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1.  Abdominal obesity and serum adiponectin complexes among population-based elementary school children in Japan: a cross-sectional study 
BMC Pediatrics  2014;14:81.
There are a limited number of studies regarding the association between abdominal obesity and serum adiponectin complexes (high, medium, and low molecular weight adiponectins) among population-based elementary school children, especially in Japan, where blood collection is not usually performed during annual health examinations of school children. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between abdominal obesity and serum adiponectin complexes among population-based elementary school children in Japan.
Subjects were all the fourth-grade school children (9 or 10 years of age) in the town of Ina during 2005–2008 (N = 1675). The height, weight, percent body fat, and waist circumference (WC) of each subject were measured. Blood samples were drawn from subjects to measure adiponectin isoform values. Childhood abdominal obesity was defined as “a waist-to-height ratio greater than or equal to 0.5” or “a WC greater than or equal to 75 cm”. The Wilcoxon rank-sum test and the logistic regression model were used to analyze the association between abdominal obesity and each adiponectin isoform value.
Data from 1654 subjects (846 boys and 808 girls) were analyzed. Adiponectin complexes were lower in the abdominal obesity group than in the non-abdominal obesity group regardless of sex. Abdominal obesity significantly increased the odds ratio (OR) for each adiponectin isoform level less than or equal to the median value in boys; the OR (95% confidence interval [CI]) was 2.50 (1.59-3.92) for high molecular weight adiponectin (HMW-adn), 2.47 (1.57-3.88) for medium molecular weight adiponectin (MMW-adn), and 1.75 (1.13-2.70) for low molecular weight adiponectin (LMW-adn). In girls, the OR (95% CI) was 1.95 (1.18-3.21) for HMW-adn, 1.40 (0.86-2.28) for MMW-adn, and 1.06 (0.65-1.70) for LMW-adn.
Abdominal obesity was associated with lower adiponectin complexes and the influence of abdominal obesity varied by adiponectin isoform. Furthermore, the impact of abdominal obesity was larger in boys than in girls. The present study results suggest that prevention of abdominal obesity could contribute to the prevention of lower adiponectin levels, especially in boys.
PMCID: PMC3986877  PMID: 24670108
Abdominal obesity; Serum adiponectin complexes; School children; Population-based epidemiological study
2.  Sitagliptin added to voglibose monotherapy improves glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes 
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a progressive disease that frequently requires patients to use more than one oral antihyperglycemic agent to achieve adequate glycemic control. The present multicenter, randomized study assessed the efficacy and safety of the addition of sitagliptin to ongoing voglibose monotherapy (0.2–0.3 mg three times daily) in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who had inadequate glycemic control (glycated hemoglobin ≥6.9% and <10.5%).
Materials and Methods
The present study had an initial 12‐week, double‐blind treatment period in which patients were randomized (1:1) to sitagliptin 50 mg/day (n = 70) or placebo (n = 63), followed by a 40‐week, open‐label treatment period during which all patients received sitagliptin 50 mg/day, that could have been increased to 100 mg/day for patients meeting predefined glycemic criteria.
After 12 weeks, treatment with sitagliptin resulted in placebo‐subtracted mean changes from baseline in glycated hemoglobin (the primary end‐point), fasting plasma glucose and 2‐h postmeal glucose of –0.9%, –22.5 mg/dL and –51.3 mg/dL, respectively (all, P < 0.001). During the double‐blind period, adverse experiences were reported with similar frequency in both treatment groups, and the occurrences of hypoglycemia and gastrointestinal adverse experiences were low. In the open‐label period, sustained improvements in glycemic parameters were observed with sitagliptin treatment, and sitagliptin was generally well tolerated.
Sitagliptin added on to ongoing voglibose monotherapy provided significant improvements in glycemic parameters and was well tolerated in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who had inadequate glycemic control. This trial was registered with (no. NCT00837577).
