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1.  Development and Characterization of a Preclinical Model of Breast Cancer Lung Micrometastatic to Macrometastatic Progression 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(5):e98624.
Most cancer patients die with metastatic disease, thus, good models that recapitulate the natural process of metastasis including a dormancy period with micrometastatic cells would be beneficial in developing treatment strategies. Herein we report a model of natural metastasis that balances time to complete experiments with a reasonable dormancy period, which can be used to better study metastatic progression. The basis for the model is a 4T1 triple negative syngeneic breast cancer model without resection of the primary tumor. A cell titration from 500 to 15,000 GFP tagged 4T1 cells implanted into fat pad number four of immune proficient eight week female BALB/cJ mice optimized speed of the model while possessing metastatic processes including dormancy and beginning of reactivation. The frequency of primary tumors was less than 50% in animals implanted with 500–1500 cells. Although implantation with over 10,000 cells resulted in 100% primary tumor development, the tumors and macrometastases formed were highly aggressive, lacked dormancy, and offered no opportunity for treatment. Implantation of 7,500 cells resulted in >90% tumor take by 10 days; in 30–60 micrometastases in the lung (with many animals also having 2–30 brain micrometastases) two weeks post-implantation, with the first small macrometastases present at five weeks; many animals displaying macrometastases at five weeks and animals becoming moribund by six weeks post-implantation. Using the optimum of 7,500 cells the efficacy of a chemotherapeutic agent for breast cancer, doxorubicin, given at its maximal tolerated dose (MTD; 1 mg/kg weekly) was tested for an effect on metastasis. Doxorubicin treatment significantly reduced primary tumor growth and lung micrometastases but the number of macrometastases at experiment end was not significantly affected. This model should prove useful for development of drugs to target metastasis and to study the biology of metastasis.
PMCID: PMC4039511  PMID: 24878664
2.  Intravesical Chondroitin Sulfate Inhibits Recruitment of Inflammatory Cells in an Acute Acid-Damage “Leaky Bladder” Model of Cystitis 
Urology  2011;79(2):483.e13-483.e17.
Replacement of the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) layer with intravesically-administered GAGs is an effective therapy for interstitial cystitis in at least some patients. Intravesically-administered chondroitin sulfate was previously shown to bind to and restore the impermeability of surface-damaged (“leaky”) urothelium to small ions. This study investigated whether a physiologic effect of “GAG replenishment therapy” altered recruitment of inflammatory cells in an acute bladder damage model.
Rat bladders were damaged with 10mM HCl. Negative control bladders were treated with PBS. On the following day, the animal bladders were treated with 20mg/mL chondroitin sulfate in PBS, while the negative and positive controls were treated with PBS alone. Two and four days after treatment with chondroitin sulfate, animals were euthanized, and sections of their bladders were analyzed by Toluidine Blue staining for mast cells immunohistochemical labeling using antibodies against CD-45 for lymphocytes, and myeloperoxidase for neutrophils.
Chondroitin sulfate treatment statistically significantly reduced recruitment of inflammatory cells including neutrophils and mast cells to the suburothelial space but did not alter recruitment of CD-45-positive lymphocytes.
For the first time we demonstrate that intravesical GAG replenishment therapy also produces a physiological effect of decreasing recruitment of inflammatory cells in an acute model of damaged bladder. These findings support use of intravesically administered GAG for bladder disorders that result from a loss of impermeability, including interstitial, radiation and chemical cystitis, and possibly others as well.
PMCID: PMC3274614  PMID: 22137543
Interstitial Cystitis; Inflammation; Glycosaminoglycans; Chondroitin Sulfate
3.  Restoration of the Barrier Function to Acid-Damaged Bladder by Intravesical Chondroitin Sulfate 
The Journal of urology  2009;182(5):2477-2482.
Chondroitin sulfate, which is less expensive and more inert than heparinoids, hyaluronan or pentosan polysulfate, has been introduced to restore the barrier function lost due to epithelial dysfunction in interstitial cystitis (IC). The binding of chondroitin sulfate to damaged bladder as a function of the range of pH seen in urine, its efficacy in restoring the bladder's permeability barrier, and the capacity of damaged bladder to bind chondroitin sulfate have not been determined previously.
Binding of chondroitin sulfate to bladder urothelium was investigated quantitatively using chondroitin sulfate highly labeled with Texas Red and quantitative fluorescence microscopy in a mouse model of acid damage of the urothelium. The efficacy of restoring the barrier function was determined using passage of intravesically instilled 86Rb, a potassium ion mimetic, through the urothelium into the bloodstream in a rat model of bladder damage. The binding capacity of acid-damaged bladder was determined by fluorometry.
Chondroitin sulfate bound tightly and exclusively to the mouse bladder surface that had been damaged by acid but showed only minimal binding to undamaged bladder. There was no systematic variation with pH. The model showed some variability in the degree of damage induced. In rats, chondroitin sulfate instillation restored permeability to 86Rb to control levels. Binding was saturable at 0.67 ± 0.13 mg/cm2 of bladder surface.
Chondroitin sulfate binds preferentially to damaged urothelium and restores the impermeability barrier. This suggests that the GAG layer is a major contributor to the impermeability of bladder urothelium. As determined by the binding capacity, the dose applied to humans in Canada (400 mg per instillation) is sufficient to obtain maximum efficacy.
PMCID: PMC3157297  PMID: 19765766
interstitial cystitis; GAG layer; urinary bladder; chondroitin sulfate
4.  Tryptase Activation of Immortalized Human Urothelial Cell Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(7):e69948.
