ER-α36 is a novel 36 kDa isoform of the full-length oestrogen receptor alpha (ER-α66). ER-α36 primarily localises to the cytoplasm and the plasma membrane, and responds to membrane-initiated oestrogen and antioestrogen signalling pathways.
To examine the expression of ER-α36 in apocrine and adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast, both of which are consistently ER-α66 negative and currently lack effective targeted therapeutic options.
19 pure apocrine carcinomas (17 invasive and two in-situ carcinomas) and 11 adenoid cystic carcinomas of the breast were evaluated for ER-α36 expression, along with expressions of ER-α66, progesterone receptor (PR) and androgen receptor (AR) using immunohistochemical methods.
All pure apocrine carcinomas showed a characteristic steroid receptor expression profile (ER-α66 and PR negative, AR strongly positive). ER-α36 expression was detected in 18/19 pure apocrine carcinomas (94.7%, 95% CI 75.1 to 98.7) in predominantly membranous and cytoplasmic distribution. When positive, pure apocrine carcinomas uniformly (100% of cells) expressed ER-α36. All adenoid cystic carcinomas were uniformly negative for all three classic steroid receptors, but ER-α36 was detected in 8/11 cases (72.7%, 95% CI 42.8 to 90) with the similar sub-cellular pattern of expression as in the pure apocrine carcinomas. When positive, adenoid cystic carcinomas expressed ER-α36 in the majority of cells (average 76%).
ER-α36, a novel isoform of ER-α66, is frequently over-expressed in apocrine and adenoid cystic carcinomas of the breast. These results indicate a potential for a novel targeted treatment in these cancers.
Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is frequently activated in human cancer, including
esophageal cancer. Most esophageal cancers are diagnosed in the advanced stages,
therefore, identifying the very alterations that drive esophageal carcinogenesis
may help designing novel strategies to diagnose and treat the disease. Analysis
of Hh signaling in precancerous lesions is a critical first step in determining
the significance of this pathway for carcinogenesis. Here we report our data on
Hh target gene expression in 174 human esophageal specimens [28 esophageal
adenocarcinomas (EAC), 19 Barrett’s esophagus, 103 cases of esophageal
squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), and 24 of squamous dysplastic lesions], and in
two rat models of esophageal cancer. We found that 96% of human EAC express Hh
target genes. We showed that PTCH1 expression is the most reliable biomarker. In
contrast to EAC, only 38% of ESCC express Hh target genes. We found activation
of Hh signaling in precancerous lesions of ESCCs and EACs in different degrees
(21% and 58% respectively). Expression of Hh target genes is frequently detected
in severe squamous dysplasia/ carcinoma in situ (p=0.04) and
Barrett’s esophagus (p=0.01). Unlike EAC, sonic hedgehog (Shh) expression
was rare in ESCCs. Consistent with the human specimen data, we found a high
percentage of Hh signaling activation in precancerous lesions in rat models.
These data indicate that Hh signaling activation is an early molecular event in
the development of esophageal cancer, particularly EAC.
Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC); esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC); hedgehog (Hh); patched-1 (PTCH1 for humans and Ptch1 for animals); Gli2; sFRP-1; human homologue of hedgehog-interaction protein (HHIP); rat model; Barrett’s esophagus (BE)
Apocrine carcinoma of the breast has recently been refined through gene expression profiling. Due to various pathological studies, we compared the results with the MDA-MB-453 breast cancer cell line, a proposed model for apocrine breast carcinoma. The MDA-MB-453 cell line is androgen receptor-positive and `triple-negative' in respect to estrogen receptor-α, progesterone receptor and the Her-2/neu protein expression. Cytogenetic analysis of the cell line revealed a hypertriploid clone characterized by extensive numerical and structural abnormalities including loss of the 9p.21 locus (P16-INK4a gene), also evidenced by the lack of p16INK4A protein expression in Western blot analysis and immunocytochemistry assays. Gains of chromosomes 7 and 17 without underlying EGFR, HER-2/neu, and TOP2A gene amplification were also observed. A mutation in the K-RAS gene (Gly13Asp GGC>GAC) was identified in the cell line, which was not observed in the six patient samples of apocrine breast carcinomas examined. Similarly, constitutive activation of the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway and deregulation of cell cycle proteins (p16−/pRb−/cyclin D1+ phenotype) with exceedingly high proliferation observed in the MDA-MB-453 cell line were not found in the tissue samples. In conclusion, the MDA-MB-453 cell line shares certain features with apocrine breast carcinoma but differs from patient tissues with regard to various significant characteristics, limiting the value of this cell line as a model for human apocrine breast carcinoma investigations. In contrast to the cell line, EGFR-positive apocrine carcinomas do not harbor K-RAS gene mutations, rendering these tumors amenable to targeted therapy with EGFR inhibitors.
