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1.  Plasmonic nanostructures to enhance catalytic performance of zeolites under visible light 
Scientific Reports  2014;4:3805.
Light absorption efficiency of heterogeneous catalysts has restricted their photocatalytic capability for commercially important organic synthesis. Here, we report a way of harvesting visible light efficiently to boost zeolite catalysis by means of plasmonic gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) supported on zeolites. Zeolites possess strong Brønsted acids and polarized electric fields created by extra-framework cations. The polarized electric fields can be further intensified by the electric near-field enhancement of Au-NPs, which results from the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) upon visible light irradiation. The acetalization reaction was selected as a showcase performed on MZSM-5 and Au/MZSM-5 (M = H+, Na+, Ca2+, or La3+). The density functional theory (DFT) calculations confirmed that the intensified polarized electric fields played a critical role in stretching the C = O bond of the reactants of benzaldehyde to enlarge their molecular polarities, thus allowing reactants to be activated more efficiently by catalytic centers so as to boost the reaction rates. This discovery should evoke intensive research interest on plasmonic metals and diverse zeolites with an aim to take advantage of sunlight for plasmonic devices, molecular electronics, energy storage, and catalysis.
doi:10.1038/srep03805
PMCID: PMC3898204  PMID: 24448225
2.  The Accuracy and Efficacy of Real-Time Continuous Glucose Monitoring Sensor in Chinese Diabetes Patients: A Multicenter Study 
Abstract
Background
The purpose of this multicenter study was to investigate the accuracy of a real-time continuous glucose monitoring sensor in Chinese diabetes patients.
Subjects and Methods
In total, 48 patients with type 1 or 2 diabetes from three centers in China were included in the study. The MiniMed Paradigm® 722 insulin pump (Medtronic, Northridge, CA) was used to monitor the real-time continuous changes of blood glucose levels for three successive days. Venous blood of the subjects was randomly collected every 15 min for seven consecutive hours on the day when the subjects were wearing the sensor. Reference values were provided by the YSI® 2300 STAT PLUS™ glucose and lactate analyzer (YSI Life Sciences, Yellow Springs, OH).
Results
In total, 1,317 paired YSI–sensor values were collected from the 48 patients. Of the sensor readings, 88.3% (95% confidence interval, 0.84–0.92) were within±20% of the YSI values, and 95.7% were within±30% of the YSI values. Clarke and consensus error grid analyses showed that the ratios of the YSI–sensor values in Zone A to the values in Zone B were 99.1% and 99.9%, respectively. Continuous error grid analysis showed that the ratios of the YSI–sensor values in the region of accurate reading, benign errors, and erroneous reading were 96.4%, 1.8%, and 1.8%, respectively. The mean absolute relative difference (ARD) for all subjects was 10.4%, and the median ARD was 7.8%. Bland–Altman analysis detected a mean blood glucose level of 3.84 mg/dL. Trend analysis revealed that 86.1% of the difference of the rates of change between the YSI values and the sensor readings occurred within the range of 1 mg/dL/min.
Conclusions
The Paradigm insulin pump has high accuracy in both monitoring the real-time continuous changes and predicting the trend of changes in blood glucose level. However, actual clinical manifestations should be taken into account for diagnosis of hypoglycemia.
doi:10.1089/dia.2012.0014
PMCID: PMC3409457  PMID: 22853722
3.  The Effects of Glucose Fluctuation on the Severity of Coronary Artery Disease in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus 
Journal of Diabetes Research  2013;2013:576916.
Objectives. To explore the difference of glucose fluctuations between the normal subjects and diabetes mellitus (DM) patients and explore their impact on the development of CAD in type 2 DM patients. Methods. The subjects were divided into 3 groups: normal control (group A, n = 40), type 2 DM patients without cardiovascular complications (group B, n = 56), and type 2 DM patients with cardiovascular complications (group C, n = 92). The SYNTAX scores were collected in group C. CGMS for 72 h was applied on all the subjects. The indexes such as MBG and the LAGE were calculated. Glycemic excursions were compared between groups A, B, and C, respectively. Results. The tested indexes had significant differences among the three groups. SYNTAX scores are related to systolic blood pressure, CRP, MAGE, and HbA1c and are significantly correlated at 6:00–8:00 and 11:00–13:00 time points in group C. Conclusions. Compared with normal subjects, T2DM patients have greater blood glucose fluctuations; T2DM patients with CAD have larger glucose fluctuations than T2DM patients without CAD. Blood glucose fluctuations are positively correlated with carotid artery intima-media thickness in T2DM patients and have a significant influence on the development of coronary artery.