The pathogenesis of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) is multifactorial, but likely involves urothelial cell dysfunction and mast cell accumulation in the bladder wall. Activated mast cells in the bladder wall release several inflammatory mediators, including histamine and tryptase. We determined whether mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases are activated in response to tryptase stimulation of urothelial cells derived from human normal and IC/PBS bladders. Tryptase stimulation of normal urothelial cells resulted in a 2.5-fold increase in extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2). A 5.5-fold increase in ERK 1/2 activity was observed in urothelial cells isolated from IC/PBS bladders. No significant change in p38 MAP kinase was observed in tryptase-stimulated normal urothelial cells but a 2.5-fold increase was observed in cells isolated from IC/PBS bladders. Inhibition of ERK 1/2 with PD98059 or inhibition of p38 MAP kinase with SB203580 did not block tryptase-stimulated iPLA2 activation. Incubation with the membrane phospholipid-derived PLA2 hydrolysis product lysoplasmenylcholine increased ERK 1/2 activity, suggesting the iPLA2 activation is upstream of ERK 1/2. Real time measurements of impedance to evaluate wound healing of cell cultures indicated increased healing rates in normal and IC/PBS urothelial cells in the presence of tryptase, with inhibition of ERK 1/2 significantly decreasing the wound healing rate of IC/PBS urothelium. We conclude that activation of ERK 1/2 in response to tryptase stimulation may facilitate wound healing or cell motility in areas of inflammation in the bladder associated with IC/PBS.
PMCID: PMC3726738  PMID: 23922867
5.  Suppression and Activation of the Malignant Phenotype by Extracellular Matrix in Xenograft Models of Bladder Cancer: A Model for Tumor Cell “Dormancy” 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(5):e64181.
A major problem in cancer research is the lack of a tractable model for delayed metastasis. Herein we show that cancer cells suppressed by SISgel, a gel-forming normal ECM material derived from Small Intestine Submucosa (SIS), in flank xenografts show properties of suppression and re-activation that are very similar to normal delayed metastasis and suggest these suppressed cells can serve as a novel model for developing therapeutics to target micrometastases or suppressed cancer cells. Co-injection with SISgel suppressed the malignant phenotype of highly invasive J82 bladder cancer cells and highly metastatic JB-V bladder cancer cells in nude mouse flank xenografts. Cells could remain viable up to 120 days without forming tumors and appeared much more highly differentiated and less atypical than tumors from cells co-injected with Matrigel. In 40% of SISgel xenografts, growth resumed in the malignant phenotype after a period of suppression or dormancy for at least 30 days and was more likely with implantation of 3 million or more cells. Ordinary Type I collagen did not suppress malignant growth, and tumors developed about as well with collagen as with Matrigel. A clear signal in gene expression over different cell lines was not seen by transcriptome microarray analysis, but in contrast, Reverse Phase Protein Analysis of 250 proteins across 4 cell lines identified Integrin Linked Kinase (ILK) signaling that was functionally confirmed by an ILK inhibitor. We suggest that cancer cells suppressed on SISgel could serve as a model for dormancy and re-awakening to allow for the identification of therapeutic targets for treating micrometastases.
PMCID: PMC3663841  PMID: 23717563
6.  Abnormal Expression of Differentiation-Related Proteins and Proteoglycan Core Proteins in the Urothelium of Interstitial Cystitis Patients 
The Journal of urology  2007;179(2):764-769.
The expression of proteoglycan core proteins biglycan, decorin, perlecan and syndecan-1 and differentiation-related markers of keratins 18 and 20 were examined to determine the origins of the loss of the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) layer and to investigate more fully the altered differentiation of the urothelium in IC.
Formalin-fixed biopsies from 27 IC patients and 5 controls were immunohistochemically labeled for the above proteins and scored using a modification of previous scoring for other markers. Inflammation was scored from H&E-stained slides. Combining previous with the new data, cluster analysis displayed the relationships among the markers and samples.
The IC specimens clustered into 4 groups ranging from most biomarkers abnormal to most biomarkers normal, but all clustered separately from the normal controls. One group of IC specimens mainly showed aberrant expression of E-cadherin, which might represent an early abnormality. The biomarkers fell into 2 major groupings. One consisted of chondroitin sulfate, perlecan, biglycan, decorin and the tight junction protein ZO-1. A second luster consisted of uroplakin, the epithelial marker keratin 18 and 20, and the morphology of the layer. E-cadherin and syndecan-1 showed little relation to the other two clusters or to each other. Inflammation correlated moderately with syndecan-1, but no other marker.
The findings strongly suggest abnormal differentiation in the IC urothelium with loss of barrier function markers and altered differentiation markers being independent and occurred independently of inflammation. The loss of the GAG layer was associated with loss of biglycan and perlecan on the luminal layer.
PMCID: PMC2652890  PMID: 18082196
interstitial cystitis; biochemical markers; urinary bladder; cell differentiation
7.  Matrix-dependent Plasticity of the Malignant Phenotype of Bladder Cancer Cells 
Anticancer research  2003;23(4):3119-3128.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of cancer- and normal basement membrane-derived extracellular matrix to modulate the phenotype of bladder cancer cell lines. Five lines, varying in malignancy from papilloma to highly undifferentiated and invasive and immortalized human urothelial cells, were grown on two extracellular matrix preparations, Matrigel and SISgel. Matrigel represents matrix remodeled by malignancy while SISgel, obtained from small intestine submucosa (SIS), represents the normal matrix supporting differentiated cell growth. On Matrigel, regardless of the content of growth factors, the invasive lines displayed an invasive phenotype, while the low grade lines grew as papillary structures. In contrast, when the same cells were grown on SISgel, they grew as a layer of cells one to 5 cells thick, failed to invade, and expressed cell-surface E-cadherin. Unlike breast cancer cells, neutralization of β1, β4 and α6 integrins altered cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesiveness but did not alter the phenotype. When invasive cells were grown on mixtures of SISgel and Matrigel, the phenotype changed gradually, not abruptly, indicating that factors within the gel reversibly alter the phenotypic expression of invasion. In summary, the phenotype of bladder cancer cells growing in tissue-like 3-dimensional culture is highly plastic, and malignant properties such as invasion and papillary growth can be suppressed by the matrix.