apocrine breast carcinoma; apocrine cell line; MDA-MB-453; androgen receptor
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important regulatory role in breast tumorigenesis. Previously, we found that let-7 miRNAs were downregulated significantly in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) breast cancer tissues. In this study, we further found that endogenous levels of let-7b and let-7i miRNAs are inversely correlated with levels of estrogen receptor (ER)-a36, a new variant of ER-α66, in the FFPE tissue set. Bioinformatic analysis suggested that ER-α36 may be another target of let-7 miRNAs. To test this hypothesis, cotransfection of let-7 mimics or inhibitors together with full-length or a fragment of ER-α36 3′UTR luciferase construct was performed, and we found that let-7b and let-7i mimics suppressed the activity of reporter gene significantly, which was enhanced remarkably by let-7b and let-7i inhibitors. Both mRNA and protein expression of ER-α36 were inhibited by let-7 mimics and enhanced by let-7 inhibitors. Furthermore, ER-α36 mediated nongenomic MAPK and Akt pathways were weakened by let-7b and let-7i mimics in triple negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. The reverse correlation between let-7 miRNAs and ER-α36 also exists in Tamoxifen (Tam)-resistant MCF7 cell line. Transfection of let-7 mimics to Tam-resistant MCF7 cells downregulated ER-α36 expression and enhanced the sensitivity of MCF7 cells to Tam in estrogen-free medium, which could be restored by overexpression of ER-α36 constructs without 3′UTR. Our results suggested a novel regulatory mechanism of let-7 miRNAs on ER-α36 mediated nongenomic estrogen signal pathways and Tam resistance.
Juxtaglomerular cell tumor (JGCT) generally affects adolescents and young adults. The patients experience symptoms related to hypertension and hypokalemia due to renin-secretion by the tumor. Grossly, the tumor is well circumscribed with fibrous capsule and the cut surface shows yellow or gray-tan color with frequent hemorrhage. Histologically, the tumor is composed of monotonous polygonal cells with entrapped normal tubules. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells exhibit a positive reactivity for renin, vimentin and CD34. Ultrastructurally, neoplastic cells contain rhomboid-shaped renin protogranules. Genetically, losses of chromosomes 9 and 11 were frequently observed. Clinically, the majority of tumors showed a benign course, but rare tumors with vascular invasion or metastasis were reported. JGCT is a curable cause of hypertensive disease if it is discovered early and surgically removed, but may cause a fatal outcome usually by a cerebrovascular attack or may cause fetal demise in pregnancy. Additionally, pathologists and urologists need to recognize that this neoplasm in most cases pursues a benign course, but aggressive forms may develop in some cases.
It is prevailingly thought that estrogen signaling is not involved in development of estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer. However, there is evidence indicating that ovariectomy prevents the development of both ER-positive and -negative breast cancer, suggesting that estrogen signaling is involved in the development of ER-negative breast cancer. Previously, our laboratory cloned a variant of ER-α, ER-α36, and found that ER-α36 mediated non-genomic estrogen signaling and is highly expressed in ER-negative breast cancer cells. In this study, we found that ER-α36 was highly expressed in 10/12 cases of triple-negative breast cancer. We investigated the role of mitogenic estrogen signaling mediated by ER-α36 in malignant growth of triple-negative breast cancer MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-436 cells that express high levels of ER-α36 and found these cells were strongly responded to mitogenic estrogen signaling both in vitro and in vivo. Knock-down of ER-α36 expression in these cells using the shRNA method diminished their responsiveness to estrogen. ER-α36 physically interacted with the EGFR/Src/Shc complex and mediated estrogen-induced phosphorylation of EGFR and Src. EGFR signaling activated ER-α36 transcription through an AP1 site in the ER-α36 promoter and ER-α36 expression was able to stabilize EGFR protein. Our results thus demonstrated that ER-α36 mediates non-genomic estrogen signaling through the EGFR/Src/ERK signaling pathway in ER-negative breast cancer cells and suggested that a subset of ER-negative breast tumors that express ER-α36 retain responsiveness to mitogenic estrogen signaling.
