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author:("Wang, varying")
1.  Potency, selectivity and prolonged binding of saxagliptin to DPP4: maintenance of DPP4 inhibition by saxagliptin in vitro and ex vivo when compared to a rapidly-dissociating DPP4 inhibitor 
BMC Pharmacology  2012;12:2.
Background
Dipeptidylpeptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitors have clinical benefit in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus by increasing levels of glucose-lowering incretin hormones, such as glucagon-like peptide -1 (GLP-1), a peptide with a short half life that is secreted for approximately 1 hour following a meal. Since drugs with prolonged binding to their target have been shown to maximize pharmacodynamic effects while minimizing drug levels, we developed a time-dependent inhibitor that has a half-life for dissociation from DPP4 close to the duration of the first phase of GLP-1 release.
Results
Saxagliptin and its active metabolite (5-hydroxysaxagliptin) are potent inhibitors of human DPP4 with prolonged dissociation from its active site (Ki = 1.3 nM and 2.6 nM, t1/2 = 50 and 23 minutes respectively at 37°C). In comparison, both vildagliptin (3.5 minutes) and sitagliptin ( < 2 minutes) rapidly dissociated from DPP4 at 37°C. Saxagliptin and 5-hydroxysaxagliptin are selective for inhibition of DPP4 versus other DPP family members and a large panel of other proteases, and have similar potency and efficacy across multiple species.
Inhibition of plasma DPP activity is used as a biomarker in animal models and clinical trials. However, most DPP4 inhibitors are competitive with substrate and rapidly dissociate from DPP4; therefore, the type of substrate, volume of addition and final concentration of substrate in these assays can change measured inhibition. We show that unlike a rapidly dissociating DPP4 inhibitor, inhibition of plasma DPP activity by saxagliptin and 5-hydroxysaxagliptin in an ex vivo assay was not dependent on substrate concentration when substrate was added rapidly because saxagliptin and 5-hydroxysaxagliptin dissociate slowly from DPP4, once bound. We also show that substrate concentration was important for rapidly dissociating DPP4 inhibitors.
Conclusions
Saxagliptin and its active metabolite are potent, selective inhibitors of DPP4, with prolonged dissociation from its active site. They also demonstrate prolonged inhibition of plasma DPP4 ex vivo in animal models, which implies that saxagliptin and 5-hydroxysaxagliptin would continue to inhibit DPP4 during rapid increases in substrates in vivo.
doi:10.1186/1471-2210-12-2
PMCID: PMC3373380  PMID: 22475049
2.  Small-interfering RNA-mediated silencing of the MAPK p42 gene induces dual effects in HeLa cells 
Oncology Letters  2010;1(4):649-655.
The genesis and progression of cervical cancer involve the mutation or deviant expression of numerous genes, including the activation of oncogenes (Ha-ras, C-myc, C-erbB2 and Bcl-2) and inactivation of tumor-suppressor genes (p53 and Rb). Previous studies showed that small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting the MAPK p42 gene partly inhibit proliferation and increase apoptosis in human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells. Results of a microarray analysis showed that MAPK p42 siRNA inhibited cell growth through the regulation of cell cycle control and apoptosis and induced interferon-like response in HeLa cells. In order to confirm the dual effects of MAPK p42 siRNA, we compared the roles of siRNA and U0126, an inhibitor of MAPK p42, in HeLa cells. Short 21-mer double-stranded/siRNAs were synthesized to target MAPK p42 mRNA in HeLa cells. The siRNAs were transfected into HeLa cells using Lipofectamine. The cells were treated with siRNA or U0126 at different concentrations for a period of 48 h. The biological effect of siRNA and U0126 on HeLa cells was measured by MTT and flow cytometry. MAPK1, NUP188, P38, STAT1, STAT2, PML and OAS1 were analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR. HeLa cell growth was inhibited by siRNA or U0126, and the effect of siRNA inhibition was greater than that of U0126. Cell cycle phases were different for siRNA or U0126, but HeLa cell growth was arrested at the S phase by siRNA and at G1 phase by U0126. A down-regulation in MAPK p42 expression by siRNA and up-regulation by U0126 were noted. The results of real-time quantitative PCR showed that P38 was up-regulated and NUP188 was down-regulated by siRNA in comparison with the control groups, and the results were consistent with those of U0126. Expression levels of STAT1, STAT2, PML and OAS1 induced by siRNA differed from those induced by U0126. siRNA-mediated silencing and deactivation induced by U0126 in MAPK p42 led to growth inhibition in the HeLa cells. The effects of siRNA on HeLa cell growth were different from those of U0126. Dual effects of MAPK p42 siRNA-2 on HeLa cell growth were noted: one consisted of a specific effect induced by siRNA-mediated p42 MAPK silencing and the other exhibited a non-specific interferon-like response.
doi:10.3892/ol_00000114
PMCID: PMC3436355  PMID: 22966358
interferon-like response; targeting response; MAPK p42; RNA interference

Results 1-2 (2)