PMCID: PMC2561328  PMID: 12926044
Phenotype; bladder cancer; invasion; E-cadherin; extracellular matrix
8.  A Template-Driven Gene Selection Procedure * 
Systems biology  2006;153(1):4-12.
The hierarchical clustering and statistical techniques usually used to analyze microarray data do not inherently represent the underlying biology. Herein we present a hybrid approach involving characteristics of both supervised and unsupervised learning. This approach is based on template matching in which the interaction of the variables of inherent malignancy and the ability to express the malignant phenotype are modelled. Immortalized normal urothelial cells and bladder cancer cells of different malignancy were grown in conventional two-dimensional tissue culture and in three dimensions on extracellular matrices that were either permissive or restrictive for expression of the malignant phenotype. The transcriptome represents the effects of two variables--inherent malignancy and the modulatory effect of extracellular matrix. By assigning values to each of the biological variables of inherent malignancy and the ability to express the malignant phenotype, a template was constructed that encapsulated the interaction between them. Gene expression correlating both positively and negatively with the template were observed, but when iterative correlations were carried out, the different models for the template converged to the same actual template. A subset of 21 genes was identified that correlated with two a priori models or an optimized model above the 95% confidence limits identified in a bootstrap resampling with 5,000 permutations of the data set. The correlation coefficients of expression of several genes were > 0.8. Analysis of upstream transcriptional regulatory elements (TREs) confirmed these genes were not a randomly selected set of genes. Several TREs were identified as significantly over-expressed in the sample of 20 genes for which TREs were identified, and the high correlations of several genes were consistent with transcriptional co-regulation. We suggest the template method can be used to identify a unique set of genes for further investigation.
PMCID: PMC1618795  PMID: 16983830
Bladder cancer; phenotype; transcriptomics; extracellular matrix; malignancy; SIS-small intestine submucosa; ECM-extracellular matrix; TCC-transitional cell carcinoma
9.  System Level Changes in Gene Expression in Maturing Bladder Mucosa 
The Journal of urology  2011;185(5):1952-1958.
Bladder problems clinically present early in life as birth defects that often lead to kidney failure and late in life as overactive bladder, incontinence and related disorders. We investigated the transcriptome of mouse bladder mucosa at juvenile and adult stages by microarray to identify the pathways associated with normal, healthy growth and maturation. We hypothesized that understanding these pathways could be key to achieving bladder regeneration or reawakening normal function in the elderly population.
Materials and Methods
RNA was isolated from the mucosa at 3, 6, 20 and 30 weeks postnatally. Affymetrix® Mouse 430 v2 arrays were used to profile the expression of approximately 45,000 genes. The software program Statistical Analysis of Microarrays was used to identify genes that significantly changed during the time course.
No genes were significantly up-regulated during maturation. However, 66 well annotated genes demonstrated a statistically significant downward trend, of which 10 of 10 were confirmed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The main functions affected by age were transcription, regulation of cellular processes, neurogenesis, blood vessel development and cell differentiation. Notable genes included collagens, Mmp2, SPARC and several transcription factors, including Crebbp, Runx1, Klf9, Mef2c, Nrp1, Pex1 and Tcf4. These molecules were indirectly regulated by inferred Tgfb1 and Egf growth factors. Analysis of gene promoter regions for overrepresented upstream transcription factor binding sites identified specificity protein 1 and epidermal growth factor receptor-specific transcription factor as potentially major transcriptional regulators driving maturation related changes.
These findings identify a coherent set of genes that appear to be down-regulated during urothelial maturation. These genes may represent an attractive target for bladder regeneration or for treating age related loss of function.
PMCID: PMC3407683  PMID: 21421225
urinary bladder; urothelium; gene expression; aging; mice
10.  VEGF signaling mediates bladder neuroplasticity and inflammation in response to BCG 
BMC Physiology  2011;11:16.
This work tests the hypothesis that increased levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) observed during bladder inflammation modulates nerve plasticity.
Chronic inflammation was induced by intravesical instillations of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) into the urinary bladder and the density of nerves expressing the transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily 1 (TRPV1) or pan-neuronal marker PGP9.5 was used to quantify alterations in peripheral nerve plasticity. Some mice were treated with B20, a VEGF neutralizing antibody to reduce the participation of VEGF. Additional mice were treated systemically with antibodies engineered to specifically block the binding of VEGF to NRP1 (anti-NRP1B) and NRP2 (NRP2B), or the binding of semaphorins to NRP1 (anti-NRP1 A) to diminish activity of axon guidance molecules such as neuropilins (NRPs) and semaphorins (SEMAs). To confirm that VEGF is capable of inducing inflammation and neuronal plasticity, another group of mice was instilled with recombinant VEGF165 or VEGF121 into the urinary bladder.
The major finding of this work was that chronic BCG instillation resulted in inflammation and an overwhelming increase in both PGP9.5 and TRPV1 immunoreactivity, primarily in the sub-urothelium of the urinary bladder. Treatment of mice with anti-VEGF neutralizing antibody (B20) abolished the effect of BCG on inflammation and nerve density.
NRP1A and NRP1B antibodies, known to reduce BCG-induced inflammation, failed to block BCG-induced increase in nerve fibers. However, the NRP2B antibody dramatically potentiated the effects of BCG in increasing PGP9.5-, TRPV1-, substance P (SP)-, and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-immunoreactivity (IR). Finally, instillation of VEGF121 or VEGF165 into the mouse bladder recapitulated the effects of BCG and resulted in a significant inflammation and increase in nerve density.