EGFR; ER-α36; estrogen signaling; ER-negative breast cancer
Apocrine carcinoma of the breast has recently been refined through gene expression profiling. Due to various pathological studies, we compared the results with the MDA-MB-453 breast cancer cell line, a proposed model for apocrine breast carcinoma. The MDA-MB-453 cell line is androgen receptor-positive and ‘triple-negative’ in respect to estrogen receptor-α, progesterone receptor and the Her-2/neu protein expression. Cytogenetic analysis of the cell line revealed a hypertriploid clone characterized by extensive numerical and structural abnormalities including loss of the 9p.21 locus (P16-INK4a gene), also evidenced by the lack of p16INK4A protein expression in Western blot analysis and immunocytochemistry assays. Gains of chromosomes 7 and 17 without underlying EGFR, HER-2/neu, and TOP2A gene amplification were also observed. A mutation in the K-RAS gene (Gly13Asp GGC>GAC) was identified in the cell line, which was not observed in the six patient samples of apocrine breast carcinomas examined. Similarly, constitutive activation of the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway and deregulation of cell cycle proteins (p16-/pRb-/cyclin D1+ phenotype) with exceedingly high proliferation observed in the MDA-MB-453 cell line were not found in the tissue samples. In conclusion, the MDA-MB-453 cell line shares certain features with apocrine breast carcinoma but differs from patient tissues with regard to various significant characteristics, limiting the value of this cell line as a model for human apocrine breast carcinoma investigations. In contrast to the cell line, EGFR-positive apocrine carcinomas do not harbor K-RAS gene mutations, rendering these tumors amenable to targeted therapy with EGFR inhibitors.
apocrine breast carcinoma; apocrine cell line; MDA-MB-453; androgen receptor
The infrarenal abdominal aorta exhibits increased disease susceptibility relative to other aortic regions. Allograft studies exchanging thoracic and abdominal segments showed that regional susceptibility is maintained regardless of location, suggesting substantial roles for embryological origin, tissue composition and site-specific gene expression.
We analyzed gene expression with microarrays in baboon aortas, and found that members of the HOX gene family exhibited spatial expression differences. HOXA4 was chosen for further study, since it had decreased expression in the abdominal compared to the thoracic aorta. Western blot analysis from 24 human aortas demonstrated significantly higher HOXA4 protein levels in thoracic compared to abdominal tissues (P < 0.001). Immunohistochemical staining for HOXA4 showed nuclear and perinuclear staining in endothelial and smooth muscle cells in aorta. The HOXA4 transcript levels were significantly decreased in human abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) compared to age-matched non-aneurysmal controls (P < 0.00004). Cultured human aortic endothelial and smooth muscle cells stimulated with INF-γ (an important inflammatory cytokine in AAA pathogenesis) showed decreased levels of HOXA4 protein (P < 0.0007).
Our results demonstrated spatial variation in expression of HOXA4 in human aortas that persisted into adulthood and that downregulation of HOXA4 expression was associated with AAAs, an important aortic disease of the ageing population.
Previously, we identified 3,274 distinct differentially expressed genes in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) tissue compared to non-aneurysmal controls. As transcriptional control is responsible for these expression changes, we sought to find common transcriptional elements in the promoter regions of the differentially expressed genes.