PMCID: PMC4020255  PMID: 24843714
Incretins; Sitagliptin; Voglibose
3.  Long-Term Mortality in Nationwide Cohorts of Childhood-Onset Type 1 Diabetes in Japan and Finland 
Diabetes care  2003;26(7):2037-2042.
This study compares mortality from type 1 diabetes in Japan and Finland and examines the effects of sex, age at diagnosis, and calendar time period of diagnosis on mortality.
Research Design and Methods
Patients with type 1 diabetes from Japan (n = 1,408) and Finland (n = 5,126), diagnosed from 1965 through 1979, at age <18 years, were followed until 1994. Mortality was estimated with and without adjustment for that of the general population to assess absolute and relative mortality using Cox proportional hazard models.
Overall mortality rates in Japan and Finland were 607 (95% CI 510–718) and 352 (315–393), respectively, per 100,000 person-years; standardized mortality ratios were 12.9 (10.8–15.3) and 3.7 (3.3–4.1), respectively. Absolute mortality was higher for men than for women in Finland, but relative mortality was higher for women than for men in both cohorts. Absolute mortality was higher in both cohorts among those whose diabetes was diagnosed during puberty, but relative mortality did not show any significant difference by age at diagnosis in either cohort. In Japan, both absolute and relative mortality were higher among those whose diagnosis was in the 1960s rather than the 1970s.
Mortality from type 1 diabetes was higher in Japan compared with Finland. The increased risk of death from type 1 diabetes seems to vary by sex, age at diagnosis, and calendar time period of diagnosis. Further investigation, especially on cause-specific mortality, is warranted in the two countries.
PMCID: PMC3752687  PMID: 12832309
4.  Eating Behaviors and Overweight among Adolescents: A Population-Based Survey in Japan 
Journal of Obesity  2013;2013:717942.
Objectives. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between eating behaviors and overweight among population-based adolescents in Japan. Methods. Study subjects comprised adolescents in the seventh grade (age range, 12–13 years) from Ina, a town in Saitama Prefecture, Japan, between 1999 and 2008. The height and weight of the subjects were measured, and information concerning eating behaviors (eating speed and eating until full) was obtained using a self-administered questionnaire. Results. Among boys (n = 1586), fast eating speed significantly increased the odds ratio (OR) for overweight when compared with medium eating speed, regardless of eating until full or not; moreover, a more marked increase in the OR was observed among boys eating until full (OR: 2.78, 95% confidence interval: 1.76–4.38) than among those not eating until full (2.43, 1.41–4.20). Among girls (n = 1542), fast eating speed led to a significant increase in the OR in those eating until full; however, no significant increases were observed in the OR in those eating quickly and not until full. Conclusions. Among adolescents, fast eating speed was associated with overweight; furthermore, the combination of both fast eating speed and eating until full may have a significant effect on overweight.
PMCID: PMC3730185  PMID: 23956845
5.  LDL-cholesterol and body mass index among Japanese schoolchildren: a population-based cross-sectional study 
Serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is one of the most important risk factors for coronary heart disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between LDL-C and body mass index (BMI) in population-based Japanese schoolchildren.
The subjects comprised all fourth graders and seventh graders in Ina Town, Saitama Prefecture, Japan, during 2002-2009. Information about each subject’s age, sex, and family history of hypercholesterolemia was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. The body height, weight, and LDL-C were measured for each child. LDL-C was measured using the direct method. According to the LDL-C criteria of the Japan Atherosclerosis Society, LDL-C level was categorized into three subgroups: acceptable, < 110 mg/dL; borderline, 110-139 mg/dL; and high, ≥ 140 mg/dL. Children with either borderline or high LDL-C level were considered to have high-normal LDL-C (HLDL-C).
Data from a total of 5869 subjects were analyzed. A higher BMI category was associated with a higher prevalence of HLDL-C regardless of sex or grade level (P < 0.05). When compared with the <50th percentile BMI category, the odds ratio (OR) for HLDL-C was statistically significant in the 75th to 84th percentile category of fourth-grade boys (OR: 1.95, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.28-2.97), the 85th to 94th percentile of fourth-grade girls (2.52, 1.74-3.64), and the 85th to 94th percentile of seventh-grade boys (2.04, 1.31-3.20) and girls (1.90, 1.24-2.91).