For the first time, evidence is being presented supporting that chronic BCG instillation into the mouse bladder promotes a significant increase in peripheral nerve density that was mimicked by VEGF instillation. Effects of BCG were abolished by pre-treatment with neutralizing VEGF antibody. The present results implicate the VEGF pathway as a key modulator of inflammation and nerve plasticity, introduces a new animal model for investigation of VEGF-induced nerve plasticity, and suggests putative mechanisms underlying this phenomenon.
PMCID: PMC3226567  PMID: 22059553
11.  Elevated AKR1C3 expression promotes prostate cancer cell survival and prostate cell-mediated endothelial cell tube formation: implications for prostate cancer progressioan 
BMC Cancer  2010;10:672.
Aldo-keto reductase (AKR) 1C family member 3 (AKR1C3), one of four identified human AKR1C enzymes, catalyzes steroid, prostaglandin, and xenobiotic metabolism. In the prostate, AKR1C3 is up-regulated in localized and advanced prostate adenocarcinoma, and is associated with prostate cancer (PCa) aggressiveness. Here we propose a novel pathological function of AKR1C3 in tumor angiogenesis and its potential role in promoting PCa progression.
To recapitulate elevated AKR1C3 expression in cancerous prostate, the human PCa PC-3 cell line was stably transfected with an AKR1C3 expression construct to establish PC3-AKR1C3 transfectants. Microarray and bioinformatics analysis were performed to identify AKR1C3-mediated pathways of activation and their potential biological consequences in PC-3 cells. Western blot analysis, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and an in vitro Matrigel angiogenesis assays were applied to validate the pro-angiogenic activity of PC3-AKR1C3 transfectants identified by bioinformatics analysis.
Microarray and bioinformatics analysis suggested that overexpression of AKR1C3 in PC-3 cells modulates estrogen and androgen metabolism, activates insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and Akt signaling pathways, as well as promotes tumor angiogenesis and aggressiveness. Levels of IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) and Akt activation as well as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and secretion were significantly elevated in PC3-AKR1C3 transfectants in comparison to PC3-mock transfectants. PC3-AKR1C3 transfectants also promoted endothelial cell (EC) tube formation on Matrigel as compared to the AKR1C3-negative parental PC-3 cells and PC3-mock transfectants. Pre-treatment of PC3-AKR1C3 transfectants with a selective IGF-1R kinase inhibitor (AG1024) or a non-selective phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K) inhibitor (LY294002) abolished ability of the cells to promote EC tube formation.
Bioinformatics analysis followed by functional genomics demonstrated that AKR1C3 overexpression promotes angiogenesis and aggressiveness of PC-3 cells. These results also suggest that AKR1C3-mediated tumor angiogenesis is regulated by estrogen and androgen metabolism with subsequent IGF-1R and Akt activation followed by VEGF expression in PCa cells.
PMCID: PMC3013086  PMID: 21134280
12.  A Comprehensive and Universal Method for Assessing the Performance of Differential Gene Expression Analyses 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(9):e12657.
The number of methods for pre-processing and analysis of gene expression data continues to increase, often making it difficult to select the most appropriate approach. We present a simple procedure for comparative estimation of a variety of methods for microarray data pre-processing and analysis. Our approach is based on the use of real microarray data in which controlled fold changes are introduced into 20% of the data to provide a metric for comparison with the unmodified data. The data modifications can be easily applied to raw data measured with any technological platform and retains all the complex structures and statistical characteristics of the real-world data. The power of the method is illustrated by its application to the quantitative comparison of different methods of normalization and analysis of microarray data. Our results demonstrate that the method of controlled modifications of real experimental data provides a simple tool for assessing the performance of data preprocessing and analysis methods.
PMCID: PMC2936572  PMID: 20844739
13.  Unique Patterns of Molecular Profiling between Human Prostate Cancer LNCaP and PC-3 Cells 
The Prostate  2009;69(10):1077-1090.
Human prostate cancer LNCaP and PC-3 cell lines have been extensively used to study prostate cancer progression and to develop therapeutic agents. Although LNCaP and PC-3 cells are generally assumed to represent early and late stages of prostate cancer, respectively, there is limited information regarding gene expression patterns between these two cell lines and its relationship to prostate cancer.
Comprehensive gene expression analysis was performed. Total RNA was isolated from cultured cells and hybridized to Illumina human BeadChips representing 24,526 transcripts. Bioinformatics analysis was applied to identify cell line specific genes as well as biological mechanisms, pathways, and functions related to the genes.
A total of 2,198 genes were differentially expressed between LNCaP and PC-3 cells. Using a robust statistical analysis and high significance criteria, 115 and 188 genes were identified to be unique to LNCaP and PC-3 cells, respectively. LNCaP cells maintained various metabolic pathways including a gene cluster that encodes UDP-glucuronosyltransferases. Several transcription factors including Talα/β, GATA-1, and c-Myc/Max may be responsible for regulating LNCaP cell specific genes. By contrast, PC-3 cells were characterized by their unique expression of cytoskeleton-related genes and other genes including VEGFC, IL8, and TGFβ2.
This study showed that LNCaP and PC-3 cells represent two distinct prostate cancer cell lineages. LNCaP cells retain many prostate cell specific properties, whereas PC-3 cells have acquired a more aggressive phenotype. Future studies for prostate cancer research need to consider similarities and differences between these two cells and their relationship to prostate cancer.