Methods and Results
We analyzed the up- and downregulated gene sets with Whole Genome rVISTA to determine the transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) overrepresented in the 5 kb promoter regions of the 3,274 genes. The downregulated gene set yielded 144 TFBSs that were overrepresented in the subset when compared to the entire genome. In contrast, the upregulated gene set yielded only 13 distinct overrepresented TFBSs. Interestingly, as classified by TRANSFAC®, 8 of the 13 transcription factors (TFs) binding to these regions belong to the ETS family. Additionally, NFKB and its subunits p50 and p65 showed enrichment. Immunohistochemical analyses in 10 of the TFs from the upregulated analysis showed 9 to be present in AAA tissue. Based on Gene Ontology analysis of biological process categories of the upregulated target genes of enriched TFs, 10 TFs had enrichment in immune system process among their target genes.
Our genome-wide analysis provides further evidence of ETS and NFKB involvement in AAA. Additionally, our results provide novel insight for future studies aiming to dissect the pathogenesis of AAA and have uncovered potential therapeutic targets for AAA prevention.
Aneurysm; Aorta; Genomics; Transcription Factors
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a complex disorder with multiple genetic risk factors. Using affected relative pair linkage analysis, we previously identified an AAA susceptibility locus on chromosome 19q13. This locus has been designated as the AAA1 susceptibility locus in the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database.
Nine candidate genes were selected from the AAA1 locus based on their function, as well as mRNA expression levels in the aorta. A sample of 394 cases and 419 controls was genotyped for 41 SNPs located in or around the selected nine candidate genes using the Illumina GoldenGate platform. Single marker and haplotype analyses were performed. Three genes (CEBPG, PEPD and CD22) were selected for DNA sequencing based on the association study results, and exonic regions were analyzed. Immunohistochemical staining of aortic tissue sections from AAA and control individuals was carried out for the CD22 and PEPD proteins with specific antibodies.
Several SNPs were nominally associated with AAA (p < 0.05). The SNPs with most significant p-values were located near the CCAAT enhancer binding protein (CEBPG), peptidase D (PEPD), and CD22. Haplotype analysis found a nominally associated 5-SNP haplotype in the CEBPG/PEPD locus, as well as a nominally associated 2-SNP haplotype in the CD22 locus. DNA sequencing of the coding regions revealed no variation in CEBPG. Seven sequence variants were identified in PEPD, including three not present in the NCBI SNP (dbSNP) database. Sequencing of all 14 exons of CD22 identified 20 sequence variants, five of which were in the coding region and six were in the 3'-untranslated region. Five variants were not present in dbSNP. Immunohistochemical staining for CD22 revealed protein expression in lymphocytes present in the aneurysmal aortic wall only and no detectable expression in control aorta. PEPD protein was expressed in fibroblasts and myofibroblasts in the media-adventitia border in both aneurysmal and non-aneurysmal tissue samples.
Association testing of the functional positional candidate genes on the AAA1 locus on chromosome 19q13 demonstrated nominal association in three genes. PEPD and CD22 were considered the most promising candidate genes for altering AAA risk, based on gene function, association evidence, gene expression, and protein expression.
There is a paucity of information about the molecular perturbations involved in MPM tumor formation. We previously reported that EGFR-TK mutations in MPM were predictive of achieving optimal surgical cytoreduction, but the status of EGFR pathway activation potential of these mutations was not known. Here we present the mutant EGFR activating potential and the matured survival data of the EGFR mutant(mut+) relative to wild type EGFR(mut-) mesothelioma.
Twenty-nine patients were evaluated and their tumors were probed for mutations in the catalytic TK-domain. Twenty-five patients were treated with cytoreductive surgery and complete clinical data was available for comparison of the mut+ and mut- groups. A COS-7 cell expression model was used to determine mutation activating profiles and response to erlotinib.
Functional mutations were found in 31%(9/29) of patients; 7 of these mutations were novel and another was the L858R mutation. All missense mutations were found to be activating mutations and responsive to erlotinib. Of the 25 patients managed surgically, there were 7 mut+ and 18 mut-. Two of 7 (29%) mut+ developed progressive disease and died with a median follow-up time of 22 months; while 13/18 (72%) mut- developed progressive disease and 10/18 (56%) died with median TTP of 12 months and median survival of 14 months.
The novel EGFR mutations identified are activating mutations responsive to erlotinib. The mut+ subset have a 'relative' improved outcome. Erlotinib may have a role in MPM and exploration for mutations in a larger patient cohort is warranted.
