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2.  GPR55-dependent and -independent ion signalling in response to lysophosphatidylinositol in endothelial cells 
British Journal of Pharmacology  2010;161(2):308-320.
Background and purpose
The glycerol-based lysophospholipid lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) is an endogenous agonist of the G-protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) exhibiting cannabinoid receptor-like properties in endothelial cells. To estimate the contribution of GPR55 to the physiological effects of LPI, the GPR55-dependent and -independent electrical responses in this cell type were investigated.
Experimental approach
Applying small interference RNA-mediated knock-down and transient overexpression, GPR55-dependent and -independent effects of LPI on cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration, membrane potential and transmembrane ion currents were studied in EA.hy296 cells.
Key results
In a GPR55-dependent, GDPβS and U73122-sensitive manner, LPI induced rapid and transient intracellular Ca2+ release that was associated with activation of charybdotoxin–sensitive, large conductance, Ca2+-activated, K+ channels (BKCa) and temporary membrane hyperpolarization. Following these initial electrical reactions, LPI elicited GPR55-independent long-lasting Na+ loading and a non-selective inward current causing sustained membrane depolarization that depended on extracellular Ca2+ and Na+ and was partially inhibited by Ni2+ and La3+. This inward current was due to the activation of a voltage-independent non-selective cation current. The Ni2+ and La3+-insensitive depolarization with LPI was prevented by inhibition of the Na/K-ATPase by ouabain.
Conclusions and implications
LPI elicited a biphasic response in endothelial cells of which the immediate Ca2+ signalling depends on GPR55 while the subsequent depolarization is due to Na+ loading via non-selective cation channels and an inhibition of the Na/K-ATPase. Thus, LPI is a potent signalling molecule that affects endothelial functions by modulating several cellular electrical responses that are only partially linked to GPR55.
doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.00744.x
PMCID: PMC2931756  PMID: 20735417
endothelial cells; GPR55; lysophospholipid signalling; membrane potential; non-selective cation channel; patch-clamp; rimonabant
4.  GPR55-dependent and -independent ion signalling in response to lysophosphatidylinositol in endothelial cells 
British journal of pharmacology  2010;161(2):308-320.
Background and purpose
The glycerol-based lysophospholipid lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) is an endogenous agonist of the G-protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) exhibiting cannabinoid receptor-like properties in endothelial cells. To estimate the contribution of GPR55 to the physiological effects of LPI, the GPR55-dependent and -independent electrical responses in this cell type were investigated.
Experimental approach
Applying small interference RNA-mediated knock-down and transient overexpression, GPR55-dependent and -independent effects of LPI on cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration, membrane potential and transmembrane ion currents were studied in EA.hy296 cells.
Key results
In a GPR55-dependent, GDPβS and U73122-sensitive manner, LPI induced rapid and transient intracellular Ca2+ release that was associated with activation of charybdotoxin–sensitive, large conductance, Ca2+-activated, K+ channels (BKCa) and temporary membrane hyperpolarization. Following these initial electrical reactions, LPI elicited GPR55-independent long-lasting Na+ loading and a non-selective inward current causing sustained membrane depolarization that depended on extracellular Ca2+ and Na+ and was partially inhibited by Ni2+ and La3+. This inward current was due to the activation of a voltage-independent non-selective cation current. The Ni2+ and La3+-insensitive depolarization with LPI was prevented by inhibition of the Na/K-ATPase by ouabain.
Conclusions and implications
LPI elicited a biphasic response in endothelial cells of which the immediate Ca2+ signalling depends on GPR55 while the subsequent depolarization is due to Na+ loading via non-selective cation channels and an inhibition of the Na/K-ATPase. Thus, LPI is a potent signalling molecule that affects endothelial functions by modulating several cellular electrical responses that are only partially linked to GPR55.
doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.00744.x
PMCID: PMC2931756  PMID: 20735417
endothelial cells; GPR55; lysophospholipid signalling; membrane potential; non-selective cation channel; patch-clamp; rimonabant
5.  Cell-Cell Contact Formation Governs Ca2+ Signaling by TRPC4 in the Vascular Endothelium 
The Journal of Biological Chemistry  2009;285(6):4213-4223.
TRPC4 is well recognized as a prominent cation channel in the vascular endothelium, but its contribution to agonist-induced endothelial Ca2+ entry is still a matter of controversy. Here we report that the cellular targeting and Ca2+ signaling function of TRPC4 is determined by the state of cell-cell adhesions during endothelial phenotype transitions. TRPC4 surface expression in human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) increased with the formation of cell-cell contacts. Epidermal growth factor recruited TRPC4 into the plasma membrane of proliferating cells but initiated retrieval of TRPC4 from the plasma membrane in quiescent, barrier-forming cells. Epidermal growth factor-induced Ca2+ entry was strongly promoted by the formation of cell-cell contacts, and both siRNA and dominant negative knockdown experiments revealed that TRPC4 mediates stimulated Ca2+ entry exclusively in proliferating clusters that form immature cell-cell contacts. TRPC4 co-precipitated with the junctional proteins β-catenin and VE-cadherin. Analysis of cellular localization of fluorescent fusion proteins provided further evidence for recruitment of TRPC4 into junctional complexes. Analysis of TRPC4 function in the HEK293 expression system identified β-catenin as a signaling molecule that enables cell-cell contact-dependent promotion of TRPC4 function. Our results place TRPC4 as a Ca2+ entry channel that is regulated by cell-cell contact formation and interaction with β-catenin. TRPC4 is suggested to serve stimulated Ca2+ entry in a specific endothelial state during the transition from a proliferating to a quiescent phenotype. Thus, TRPC4 may adopt divergent, as yet unappreciated functions in endothelial Ca2+ homeostasis and emerges as a potential key player in endothelial phenotype switching and tuning of cellular growth factor signaling.