PMCID: PMC2755240  PMID: 19343732
prostate cancer; prostate cancer cells; microarray
14.  Gene expression profiling of human alveolar macrophages infected by B. anthracis spores demonstrates TNF-α and NF-κb are key components of the innate immune response to the pathogen 
Bacillus anthracis, the etiologic agent of anthrax, has recently been used as an agent of bioterrorism. The innate immune system initially appears to contain the pathogen at the site of entry. Because the human alveolar macrophage (HAM) plays a key role in lung innate immune responses, studying the HAM response to B. anthracis is important in understanding the pathogenesis of the pulmonary form of this disease.
In this paper, the transcriptional profile of B. anthracis spore-treated HAM was compared with that of mock-infected cells, and differentially expressed genes were identified by Affymetrix microarray analysis. A portion of the results were verified by Luminex protein analysis.
The majority of genes modulated by spores were upregulated, and a lesser number were downregulated. The differentially expressed genes were subjected to Ingenuity Pathway analysis, the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) analysis, the Promoter Analysis and Interaction Network Toolset (PAINT) and Oncomine analysis. Among the upregulated genes, we identified a group of chemokine ligand, apoptosis, and, interestingly, keratin filament genes. Central hubs regulating the activated genes were TNF-α, NF-κB and their ligands/receptors. In addition to TNF-α, a broad range of cytokines was induced, and this was confirmed at the level of translation by Luminex multiplex protein analysis. PAINT analysis revealed that many of the genes affected by spores contain the binding site for c-Rel, a member of the NF-κB family of transcription factors. Other transcription regulatory elements contained in many of the upregulated genes were c-Myb, CP2, Barbie Box, E2F and CRE-BP1. However, many of the genes are poorly annotated, indicating that they represent novel functions. Four of the genes most highly regulated by spores have only previously been associated with head and neck and lung carcinomas.
The results demonstrate not only that TNF-α and NF-κb are key components of the innate immune response to the pathogen, but also that a large part of the mechanisms by which the alveolar macrophage responds to B. anthracis are still unknown as many of the genes involved are poorly annotated.
PMCID: PMC2752459  PMID: 19744333
15.  Does the biomarker search paradigm need re-booting? 
BMC Urology  2009;9:1.
The clinical problem of bladder cancer is its high recurrence and progression, and that the most sensitive and specific means of monitoring is cystoscopy, which is invasive and has poor patient compliance. Biomarkers for recurrence and progression could make a great contribution, but in spite of decades of research, no biomarkers are commercially available with the requisite sensitivity and specificity. In the post-genomic age, the means to search the entire genome for biomarkers has become available, but the conventional approaches to biomarker discovery are entirely inadequate to yield results with the new technology. Finding clinically useful biomarker panels with sensitivity and specificity equal to that of cystoscopy is a problem of systems biology.
PMCID: PMC2654904  PMID: 19250539
16.  5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol selectively activates the canonical PI3K/AKT pathway: a bioinformatics-based evidence for androgen-activated cytoplasmic signaling 
Genomic Medicine  2008;1(3-4):139-146.
5α-Androstane-3α,17β-diol (3α-diol) is reduced from the potent androgen, 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT), by reductive 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (3α-HSDs) in the prostate. 3α-diol is recognized as a weak androgen with low affinity toward the androgen receptor (AR), but can be oxidized back to 5α-DHT. However, 3α-diol may have potent effects by activating cytoplasmic signaling pathways, stimulating AR-independent prostate cell growth, and, more importantly, providing a key signal for androgen-independent prostate cancer progression. A cancer-specific, cDNA-based membrane array was used to determine 3α-diol-activated pathways in regulating prostate cancer cell survival and/or proliferation. Several canonical pathways appeared to be affected by 3α-diol-regulated responses in LNCaP cells; among them are apoptosis signaling, PI3K/AKT signaling, and death receptor signaling pathways. Biological analysis confirmed that 3α-diol stimulates AKT activation; and the AKT pathway can be activated independent of the classical AR signaling. These observations sustained our previous observations that 3α-diol continues to support prostate cell survival and proliferation regardless the status of the AR. We provided the first systems biology approach to demonstrate that 3α-diol-activated cytoplasmic signaling pathways are important components of androgen-activated biological functions in human prostate cells. Based on the observations that levels of reductive 3α-HSD expression are significantly elevated in localized and advanced prostate cancer, 3α-diol may, therefore, play a critical role for the transition from androgen-dependent to androgen-independent prostate cancer in the presence of androgen deprivation.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11568-008-9018-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC2269037  PMID: 18923939
Androgen receptor; Cell proliferation; Gene expression; Microarray; PI3K/AKT pathway; Prostate cancer
17.  From microarray to biology: an integrated experimental, statistical and in silico analysis of how the extracellular matrix modulates the phenotype of cancer cells 
BMC Bioinformatics  2008;9(Suppl 9):S4.
A statistically robust and biologically-based approach for analysis of microarray data is described that integrates independent biological knowledge and data with a global F-test for finding genes of interest that minimizes the need for replicates when used for hypothesis generation. First, each microarray is normalized to its noise level around zero. The microarray dataset is then globally adjusted by robust linear regression. Second, genes of interest that capture significant responses to experimental conditions are selected by finding those that express significantly higher variance than those expressing only technical variability. Clustering expression data and identifying expression-independent properties of genes of interest including upstream transcriptional regulatory elements (TREs), ontologies and networks or pathways organizes the data into a biologically meaningful system. We demonstrate that when the number of genes of interest is inconveniently large, identifying a subset of "beacon genes" representing the largest changes will identify pathways or networks altered by biological manipulation. The entire dataset is then used to complete the picture outlined by the "beacon genes." This allow construction of a structured model of a system that can generate biologically testable hypotheses. We illustrate this approach by comparing cells cultured on plastic or an extracellular matrix which organizes a dataset of over 2,000 genes of interest from a genome wide scan of transcription. The resulting model was confirmed by comparing the predicted pattern of TREs with experimental determination of active transcription factors.