The status of estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-α) expression is one of the most important diagnostic and prognostic factors of breast cancer. ER-α is a 66-kDa, ligand-induced transcription factor, characteristically detected in the cell nucleus by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in breast cancer specimens. Recently, we identified and cloned a 36-kDa novel variant of ER-α, ER-α36, which lacks both transactivation domains and functions as a dominant-negative effector of transactivation activities of the full-length ER-α (ER-α66) and ER-β. ER-α36 primarily localizes to the cytoplasm and plasma membrane, and responds to both estrogens and antiestrogens by transducing membrane-initiated signaling cascades, stimulating proliferation and possibly contributing to a more aggressive phenotype in breast carcinomas. ER-α36 is expressed in established ER-positive and -negative breast cancer cell lines. However, its expression and localization in breast cancer specimens have not been evaluated. As ER-α36 may play important roles in breast cancer tumorigenesis, it is of clinical importance to examine the expression pattern of ER-α36, in addition to that of ER-α66, for more comprehensive molecular profiling of breast carcinomas.
Patients and Methods
Thirty-one breast cancer patient tissues were evaluated for ER-α36 and ER-α66 protein expression status by IHC and six additional patient tissue samples were analyzed by Western blot analysis using antibodies specific to ER-α66 or ER-α36.
Our experiments reveal a cytoplasmic and plasma-membrane-associated expression pattern of ER-α36 in both ER-α66-positive and -negative breast cancer samples. Furthermore, ER-α36 expression appears to be associated with decreasing nuclear and/or cytoplasmic ER-α66 expression, suggesting its potential use as a diagnostic and prognostic marker.
ER-α36 is a novel isoform of ER-α, frequently expressed in ER-α66-negative cancers, whose detection may provide additional information for better diagnosis and prognosis.
Estrogen receptor; ER-α36; ER-negative breast cancer; ER-α66
Germ-cell tumors (GCT) are a histologically and biologically diverse group of neoplasms which primarily occur in the gonads but also develop at different extragonadal sites in the midline of the body. The head and neck region including the upper respiratory tract is a very rare location for such tumors in both children and adults, which can cause diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties.
We describe here two new cases of multilineage tumors including sinonasal teratocarcinosarcoma [SNTCS], and congenital oronasopharyngeal teratoma (epignathus) and compare their features with those of a new case of a rare salivary gland anlage tumor [SGAT], an entity for which the pathogenesis is unclear (i.e. hamartoma versus neoplasm). We correlate their presenting clinico-pathological features and compare histologic and cytogenetic features in an attempt to elucidate their pathogenesis and biologic potentials.
Results and discussion
Cytogenetic analysis revealed chromosomal abnormalities only in the case of SNTCS that showed trisomy 12 and 1p deletion. Both cytogenetic abnormalities are characteristically present in malignant germ cell tumors providing for the first time evidence that this rare tumor type indeed might represent a variant of a germ cell neoplasm. The SGAT and epignathus carried no such cytogenetic abnormalities, in keeping with their limited and benign biologic potential.
The comparison of these three cases should serve to emphasize the diversity of multilineage tumors (hamartomas and GCT) of the upper respiratory tract in regards to their biology, age of presentation and clinical outcomes. Malignant tumors of germ cell origins are more likely to affect adults with insidious symptom development, while benign tumors can nevertheless cause dramatic clinical symptoms which, under certain circumstances, can be fatal.
Renal epithelial tumors are morphologically, biologically, and clinically heterogeneous. Different morphologic subtypes require specific management due to markedly different prognosis and response to therapy. Each common subtype has characteristic chromosomal gains and losses, including some with prognostic value. However, copy number information has not been readily accessible for clinical purposes and thus has not been routinely used in the diagnostic evaluation of these tumors. This information can be useful for classification of tumors with complex or challenging morphology. 'Virtual karyotypes' generated using SNP arrays can readily detect characteristic chromosomal lesions in paraffin embedded renal tumors and can be used to correctly categorize the common subtypes with performance characteristics that are amenable for routine clinical use.