A statistically significant association between LDL-C levels and BMI was observed in Japanese school children.
PMCID: PMC3680021  PMID: 23705977
Serum low-density lipoprotein; Body mass index; Schoolchildren
6.  Addition of sitagliptin to ongoing metformin monotherapy improves glycemic control in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes over 52 weeks 
The efficacy and safety of sitagliptin, a highly selective dipeptidyl peptidase‐4 inhibitor, when added to metformin monotherapy was examined in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes.
Materials and Methods
In this 52‐week, add‐on to metformin study, 149 patients were randomly assigned to receive sitagliptin 50 mg or placebo once daily in a double‐blind fashion for 12 weeks. Thereafter, all patients who completed the double‐blind period of the study received open‐label sitagliptin 50 mg once daily for 40 weeks, with the investigator option of increasing sitagliptin to 100 mg once daily for patients who met predefined glycemic thresholds.
After 12 weeks of treatment, the mean change from baseline in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) significantly decreased with sitagliptin relative to placebo (between‐group difference [95% confidence interval] = −0.7% [−0.9 to −0.5] P < 0.001). At week 12, the mean changes in 2‐h post‐meal glucose (−2.6 mmol/L [−3.5 to −1.7]) and fasting plasma glucose (−1.0 mmol/L [−1.3 to −0.6]) also decreased significantly with sitagliptin relative to placebo (P < 0.001 for both). Significant improvements from baseline in glycemic control were also observed in the open‐label period through to week 52. There were no differences between treatment groups in the incidence of adverse events (AEs), including hypoglycemia and predefined gastrointestinal AEs (nausea, vomiting and diarrhea) during the double‐blind period, with similar findings in the open‐label period.
Over a period of 52 weeks, the addition of sitagliptin once‐daily to ongoing metformin therapy was efficacious and generally well tolerated in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. This trial was registered with (no. NCT00363948).
PMCID: PMC4019272  PMID: 24843649
Metformin; Sitagliptin; Type 2 diabetes
7.  Dopamine-Mediated Oxidation of Methionine 127 in α-Synuclein Causes Cytotoxicity and Oligomerization of α-Synuclein 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(2):e55068.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the selective loss of dopaminergic neurons and the presence of Lewy bodies. Many recent studies focused on the interaction between α-synuclein (α-syn) and dopamine in the pathogenesis of PD, and fluorescent anisotropy suggested that the C-terminal region of α-syn may be a target for modification by dopamine. However, it is not well understood why PD-related pathogenesis occurs selectively in dopaminergic neurons. We investigated the interaction between dopamine and α-syn with regard to cytotoxicity. A soluble oligomer was formed by co-incubating α-syn and dopamine in vitro. To clarify the effect of dopamine on α-syn in cells, we generated PC12 cells expressing human α-syn, as well as the α-syn mutants, M116A, Y125D, M127A, S129A, and M116A/M127A, in a tetracycline-inducible manner (PC12-TetOFF-α-syn). Overexpression of wildtype α-syn in catecholaminergic PC12 cells decreased cell viability in long-term cultures, while a competitive inhibitor of tyrosine hydroxylase blocked this vulnerability, suggesting that α-syn-related cytotoxicity is associated with dopamine metabolism. The vulnerabilities of all mutant cell lines were lower than that of wildtype α-syn-expressing cells. Moreover, α-syn containing dopamine-mediated oxidized methionine (Met(O)) was detected in PC12-TetOFF-α-syn. Met(O) was lower in methionine mutant cells, especially in the M127A or M116A/M127A mutants, but also in the Y125D and S129A mutants. Co-incubation of dopamine and the 125YEMPS129 peptide enhanced the production of H2O2, which may oxidize methionine residues and convert them to Met(O). Y125- or S129-lacking peptides did not enhance the dopamine-related production of H2O2. Our results suggest that M127 is the major target for oxidative modification by dopamine, and that Y125 and S129 may act as enhancers of this modification. These results may describe a mechanism of dopaminergic neuron-specific toxicity of α-syn in the pathogenesis of PD.
