms linking CaM to mGluR5 trafficking are not clear. Recent studies showed that CaM binding to mGluR7 regulates its trafficking in a phosphorylation-dependent manner by disrupting the binding of PICK1. The E3 ligase seven in absentia homolog (Siah)-1A binds to mGluR5 and competes with CaM binding making it an intriguing molecule to regulate phosphorylation-dependent trafficking of mGluR5. In the present study, we find that CaM competes with Siah-1A for mGluR5 binding in a phosphorylation-dependent manner in rat hippocampal neurons. Specifically, phosphorylation of mGluR5 S901 favors Siah-1A binding by displacing CaM. We identified critical residues regulating Siah-1A binding to mGluR5 and showed that binding is essential for the Siah-1A effects on mGluR5 trafficking. Siah-1A binding decreases mGluR5 surface expression and increases endosomal trafficking and lysosomal degradation of mGluR5. Thus CaM-regulated Siah-1A binding to mGluR5 dynamically regulates mGluR5 trafficking. These findings support a conserved role for CaM in regulating mGluR trafficking by PKC-dependent regulation of receptor binding proteins.
Considerable amount of interest has been focused on the positive relationship between inflammation and the metabolic syndrome (MS). However, few studies have been performed to evaluate the relationship between baseline white blood cell (WBC) count and future risk for developing MS. Therefore, we investigated whether the baseline plasma levels of WBC count could be associated with future risk for MS in apparently healthy Korean.
Materials and Methods
A total of 1135 subjects (781 men and 354 women with a mean age of 49 years), who underwent health examinations at Kangbuk Samsung Hospital in both 2002 and 2005 were enrolled. The presence of MS was defined using the modified criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III using BMI instead of waist circumference.
The baseline levels of WBC count were significantly higher among incident MS cases than among subjects without MS. The relative risks of incident MS were 1.4, 3.2 and 2.7 for WBC quartiles 2, 3, and 4, respectively, when compared with the first quartile (p-value for trend <0.001). These positive associations persisted after adjustment for baseline body mass index, blood pressure, fasting glucose, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglyceride and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance; adjusted relative risk of incident MS for the 2nd, 3rd and 4th quartile groups vs. the lowest quartile were 1.2, 2.4 and 1.7, respectively (p-value for trend =0.011).
This retrospective cohort study suggests that an elevated WBC count could be associated with incident MS, suggesting that baseline inflammation mirrored by WBC level can impact future MS development.
White blood cell count; metabolic syndrome; inflammation
To evaluate 99mTc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine diuretic renograms for diagnosing stomal obstruction in tubeless cutaneous ureterostomy.
Materials and Methods
Cutaneous ureterostomy was performed in 29 patients (56 renal units) with a minimum follow-up period of 12 months. Stomal obstruction was evaluated with 99mTc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine diuretic renography 3 months after surgery. Regions of interest were drawn that completely encircled and snugly fit the kidney, renal pelvis, and ureter. The data analyses were performed with half-times to tracer clearance following furosemide (0.5 mg/kg) administration.
The mean half-times to tracer clearance were 6.90±6.30, 5.25±4.29, and 8.75±7.63 minutes in the total, ipsilateral, and contralateral kidneys, respectively, in side relationships between the ureter and the stoma. There were significant differences between the ipsilateral and contralateral kidneys in the mean half-time to tracer clearance (p=0.038). Forty-eight renal units (85.7%) had a half-time to tracer clearance of less than 15 minutes, and all 48 renal units had no hydronephrosis. On the other hand, 5 renal units (8.9%) had a half-time to tracer clearance of more than 20 minutes, and these 5 renal units required the insertion of stent catheters or became atrophic.
99mTc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine diuretic renography was very useful for diagnosing stomal obstruction of tubeless cutaneous ureterostomy. The upper limit of the half-time to tracer clearance for unobstructed systems was 15 minutes, which allowed for the confident exclusion of stomal obstruction in tubeless cutaneous ureterostomy.
Complications; Radioisotope renography; Ureteral obstruction; Ureterostomy; Urinary bladder neoplasms