PMCID: PMC2537575  PMID: 18793468
18.  Molecular networks discriminating mouse bladder responses to intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), LPS, and TNF-α 
BMC Immunology  2008;9:4.
Despite being a mainstay for treating superficial bladder carcinoma and a promising agent for interstitial cystitis, the precise mechanism of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) remains poorly understood. It is particularly unclear whether BCG is capable of altering gene expression in the bladder target organ beyond its well-recognized pro-inflammatory effects and how this relates to its therapeutic efficacy. The objective of this study was to determine differentially expressed genes in the mouse bladder following chronic intravesical BCG therapy and to compare the results to non-specific pro inflammatory stimuli (LPS and TNF-α). For this purpose, C57BL/6 female mice received four weekly instillations of BCG, LPS, or TNF-α. Seven days after the last instillation, the urothelium along with the submucosa was removed from detrusor muscle and the RNA was extracted from both layers for cDNA array experiments. Microarray results were normalized by a robust regression analysis and only genes with an expression above a conditional threshold of 0.001 (3SD above background) were selected for analysis. Next, genes presenting a 3-fold ratio in regard to the control group were entered in Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) for a comparative analysis in order to determine genes specifically regulated by BCG, TNF-α, and LPS. In addition, the transcriptome was precipitated with an antibody against RNA polymerase II and real-time polymerase chain reaction assay (Q-PCR) was used to confirm some of the BCG-specific transcripts.
Molecular networks of treatment-specific genes generated several hypotheses regarding the mode of action of BCG. BCG-specific genes involved small GTPases and BCG-specific networks overlapped with the following canonical signaling pathways: axonal guidance, B cell receptor, aryl hydrocarbon receptor, IL-6, PPAR, Wnt/β-catenin, and cAMP. In addition, a specific detrusor network expressed a high degree of overlap with the development of the lymphatic system. Interestingly, TNF-α-specific networks overlapped with the following canonical signaling pathways: PPAR, death receptor, and apoptosis. Finally, LPS-specific networks overlapped with the LPS/IL-1 mediated inhibition of RXR. Because NF-kappaB occupied a central position in several networks, we further determined whether this transcription factor was part of the responses to BCG. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays confirmed the participation of NF-kappaB in the mouse bladder responses to BCG. In addition, BCG treatment of a human urothelial cancer cell line (J82) also increased the binding activity of NF-kappaB, as determined by precipitation of the chromatin by a NF-kappaB-p65 antibody and Q-PCR of genes bearing a NF-kappaB consensus sequence. Next, we tested the hypothesis of whether small GTPases such as LRG-47 are involved in the uptake of BCG by the bladder urothelium.
As expected, BCG treatment induces the transcription of genes belonging to common pro-inflammatory networks. However, BCG also induces unique genes belonging to molecular networks involved in axonal guidance and lymphatic system development within the bladder target organ. In addition, NF-kappaB seems to play a predominant role in the bladder responses to BCG therapy. Finally, in intact urothelium, BCG-GFP internalizes in LRG-47-positive vesicles.
These results provide a molecular framework for the further study of the involvement of immune and nervous systems in the bladder responses to BCG therapy.
PMCID: PMC2262873  PMID: 18267009
19.  Systems biology approach for mapping the response of human urothelial cells to infection by Enterococcus faecalis 
BMC Bioinformatics  2007;8(Suppl 7):S2.
To better understand the response of urinary epithelial (urothelial) cells to Enterococcus faecalis, a uropathogen that exhibits resistance to multiple antibiotics, a genome-wide scan of gene expression was obtained as a time series from urothelial cells growing as a layered 3-dimensional culture similar to normal urothelium. We herein describe a novel means of analysis that is based on deconvolution of gene variability into technical and biological components.
Analysis of the expression of 21,521 genes from 30 minutes to 10 hours post infection, showed 9553 genes were expressed 3 standard deviations (SD) above the system zero-point noise in at least 1 time point. The asymmetric distribution of relative variances of the expressed genes was deconvoluted into technical variation (with a 6.5% relative SD) and biological variation components (>3 SD above the mode technical variability). These 1409 hypervariable (HV) genes encapsulated the effect of infection on gene expression. Pathway analysis of the HV genes revealed an orchestrated response to infection in which early events included initiation of immune response, cytoskeletal rearrangement and cell signaling followed at the end by apoptosis and shutting down cell metabolism. The number of poorly annotated genes in the earliest time points suggests heretofore unknown processes likely also are involved.
Enterococcus infection produced an orchestrated response by the host cells involving several pathways and transcription factors that potentially drive these pathways. The early time points potentially identify novel targets for enhancing the host response. These approaches combine rigorous statistical principles with a biological context and are readily applied by biologists.
PMCID: PMC2099488  PMID: 18047719
20.  Transcription factor network downstream of protease activated receptors (PARs) modulating mouse bladder inflammation 
BMC Immunology  2007;8:17.
All four PARs are present in the urinary bladder, and their expression is altered during inflammation. In order to search for therapeutic targets other than the receptors themselves, we set forth to determine TFs downstream of PAR activation in the C57BL/6 urinary bladders.
For this purpose, we used a protein/DNA combo array containing 345 different TF consensus sequences. Next, the TF selected was validated by EMSA and IHC. As mast cells seem to play a fundamental role in bladder inflammation, we determined whether c-kit receptor deficient (Kitw/Kitw-v) mice have an abrogated response to PAR stimulation. Finally, TFEB antibody was used for CHIP/Q-PCR assay and revealed up-regulation of genes known to be downstream of TFEB.
