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1.  Incidence and correlates of low birth weight at a referral hospital in Northwest Ethiopia 
Weight at birth is a good indicator of the newborn's chances for survival, growth, long-term health and psychosocial development. Low birth weight (LBW) babies are significantly at risk of death, contributing to the high perinatal morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Hence, this study aims to assess the incidence and associated factors of low birth weight (LBW) in Gondar University Hospital deliveries.
A cross-sectional study, conducted on 305 live births from May 1- July 30, 2010. Information on independent variables was collected from the mothers just before discharge using a structured interview questionnaire. Neonatal weight was measured using standard beam balance. Both interviews and weight measurements were done by two trained midwives. Gestational age was determined by last normal menstrual period and/or ultrasound examinations.
The mean and standard deviations of the birth weights were 2976 ±476 grams. Incidence of LBW (birth weight <2500 grams) was 17.1% (95%CI 13.3%, 21.6%). LBW was associated with first delivery (AOR=2.85), lack of antenatal care follow up (AOR= 5.68) or infrequent visits and being HIV positive (AOR=3.22). More female newborns were with low birth weight than males though the difference was not significant after controlling for potential confounders in the multivariate analysis.
There is a high incidence of LBW. Efforts should to enhance national antenatal care utilization in general, and particularly in Gondar, should be encouraged as its absence is closely associated with LBW.
PMCID: PMC3396870  PMID: 22826729
Prevalence; Low Birth Weight; referral hospital; Ethiopia
2.  Demand for long acting contraceptive methods and associated factors among family planning service users, Northwest Ethiopia: a health facility based cross sectional study 
BMC Research Notes  2015;8:29.
Demand for long acting contraceptive methods is one of the key factors for total fertility rate and reproductive health issues. Increased demand for these methods can decline fertility rate through spacing and limiting family size in turn improving maternal and family health and socioeconomic development of a country. The aim of this study was to assess demand for long acting contraceptives and associated factors among family planning users in Debre-Tabor Town, Northwest Ethiopia.
Facility based cross-sectional study was conducted from July to August 2013. Data was collected on 487 current family planning users through face to face interview using structured questionnaire. Study participants were selected by systematic sampling method. Data were entered in to Epi Info and analyzed by using SPSS version 20. Bi-variable and multi-variable regression analyses were done to identify factors associated with demand for long acting contraceptive methods. Odds ratio with 95% CI was used to assess the association between the independent variables and demand for long acting family planning methods.
The study showed that, demand for long acting contraceptives was 17%. Only 9.2% of the women were using long acting contraceptive methods (met need). About 7.8% of women were using short acting methods while they actually want to use long acting methods (unmet need). Demand for LACMs was positively associated 3with being a daily labour (AOR = 3.87, 95% CI = [1.06, 14.20]), being a student (AOR = 2.64, 95% CI = [1.27, 5.47]), no future birth intensions (AOR = 2.17, 95% CI = [1.12, 4.23]), having five or more children (AOR = 1.67, 95% CI = [1.58, 4.83]), deciding together with husbands for using the methods (AOR = 2.73, 95% CI = [1.40, 5.32]) and often having discussion with husband (AOR = 3.89, 95% CI = [1.98, 7.65]). Clients treated poorly by the health care providers during taking the services was negatively associated with demand for LACMs (AOR = 0.42, 95% CI = [0.24, 0.74]).
Demand for long acting family planning methods was observed to be lower as compared to other studies. There were also significant proportion of women having unmet need for long acting methods – women using short acting method while actually wanting long acting methods. Therefore, it is necessary to create and increase awareness and advocacy on demand for long acting contraceptive methods considering women and their husbands. Moreover, emphasis should be given to service provision of the methods.
PMCID: PMC4340161  PMID: 25656470
Demand; Unmet need; Long acting contraceptives; Debre-Tabor town
3.  Adverse birth outcomes among deliveries at Gondar University Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia 
Adverse birth outcomes are major public health problems in developing countries. Data, though scarce in developing countries including Ethiopia, on adverse birth outcomes and the risk factors are important for planning maternal and child health care services. Hence, this study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated factors of adverse birth outcomes among deliveries at Gondar University Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia.
Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted in February 2013 at Gondar University Hospital. Data were collected by face-to-face interview of 490 women after verbal informed consent using a pretested and structured questionnaire. Gestational age was determined based on the last normal menstrual period. Birth weight was measured following standards. Multiple logistic regressions were fitted and odds ratios with their 95% confidence interval were computed to identify associated factors.