To investigate the use of virtual karyotypes for diagnostically challenging renal epithelial tumors, we evaluated 25 archived renal neoplasms where sub-classification could not be definitively rendered based on morphology and other ancillary studies. We generated virtual karyotypes with the Affymetrix 10 K 2.0 mapping array platform and identified the presence of genomic lesions across all 22 autosomes.
In 91% of challenging cases the virtual karyotype unambiguously detected the presence or absence of chromosomal aberrations characteristic of one of the common subtypes of renal epithelial tumors, while immunohistochemistry and fluorescent in situ hybridization had no or limited utility in the diagnosis of these tumors.
These results show that virtual karyotypes generated by SNP arrays can be used as a practical ancillary study for the classification of renal epithelial tumors with complex or ambiguous morphology.
Abdominal aortic aneurysms are a common disorder with an incompletely understood etiology. We used Illumina and Affymetrix microarray platforms to generate global gene expression profiles for both aneurysmal (AAA) and non-aneurysmal abdominal aorta, and identified genes that were significantly differentially expressed between cases and controls.
Affymetrix and Illumina arrays included 18,057 genes in common; 11,542 (64%) of these genes were considered to be expressed in either aneurysmal or normal abdominal aorta. There were 3,274 differentially expressed genes with a false discovery rate (FDR) ≤ 0.05. Many of these genes were not previously known to be involved in AAA, including SOST and RUNX3, which were confirmed using Q-RT-PCR (Pearson correlation coefficient for microarray and Q-RT-PCR data = 0.89; p-values for differences in expression between AAA and controls for SOST: 4.87 × 10-4 and for RUNX3: 4.33 × 10-5). Analysis of biological pathways, including Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), indicated extreme overrepresentation of immune related categories. The enriched categories included the GO category Immune Response (GO:0006955; FDR = 2.1 × 10-14), and the KEGG pathways natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity (hsa04650; FDR = 5.9 × 10-6) and leukocyte transendothelial migration (hsa04670; FDR = 1.1 × 10-5).
Previous studies have provided evidence for the involvement of the immune system in AAA. The current expression analysis extends these findings by demonstrating broad coordinate gene expression in immunological pathways. A large number of genes involved in immune function were differentially expressed in AAA, and the pathway analysis gave these results a biological context. The data provide valuable insight for future studies to dissect the pathogenesis of human AAA. These pathways might also be used as targets for the development of therapeutic agents for AAA.
DNA microarrays are a powerful technology that can provide a wealth of gene expression data for disease studies, drug development, and a wide scope of other investigations. Because of the large volume and inherent variability of DNA microarray data, many new statistical methods have been developed for evaluating the significance of the observed differences in gene expression. However, until now little attention has been given to the characterization of dispersion of DNA microarray data.
Here we examine the expression data obtained from 682 Affymetrix GeneChips® with 22 different types and we demonstrate that the Gaussian (normal) frequency distribution is characteristic for the variability of gene expression values. However, typically 5 to 15% of the samples deviate from normality. Furthermore, it is shown that the frequency distributions of the difference of expression in subsets of ordered, consecutive pairs of genes (consecutive samples) in pair-wise comparisons of replicate experiments are also normal. We describe a consecutive sampling method, which is employed to calculate the characteristic function approximating standard deviation and show that the standard deviation derived from the consecutive samples is equivalent to the standard deviation obtained from individual genes. Finally, we determine the boundaries of probability intervals and demonstrate that the coefficients defining the intervals are independent of sample characteristics, variability of data, laboratory conditions and type of chips. These coefficients are very closely correlated with Student's t-distribution.
In this study we ascertained that the non-systematic variations possess Gaussian distribution, determined the probability intervals and demonstrated that the Kα coefficients defining these intervals are invariant; these coefficients offer a convenient universal measure of dispersion of data. The fact that the Kα distributions are so close to t-distribution and independent of conditions and type of arrays suggests that the quantitative data provided by Affymetrix technology give "true" representation of physical processes, involved in measurement of RNA abundance.
This article was reviewed by Yoav Gilad (nominated by Doron Lancet), Sach Mukherjee (nominated by Sandrine Dudoit) and Amir Niknejad and Shmuel Friedland (nominated by Neil Smalheiser).