doi:10.1155/2013/576916
PMCID: PMC3723244  PMID: 23936867
4.  Propranolol Prevents Osteoporosis and up-regulates Leptin in Ovariectomized Rats  
Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease and there is a close relationship between the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and bone metabolism. Leptin has been shown to regulate bone formation and bone resorption via the SNS. However, the effect of SNS on leptin signaling has not been clearly understood. In the present study, we studied the effect of propranolol on ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis of rat. The results showed propranolol could increase the bone mass of ovariectomized rat. Propranolol could also up-regulate the level of peripheral leptin and the level of leptin receptor expression in ovariectomized rat hypothalamus. Our results indicate the effect of propranolol on ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis may be exerted, at least partly, through the regulation of leptin signaling and there may be an interaction between the SNS and leptin on the regulation of bone metabolism.
PMCID: PMC3813260  PMID: 24250662
Propranolol; Osteoporosis; Leptin; Ovariectomized rat
5.  Bone loss in Gorham’s disease: A case study 
In this study, a rare disease with characteristics of spontaneous osteolysis of the bone is reported. The patient was an eight-year-old male, who was admitted with shortness of breath. The absence of the right clavicle was identified by radiography. However, the change to the right clavicle was not malignant, as indicated by bone scanography. The biopsy of the right cervical rib revealed a number of vascular fibrous tissues and vessels distending and shunting together; however, no cell proliferation was observed. In addition, no acid-fast bacillia or malignant cells were detected in the sample of pleural effusion from the patient. Low hemoglobin (93 g/l) and a slight elevation of alkaline phosphatase levels (133 U/l) were observed; however, the other laboratory examination results were normal. The follow-up investigation and radiotherapy results indicated that the osteolysis of the skull and the other portion of bone had not worsened. Although it has been reported that >15% of patients succumb to this disease, the patient reported in the current study was in a relatively stable condition.
doi:10.3892/etm.2013.940
PMCID: PMC3627442  PMID: 23596466
ribs; maxillary bone; Gorham’s disease; radiotherapy; prognosis
6.  Prevalence of birth defects and risk-factor analysis from a population-based survey in Inner Mongolia, China 
BMC Pediatrics  2012;12:125.
Background
Birth Defects are a series of diseases that seriously affect children's health. Birth defects are generally caused by several interrelated factors. The aims of the article is to estimate the prevalence rate and types of birth defects in Inner Mongolia, China, to compare socio-demographic characteristics among the children with birth defects and to analyze the association between risk factors and birth defects.
Methods
Data used in this study were obtained through baseline survey of Inner Mongolia Birth Defects Program, a population-based survey conducted from 2005 to 2008. The survey used cluster sampling method in all 12 administrative districts of Inner Mongolia. Sampling size is calculated according to local population size at a certain percentage. All live births, stillbirths and abortions born from October 2005 to September 2008, whose families lived in Inner Mongolia at least one year, were included. The cases of birth defects were diagnosed by the clinical doctors according to their experiences with further laboratory tests if needed. The inclusion criteria of the cases that had already dead were decided according to death records available at local cites. We calculated prevalence rate and 95% confidence intervals of different groups. Outcome variable was the occurrence of birth defects and associations between risk factors and birth defects were analyzed by using Poisson regression analysis.
Results
976 children with birth defects were diagnosed. The prevalence rate of birth defects was 156.1 per 10000 births (95%CI: 146.3-165.8). The prevalence rate of neural tube defect (20.1 per 10000 births) including anencephaly(6.9 per 10000), spina bifida (10.6 per 10000), and encephalocele (2.7 per 10000) was the highest, followed by congenital heart disease (17.1 per 10000). The relative risk (RR) for maternal age less than 25 was 2.22 (95%CI: 2.05, 2.41). The RR of the ethnic Mongols was lower than Han Chinese (RR: 0.84; 95%CI: 0.80-0.89). The RR of the third and second pregnancy was significantly higher than the first pregnancy while a slight difference between the second and the first pregnancy was also found. Alcohol drinking of mothers, familial inheritance and living area were also found to be related to the occurrence of the birth defects.
Conclusions
Relatively higher birth defect rates were found in Inner Mongolia. This study found that maternal age less than 25, alcohol drinking, familiar inheritance, lower education level of mothers, times of pregnancies and living in rural areas may increase the risk of birth defects. Ethnic Mongols were less likely to have birth defects than Han Chinese.
doi:10.1186/1471-2431-12-125
PMCID: PMC3473296  PMID: 22900612
Birth defects; Prevalence rate; Relative risk; Risk factors

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