The mean age of women was 26.2 (±5.2 SD) years. HIV infection among laboring women was 4.8%. About 23% of women had adverse birth outcomes (14.3% preterm, 11.2% low birth weight and 7.1% still births). Women having history of either preterm delivery or small baby (AOR: 3.1, 95% CI 1.1- 8.4) were more likely to have preterm births. Similarly, history of delivering preterm or small baby (AOR: 8.4, 95% CI 2.4- 29.4), preterm birth (AOR: 5.5, 95% CI 2.6- 11.6) and hypertension (AOR: 5.8, 95% CI 1.8- 19.6) were associated factors with low birth weight. Ante partum haemorrhage (AOR: 8.43, 95% CI 1.28- 55.34), hypertension (AOR: 9.5, 95% CI 2.1-44.3), history of perinatal death (AOR: 13.9, 95% CI 3.3- 58.5) and lack of antenatal care follow up (AOR: 9.7, 95% CI 2.7 - 35.8) were significantly associated with still birth.
Prevalence of adverse birth outcomes (still birth, preterm birth and low birth weight) were high and still a major public health problem in the area. Histories of perinatal death, delivering preterm or small baby, ante partum hemorrhage, lack of ante natal care follow up and hypertension were associated factors with adverse birth outcomes. Thus, further enhancements of ante natal and maternal care and early screening for hypertension are recommended.
PMCID: PMC3996071  PMID: 24576205
Low birth weight; Preterm birth; Still birth; Northwest Ethiopia
4.  Non-Adherence to Anti-Tuberculosis Treatment and Determinant Factors among Patients with Tuberculosis in Northwest Ethiopia 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(11):e78791.
Non-adherence to anti tuberculosis treatment is one of the crucial challenges in improving tuberculosis cure-rates and reducing further healthcare costs. The poor adherence to anti-tuberculosis treatment among patients with tuberculosis is a major problem in Ethiopia. Hence, this study assessed level of non-adherence to anti-tuberculosis therapy and associated factors among patients with tuberculosis in northwest Ethiopia.
An institution based cross-sectional survey was conducted among tuberculosis patients who were following anti-tuberculosis treatment in North Gondar zone from February 20 – March 30, 2013. Data were collected by trained data collectors using a structured and pre-tested questionnaire. Data were entered to EPI INFO version 3.5.3 and analyzed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 20. Multiple logistic regressions were fitted to identify associations and to control potential confounding variables. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval was calculated and p-values<0.05 were considered statistically significant.
A total of 280 tuberculosis patients were interviewed; 55.7% were males and nearly three quarters (72.5%) were urban dwellers. The overall non-adherence for the last one month and the last four days before the survey were 10% and 13.6% respectively. Non-adherence was high if the patients had forgetfulness (AOR 7.04, 95% CI 1.40–35.13), is on the continuation phase of chemotherapy (AOR: 6.95, 95% CI 1.81–26.73), had symptoms of tuberculosis during the interview (AOR: 4.29, 95% CI 1.53–12.03), and had co-infection with HIV (AOR: 4.06, 95% CI 1.70–9.70).
Non-adherence to anti-tuberculosis treatment was high. Forgetfulness, being in the continuation phases of chemotherapy, having symptoms of tuberculosis during the interview, and co-infected with HIV were significantly associated with non-adherence to anti-tuberculosis therapy. Special attention on adherence counseling should be given to symptomatic patients, TB/HIV co-infected patients, and those in the continuation phase of the tuberculosis therapy.
PMCID: PMC3823971  PMID: 24244364
5.  Depression among women with obstetric fistula, and pelvic organ prolapse in northwest Ethiopia 
BMC Psychiatry  2013;13:236.
The prevalence of depression is not well studied among women with pelvic floor disorders. Hence, this study aimed to determine the prevalence of depression and its associated factors among women with pelvic floor disorders.
A cross-sectional study was conducted among 306 women with one or more of the advanced pelvic floor disorders who attended at the gynaecologic outpatient clinic of Gondar university referral hospital in the six months data collection period. Women who complained of urinary or faecal incontinence or protruding mass per vagina were assessed and staged accordingly. Eligible women i.e. those with advanced pelvic organ prolapse or obstetric fistula were included consecutively. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain socio-demographic data and medical histories for all consenting women. Interviews were done by a female midwife nurse. Depression measures were obtained using the Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI) tool administered by the midwife nurse after intensive training. Data were entered into a computer using Epi Info version 3. 5.3, and then exported to SPSS version 20 for analysis. Multiple logistic regressions were fitted and Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated to identify associated factors.
Of the 306 women interviewed, 269 had advanced pelvic organ prolapse (stages 3 and 4), 37 had obstetric fistula. All four women (100%) with both faecal and urinary incontinence, 97.0% those with urinary incontinence due to obstetric fistula and 67.7% of those with advanced pelvic organ prolapse (stages 3 and 4) had symptoms of depression. Depression was significantly associated with age 50 years or older (P < 0.01), marital status (P < 0.05), history of divorce (p < 0.01), self perception of severe problem (P < 0.05), and having stage 3 pelvic organ prolapse (P < 0.01).