doi:10.1074/jbc.M109.060301
PMCID: PMC2823560  PMID: 19996314
Signal Transduction/Calcium; Tissue/Organ Systems/Endothelium; Adhesion; Cell-cell Interaction; TRP Channels; TRPC4; VE-cadherin; Catenin; Transient Receptor Potential Channel
8.  Effects of cadmiumin vitro on contractile and relaxant responses of isolated rat aortas 
Objective
Cadmium is known to affect the vascular tone of isolated blood vesselsin vitro and the arterial pressure of ratsin vivo. However, the mechanisms of cadmium actions on the vascular system have not been clarified. To elucidate the actions of cadmium on vascular tonus, effects of cadmium on vasocontractile and vasorelaxant responsesin vitro were investigated using aortic strips isolated from rats.
Methods
Aortic strips isolated from male Wistar rats were incubated with CdCl2 (10μM) for 24 hr, washed with fresh CdCl2-free medium, and then used for measurement of isometric tension and Western blot analysis of eNOS (endothelial nitric oxide synthase) and iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase).
Results
In the aortas pretreated with cadmiumin vitro, the contractile response to phenylephrine was significantly higher than that in the control aortic strips pretreated with a vehicle. The sodium nitroprusside-induced relaxing response was significantly higher in the aortic strips pretreated with cadmium for 24 hr, compared with that in the control pretreated with a vehicle. The isoproterenol-induced relaxing response was also significantly higher in the cadmium-accumulated aortic strips.In vitro cadmium treatment slightly but not significantly increased the acetylcholine-induced relaxation of the aortic strips. Cadmium treatment induced expression of iNOS and significantly increased expression of eNOS in the aortic strips, while it did not affect expression of β-actin.
Conclusions
Cadmium treatmentin vitro augmented the α1 adrenoceptor-mediated contractile response, even though eNOS and iNOS were upregulated by cadmium treatment. NO-induced and β-adrenoceptor-mediated relaxing responses were also augmented by cadmium treatment. These results suggest that both vasocontractile and vasorelaxing responses are augmented in cadmium-accumulated aortas.
doi:10.1007/BF02898138
PMCID: PMC2723609  PMID: 21432310
cadmium intoxication; vasoconstriction; vasodilation; vascular smooth muscle; vascular endothelium
9.  GPR55-dependent and -independent ion signalling in response to lysophosphatidylinositol in endothelial cells 
British Journal of Pharmacology  2010;161(2):308-320.
Background and purpose:
The glycerol-based lysophospholipid lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) is an endogenous agonist of the G-protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) exhibiting cannabinoid receptor-like properties in endothelial cells. To estimate the contribution of GPR55 to the physiological effects of LPI, the GPR55-dependent and -independent electrical responses in this cell type were investigated.
Experimental approach:
Applying small interference RNA-mediated knock-down and transient overexpression, GPR55-dependent and -independent effects of LPI on cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration, membrane potential and transmembrane ion currents were studied in EA.hy296 cells.
Key results:
In a GPR55-dependent, GDPβS and U73122-sensitive manner, LPI induced rapid and transient intracellular Ca2+ release that was associated with activation of charybdotoxin–sensitive, large conductance, Ca2+-activated, K+ channels (BKCa) and temporary membrane hyperpolarization. Following these initial electrical reactions, LPI elicited GPR55-independent long-lasting Na+ loading and a non-selective inward current causing sustained membrane depolarization that depended on extracellular Ca2+ and Na+ and was partially inhibited by Ni2+ and La3+. This inward current was due to the activation of a voltage-independent non-selective cation current. The Ni2+ and La3+-insensitive depolarization with LPI was prevented by inhibition of the Na/K-ATPase by ouabain.
Conclusions and implications:
LPI elicited a biphasic response in endothelial cells of which the immediate Ca2+ signalling depends on GPR55 while the subsequent depolarization is due to Na+ loading via non-selective cation channels and an inhibition of the Na/K-ATPase. Thus, LPI is a potent signalling molecule that affects endothelial functions by modulating several cellular electrical responses that are only partially linked to GPR55.
doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.00744.x
PMCID: PMC2931756  PMID: 20735417
endothelial cells; GPR55; lysophospholipid signalling; membrane potential; non-selective cation channel; patch-clamp; rimonabant

Results 1-9 (9)