TFEB, a member of the MiTF family of basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper, was the only TF commonly up-regulated by all PAR-APs. IHC results confirm a correlation between inflammation and TFEB expression in C57BL/6 mice. In contrast, Kitw/Kitw-v mice did not exhibit inflammation in response to PAR activation. EMSA results confirmed the increased TFEB binding activity in C57BL/6 but not in Kitw/Kitw-v mice.
This is the first report describing the increased expression of TFEB in bladder inflammation in response to PAR activation. As TFEB belongs to a family of TFs essential for mast cell survival, our findings suggest that this molecule may influence the participation of mast cells in PAR-mediated inflammation and that targeting TFEB/MiTF activity may be a novel approach for the treatment of bladder inflammatory disorders.
PMCID: PMC2000913  PMID: 17705868
21.  Mandatory role of proteinase-activated receptor 1 in experimental bladder inflammation 
BMC Physiology  2007;7:4.
In general, inflammation plays a role in most bladder pathologies and represents a defense reaction to injury that often times is two edged. In particular, bladder neurogenic inflammation involves the participation of mast cells and sensory nerves. Increased mast cell numbers and tryptase release represent one of the prevalent etiologic theories for interstitial cystitis and other urinary bladder inflammatory conditions. The activity of mast cell-derived tryptase as well as thrombin is significantly increased during inflammation. Those enzymes activate specific G-protein coupled proteinase-activated receptors (PAR)s.
Four PARs have been cloned so far, and not only are all four receptors highly expressed in different cell types of the mouse urinary bladder, but their expression is altered during experimental bladder inflammation. We hypothesize that PARs may link mast cell-derived proteases to bladder inflammation and, therefore, play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of cystitis.
Here, we demonstrate that in addition to the mouse urinary bladder, all four PA receptors are also expressed in the J82 human urothelial cell line. Intravesical administration of PAR-activating peptides in mice leads to an inflammatory reaction characterized by edema and granulocyte infiltration. Moreover, the inflammatory response to intravesical instillation of known pro-inflammatory stimuli such as E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS), substance P, and antigen was strongly attenuated by PAR1-, and to a lesser extent, by PAR2-deficiency.
Our results reveal an overriding participation of PAR1 in bladder inflammation, provide a working model for the involvement of downstream signaling, and evoke testable hypotheses regarding the role of PARs in bladder inflammation. It remains to be determined whether or not mechanisms targeting PAR1 gene silencing or PAR1 blockade will ameliorate the clinical manifestations of cystitis.
PMCID: PMC1853108  PMID: 17397548
22.  Regulatory network of inflammation downstream of proteinase-activated receptors 
BMC Physiology  2007;7:3.
Protease-activated receptors (PAR) are present in the urinary bladder, and their expression is altered in response to inflammation. PARs are a unique class of G protein-coupled that carry their own ligands, which remain cryptic until unmasked by proteolytic cleavage. Although the canonical signal transduction pathway downstream of PAR activation and coupling with various G proteins is known and leads to the rapid transcription of genes involved in inflammation, the effect of PAR activation on the downstream transcriptome is unknown.
We have shown that intravesical administration of PAR-activating peptides leads to an inflammatory reaction characterized by edema and granulocyte infiltration. Moreover, the inflammatory response to intravesical instillation of known pro-inflammatory stimuli such as E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS), substance P (SP), and antigen was strongly attenuated by PAR1- and to a lesser extent by PAR2-deficiency.
Here, cDNA array experiments determined inflammatory genes whose expression is dependent on PAR1 activation. For this purpose, we compared the alteration in gene expression in wild type and PAR1-/- mice induced by classical pro-inflammatory stimuli (LPS, SP, and antigen). 75 transcripts were considered to be dependent on PAR-1 activation and further annotated in silico by Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) and gene ontology (GO). Selected transcripts were target validated by quantitative PCR (Q-PCR). Among PAR1-dependent transcripts, the following have been implicated in the inflammatory process: b2m, ccl7, cd200, cd63, cdbpd, cfl1, dusp1, fkbp1a, fth1, hspb1, marcksl1, mmp2, myo5a, nfkbia, pax1, plaur, ppia, ptpn1, ptprcap, s100a10, sim2, and tnfaip2. However, a balanced response to signals of injury requires a transient cellular activation of a panel of genes together with inhibitory systems that temper the overwhelming inflammation. In this context, the activation of genes such as dusp1 and nfkbia seems to counter-balance the inflammatory response to PAR activation by limiting prolonged activation of p38 MAPK and increased cytokine production. In contrast, transcripts such as arf6 and dcnt1 that are involved in the mechanism of PAR re-sensitization would tend to perpetuate the inflammatory reaction in response to common pro-inflammatory stimuli.
The combination of cDNA array results and genomic networks reveals an overriding participation of PAR1 in bladder inflammation, provides a working model for the involvement of downstream signaling, and evokes testable hypotheses regarding the transcriptome downstream of PAR1 activation.
It remains to be determined whether or not mechanisms targeting PAR1 gene silencing or PAR1 blockade will ameliorate the clinical manifestation of cystitis.
PMCID: PMC1853107  PMID: 17397547
23.  Proteome-level display by 2-dimensional chromatography of extracellular matrix-dependent modulation of the phenotype of bladder cancer cells 
Proteome Science  2006;4:13.
The extracellular matrix can have a profound effect upon the phenotype of cancer cells. Previous work has shown that growth of bladder cancer cells on a matrix derived from normal basement membrane suppresses many malignant features that are displayed when the cells are grown on a matrix that has been modified by malignant tumors. This work was undertaken to investigate proteome-level changes as determined by a new commercially available proteome display involving 2-dimensional chromatography for bladder cancer cells grown on different extracellular matrix preparations that modulate the expression of the malignant phenotype.