Women with advanced pelvic organ prolapse, and obstetric fistula had high prevalence of depressive symptoms. A holistic management approach, including mental health care is recommended for women having such severe forms of pelvic floor disorders.
PMCID: PMC3849390  PMID: 24070342
Depression; Pelvic organ prolapse; Obstetric fistula; Ethiopia
6.  Mother-to-child transmission of HIV and its predictors among HIV-exposed infants at a PMTCT clinic in northwest Ethiopia 
BMC Public Health  2013;13:398.
Mother-to-child transmission of HIV (MTCT) accounts for more than 90% of pediatric Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) cases. Prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) programs are provided for dual benefits i.e. prevention of HIV transmission from mother to child and enrolment of infected pregnant women and their families into antiretroviral treatment (ART). This study assessed risk and predictors of HIV transmission among HIV-exposed infants on follow up at a PMTCT clinic in a referral hospital.
Institution based retrospective follow up study was carried at Gondar University referral hospital PMTCT clinic. All eligible records of HIV-exposed infants enrolled between September 2005 and July 2011 were included. A midwife nurse collected data using a structured data extraction format. Data were then entered in to EPI INFO Version 3.5.1 statistical software and analyzed by SPSS version 20.0. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to identify associations.
A total of 509 infant records were included in the analysis. The median age of infants at enrolment to follow up was 6 weeks (inter quartile range [IQR] = 2 weeks). A total of 51(10%, 95% CI: 7.8% - 13%) infants were infected with HIV. Late enrolment to the exposed infant follow up clinic (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] = 2.89, 95% CI: 1.35, 6.21), rural residence (AOR = 5.05, 95% CI: 2.34, 10.9), home delivery (AOR = 2.82, 95% CI: 1.2, 6.64), absence of maternal PMTCT interventions (AOR = 5.02, 95% CI: 2.43, 10.4) and mixed infant feeding practices (AOR = 4.18, 95% CI: 1.59, 10.99) were significantly and independently associated with maternal to child transmission of HIV in this study.
There is a high risk of MTCT of HIV among exposed infants on follow up at the PMTCT clinic of the University of Gondar referral hospital. The findings of this study will provide valuable information for policy makers to enhance commitment and support for rural settings in the PMTCT scaling-up program.
PMCID: PMC3639796  PMID: 23621862
HIV-exposed infants; HIV transmission; Predictors; Ethiopia
7.  Predictors of mortality among children on Antiretroviral Therapy at a referral hospital, Northwest Ethiopia: A retrospective follow up study 
BMC Pediatrics  2012;12:161.
An estimated 2.5 million children were living with HIV/AIDS at the end of 2009, 2.3 million (92%) in sub-Saharan Africa. Without treatment, a third of children with HIV will die of AIDS before their first birthday, half dying before two years of age. Hence, this study aimed to assess magnitude and predictors of mortality among children on Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) at a referral hospital in North-West Ethiopia.
Institution based retrospective follow up study was carried out among HIV-positive children from January 1st, 2006 - March 31st, 2011. Information on relevant variables was collected from patients’ charts and registries. Life table was used to estimate the cumulative survival of children. Log rank tests were employed to compare survival between the different categories of the explanatory variables. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards model was fitted to identify predictors of mortality.
A total of 549 records were included in the analysis. The mean age at initiation of treatment was 6.35 ±3.78 SD years. The median follow up period was 22 months. At the end of the follow up, 41(7.5%) were dead and 384(69.9%) were alive. Mortality was 4.0 deaths per 100 child-years of follow-up period. The cumulative probabilities of survival at 3, 6, 12, 24, and 60 months of ART were 0.96, 0.94, 0.93, 0.92 and 0.83 respectively. Majority (90.2%) of the deaths occurred within the first year of treatment. Absence of cotrimoxazole preventive therapy (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 4.74, 95% CI: 2.17, 10.34), anaemia (haemoglobin level < 10gm/dl) (AHR=2.44, 95% CI: 1.26, 4.73), absolute CD4 cell count below the threshold for severe immunodeficiency (AHR=2.24, 95% CI: 1.07, 4.69) and delayed or regressing developmental milestones at baseline (AHR=6.31, 95% CI: 2.52, 15.83) were predictors of mortality.
There was a high rate of early mortality. Hence, starting ART very early reduces disease progression and early mortality; close follow up of all children of HIV-positive mothers is recommended to make the diagnosis and start treatment at an earlier time before they develop severe immunodeficiency.
PMCID: PMC3478986  PMID: 23043325
HIV/AIDS; Children; ART; Mortality Predictors; Ethiopia

Results 1-7 (7)