NF-κB is an inducible transcription factor mediating innate immune responses whose activity is controlled by the multiprotein IκB kinase (IKK) “signalsome”. The core IKK consists of two catalytic serine kinases, IKKα and IKKβ, and a noncatalytic subunit, IKKγ. IKKγ is required for IKK activity by mediating kinase oligomerization and serving to couple the core catalytic subunits to upstream mitogen-activated protein 3-kinase cascades. We have discovered an alternatively spliced IKKγ mRNA isoform, encoding an in-frame deletion of exon 5, termed IKKγ-Δ. Using a specific reverse transcription-PCR assay, we find that IKKγ-Δ is widely expressed in cultured human cells and normal human tissues. Because IKKγ-Δ protein is lacking a critical coiled-coil domain important in protein-protein interactions, we sought to determine its signaling properties by examining its ability to self associate, couple to activators of the canonical pathway, and mediate human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax-induced NF-κB activity. Coimmunoprecipitation and confocal colocalization assays indicate IKKγ-Δ has strong homo- and heterotypic association with wild-type (WT) IKKγ and, like IKKγ WT, associates with the IKKβ kinase. Similarly, IKKγ-Δ mediates IKK kinase activity and downstream NF-κB-dependent transcription in response to tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and the NF-κB-inducing kinase-IKKα signaling pathway. Surprisingly, however, in contrast to IKKγ WT, IKKγ-Δ is not able to mediate HTLV-1 Tax-induced NF-κB-dependent transcription, even though IKKγ-Δ binds and colocalizes with Tax. These observations suggest that IKKγ-Δ is a functionally distinct alternatively spliced mRNA product differentially mediating TNF-induced, but not Tax-induced, signals converging on the IKK signalsome. Differing levels of IKKγ-Δ expression, therefore, may affect signal transduction cascades coupling to IKK.
The hedgehog pathway plays a critical role in the development of prostate. However, the role of the hedgehog pathway in prostate cancer is not clear. Prostate cancer is the second most prevalent cause of cancer death in American men. Therefore, identification of novel therapeutic targets for prostate cancer has significant clinical implications.
Here we report that activation of the hedgehog pathway occurs frequently in advanced human prostate cancer. We find that high levels of hedgehog target genes, PTCH1 and hedgehog-interacting protein (HIP), are detected in over 70% of prostate tumors with Gleason scores 8–10, but in only 22% of tumors with Gleason scores 3–6. Furthermore, four available metastatic tumors all have high expression of PTCH1 and HIP. To identify the mechanism of the hedgehog signaling activation, we examine expression of Su(Fu) protein, a negative regulator of the hedgehog pathway. We find that Su(Fu) protein is undetectable in 11 of 27 PTCH1 positive tumors, two of them contain somatic loss-of-function mutations of Su(Fu). Furthermore, expression of sonic hedgehog protein is detected in majority of PTCH1 positive tumors (24 out of 27). High levels of hedgehog target genes are also detected in four prostate cancer cell lines (TSU, DU145, LN-Cap and PC3). We demonstrate that inhibition of hedgehog signaling by smoothened antagonist, cyclopamine, suppresses hedgehog signaling, down-regulates cell invasiveness and induces apoptosis. In addition, cancer cells expressing Gli1 under the CMV promoter are resistant to cyclopamine-mediated apoptosis. All these data suggest a significant role of the hedgehog pathway for cellular functions of prostate cancer cells.
Our data indicate that activation of the hedgehog pathway, through loss of Su(Fu) or overexpression of sonic hedgehog, may involve tumor progression and metastases of prostate cancer. Thus, targeted inhibition of hedgehog signaling may have significant implications of prostate cancer therapeutics.