Depending on the matrix, between 1300 and 2000 distinct peaks were detected by two-dimensional chromatographic fractionation of 2.1 – 4.4 mg of total cellular protein. The fractions eluting from the reversed-phase fractionation were suitable for mass spectrometric identification following only lyophilization and trypsin digestion and achieved approximately 10-fold higher sensitivity than was obtained with gel-based separations. Abundant proteins that were unique to cells grown on one of the matrices were identified by mass spectrometry. Following concentration, peaks of 0.03 AU provided unambiguous identification of protein components when 10% of the sample was analyzed, whereas peaks of 0.05 AU was approximately the lower limit of detection when the entire sample was separated on a gel and in-gel digestion was used. Although some fractions were homogeneous, others were not, and up to 3 proteins per fraction were identified. Strong evidence for post-translational modification of the unique proteins was noted. All 13 of the unique proteins from cells grown on Matrigel were related to MYC pathway.
The system provides a viable alternative to 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis for proteomic display of biological systems. The findings suggest the importance of MYC to the malignant phenotype of bladder cancer cells.
PMCID: PMC1534010  PMID: 16749926
24.  The inflammatory and normal transcriptome of mouse bladder detrusor and mucosa 
BMC Physiology  2006;6:1.
An organ such as the bladder consists of complex, interacting set of tissues and cells. Inflammation has been implicated in every major disease of the bladder, including cancer, interstitial cystitis, and infection. However, scanty is the information about individual detrusor and urothelium transcriptomes in response to inflammation. Here, we used suppression subtractive hybridizations (SSH) to determine bladder tissue- and disease-specific genes and transcriptional regulatory elements (TRE)s. Unique TREs and genes were assembled into putative networks.
It was found that the control bladder mucosa presented regulatory elements driving genes such as myosin light chain phosphatase and calponin 1 that influence the smooth muscle phenotype. In the control detrusor network the Pax-3 TRE was significantly over-represented. During development, the Pax-3 transcription factor (TF) maintains progenitor cells in an undifferentiated state whereas, during inflammation, Pax-3 was suppressed and genes involved in neuronal development (synapsin I) were up-regulated. Therefore, during inflammation, an increased maturation of neural progenitor cells in the muscle may underlie detrusor instability. NF-κB was specifically over-represented in the inflamed mucosa regulatory network. When the inflamed detrusor was compared to control, two major pathways were found, one encoding synapsin I, a neuron-specific phosphoprotein, and the other an important apoptotic protein, siva. In response to LPS-induced inflammation, the liver X receptor was over-represented in both mucosa and detrusor regulatory networks confirming a role for this nuclear receptor in LPS-induced gene expression.
A new approach for understanding bladder muscle-urothelium interaction was developed by assembling SSH, real time PCR, and TRE analysis results into regulatory networks. Interestingly, some of the TREs and their downstream transcripts originally involved in organogenesis and oncogenesis were also activated during inflammation. The latter represents an additional link between inflammation and cancer. The regulatory networks represent key targets for development of novel drugs targeting bladder diseases.
PMCID: PMC1382248  PMID: 16420690
25.  Analysis of the interaction of extracellular matrix and phenotype of bladder cancer cells 
BMC Cancer  2006;6:12.
The extracellular matrix has a major effect upon the malignant properties of bladder cancer cells both in vitro in 3-dimensional culture and in vivo. Comparing gene expression of several bladder cancer cells lines grown under permissive and suppressive conditions in 3-dimensional growth on cancer-derived and normal-derived basement membrane gels respectively and on plastic in conventional tissue culture provides a model system for investigating the interaction of malignancy and extracellular matrix. Understanding how the extracellular matrix affects the phenotype of bladder cancer cells may provide important clues to identify new markers or targets for therapy.
Five bladder cancer cell lines and one immortalized, but non-tumorigenic, urothelial line were grown on Matrigel, a cancer-derived ECM, on SISgel, a normal-derived ECM, and on plastic, where the only ECM is derived from the cells themselves. The transcriptomes were analyzed on an array of 1186 well-annotated cancer derived cDNAs containing most of the major pathways for malignancy. Hypervariable genes expressing more variability across cell lines than a set expressing technical variability were analyzed further. Expression values were clustered, and to identify genes most likely to represent biological factors, statistically over-represented ontologies and transcriptional regulatory elements were identified.
Approximately 400 of the 1186 total genes were expressed 2 SD above background. Approximately 100 genes were hypervariable in cells grown on each ECM, but the pattern was different in each case. A core of 20 were identified as hypervariable under all 3 growth conditions, and 33 were hypervariable on both SISgel and Matrigel, but not on plastic. Clustering of the hypervariable genes showed very different patterns for the same 6 cell types on the different ECM. Even when loss of cell cycle regulation was identified, different genes were involved, depending on the ECM. Under the most permissive conditions of growth where the malignant phenotype was fully expressed, activation of AKT was noted. TGFβ1 signaling played a major role in the response of bladder cancer cells to ECM. Identification of TREs on genes that clustered together suggested some clustering was driven by specific transcription factors.
The extracellular matrix on which cancer cells are grown has a major effect on gene expression. A core of 20 malignancy-related genes were not affected by matrix, and 33 were differentially expressed on 3-dimensional culture as opposed to plastic. Other than these genes, the patterns of expression were very different in cells grown on SISgel than on Matrigel or even plastic, supporting the hypothesis that growth of bladder cancer cells on normal matrix suppresses some malignant functions. Unique underlying regulatory networks were driving gene expression and could be identified by the approach outlined here.
PMCID: PMC1360102  PMID: 16412233

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