Protein kinase C ι (PKCι) has been implicated in Ras signaling, however, a role for PKCι in oncogenic Ras-mediated transformation has not been established. Here, we show that PKCι is a critical downstream effector of oncogenic Ras in the colonic epithelium. Transgenic mice expressing constitutively active PKCι in the colon are highly susceptible to carcinogen-induced colon carcinogenesis, whereas mice expressing kinase-deficient PKCι (kdPKCι) are resistant to both carcinogen- and oncogenic Ras-mediated carcinogenesis. Expression of kdPKCι in Ras-transformed rat intestinal epithelial cells blocks oncogenic Ras-mediated activation of Rac1, cellular invasion, and anchorage-independent growth. Constitutively active Rac1 (RacV12) restores invasiveness and anchorage-independent growth in Ras-transformed rat intestinal epithelial cells expressing kdPKCι. Our data demonstrate that PKCι is required for oncogenic Ras- and carcinogen-mediated colon carcinogenesis in vivo and define a procarcinogenic signaling axis consisting of Ras, PKCι, and Rac1.
Rac1; transgenic mice; rat intestinal epithelial cells; cell invasion; soft agar growth
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the major etiologic agent of severe epidemic lower respiratory tract infections in infancy. Airway mucosal inflammation plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of RSV disease in both natural and experimental infections. RSV is among the most potent biological stimuli that induce the expression of inflammatory genes, including those encoding chemokines, but the mechanism(s) that controls virus-mediated airway inflammation in vivo has not been fully elucidated. Herein we show that the inoculation of BALB/c mice with RSV results in rapid activation of the multisubunit IκB kinase (IKK) in lung tissue. IKK transduces upstream activating signals into the rate-limiting phosphorylation (and proteolytic degradation) of IκBα, the inhibitory subunit that under normal conditions binds to the nuclear factor (NF)-κB complex and keeps it in an inactive cytoplasmic form. Mice treated intranasally with interleukin-10 or with a specific cell-permeable peptide that blocks the association of the catalytic subunit IKKβ with the regulatory protein NEMO showed a striking reduction of lung NF-κB DNA binding activity, chemokine gene expression, and airway inflammation in response to RSV infection. These findings suggest that IKKβ may be a potential target for the treatment of acute or chronic inflammatory diseases of the lung.
Lower respiratory tract disease caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is characterized by profound airway mucosa inflammation, both in infants with naturally acquired infection and in experimentally inoculated animal models. Chemokines are central regulatory molecules in inflammatory, immune, and infectious processes of the lung. In this study, we demonstrate that intranasal infection of BALB/c mice with RSV A results in inducible expression of lung chemokines belonging to the CXC (MIP-2 and IP-10), CC (RANTES, eotaxin, MIP-1β, MIP-1α, MCP-1, TCA-3) and C (lymphotactin) families. Chemokine mRNA expression occurred as early as 24 h following inoculation and persisted for at least 5 days in mice inoculated with the highest dose of virus (107 PFU). In general, levels of chemokine mRNA and protein were dependent on the dose of RSV inoculum and paralleled the intensity of lung cellular inflammation. Immunohisthochemical studies indicated that RSV-induced expression of MIP-1α, one of the most abundantly expressed chemokines, was primarily localized in epithelial cells of the alveoli and bronchioles, as well as in adjoining capillary endothelium. Genetically altered mice with a selective deletion of the MIP-1α gene (−/− mice) demonstrated a significant reduction in lung inflammation following RSV infection, compared to control littermates (+/+ mice). Despite the paucity of infiltrating cells, the peak RSV titer in the lung of −/− mice was not significantly different from that observed in +/+ mice. These results provide the first direct evidence that RSV infection may induce lung inflammation via the early production of inflammatory chemokines.
Pseudomyxoma peritonei is a clinical syndrome characterized by peritoneal dissemination of a mucinous tumor with mucinous ascites. The vast majority of the pseudomyxoma peritoneis are associated with mucinous neoplasms of the appendix. We describe a case of pseudomyxoma peritonei associated with mucinous adenocarcinoma of the cervix in a 60-year-old woman. The patient developed low grade mucinous peritoneal carcinomatosis 8 years after hysterectomy for cervical adenocarcinoma. No other primary mucinous tumor was identified and peritoneal carcinomatosis tested positive for high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV), showing both integrated and episomal pattern. HPV has been previously associated with development of cervical carcinomas (both squamous and mucinous) but neither has cervical adenocarcinoma nor HPV been implicated in development of pseudomyxoma peritonei. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of HPV-associated malignancy presenting as pseudomyxoma peritonei.