PMCID: PMC3573015  PMID: 23457458
8.  Number of siblings, birth order, and childhood overweight: a population-based cross-sectional study in Japan 
BMC Public Health  2012;12:766.
Although several studies have investigated the relationship between the number of siblings or birth order and childhood overweight, the results are inconsistent. In addition, little is known about the impact of having older or younger siblings on overweight among elementary schoolchildren. The present population-based study investigated the relationship of the number of siblings and birth order with childhood overweight and evaluated the impact of having younger or older siblings on childhood overweight among elementary schoolchildren in Japan.
Subjects comprised fourth-grade schoolchildren (age, 9–10 years) in Ina Town during 1999–2009. Information about subjects’ sex, age, birth weight, birth order, number of siblings, lifestyle, and parents’ age, height, and weight was collected by a self-administered questionnaire, while measurements of subjects’ height and weight were done at school. Childhood overweight was defined according to age- and sex-specific cut-off points proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. A logistic regression model was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of "number of siblings" or "birth order" for overweight.
Data from 4026 children were analyzed. Only children (OR: 2.13, 95% CI: 1.45-3.14) and youngest children (1.56, 1.13-2.16) significantly increased ORs for overweight compared with middle children. A larger number of siblings decreased the OR for overweight (P for trend < 0.001). Although there was no statistically significant relationship between a larger number of older siblings and overweight, a larger number of younger siblings resulted in a lower OR for overweight (P for trend < 0.001).
Being an only or youngest child was associated with childhood overweight, and having a larger number of younger siblings was negatively associated with overweight. The present study suggests that public health interventions to prevent childhood overweight need to focus on children from these family backgrounds.
PMCID: PMC3509397  PMID: 22966779
Sibling; Birth-order; Childhood overweight; Public health
9.  Cytoprotective effect of chlorogenic acid against α-synuclein-related toxicity in catecholaminergic PC12 cells 
Parkinson’s disease is a major neurodegenerative disease involving the selective degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and α-synuclein containing Lewy bodies formation in the substantia nigra. Although α-synuclein is a key molecule for both dopaminergic neuron death and the formation of inclusion bodies, the mechanism of α-synuclein induction of Parkinson’s disease-related pathogenesis is not understood. In the present study, we found that the interaction between dopamine and α-synuclein requires the oxidation of dopamine. Furthermore, we examined the protective effect of chlorogenic acid, a major polyphenol contained in coffee, against α-syn and dopamine-related toxicity. Chlorogenic acid inhibits several DA/α-synuclein-related phenomenon, including the oxidation of dopamine, the interaction of oxidized dopamine with α-synuclein, and the oligomerization of α-synuclein under dopamine existing conditions in vitro. Finally, we showed that the cytoprotective effect against α-synuclein-related toxicity in PC12 cells that can be controlled by the Tet-Off system. Although the induction of α-synuclein in catecholaminergic PC12 cells causes a decrease in cell viability, chlorogenic acid rescued this cytotoxicity significantly in a dose dependent manner. These results suggest that the interaction of oxidized DA with α-synuclein may be a novel therapeutic target for Parkinson’s disease, and polyphenols, including chlorogenic acid, are candidates as protective and preventive agents for Parkinson’s disease onset.
PMCID: PMC3432822  PMID: 22962530
chlorogenic acid; polyphenol; α-synuclein; Parkinson’s disease; dopamine
10.  High-molecular-weight adiponectin and anthropometric variables among elementary schoolchildren: a population-based cross-sectional study in Japan 
BMC Pediatrics  2012;12:139.
Studies about the relationship between high-molecular-weight adiponectin (HMW-adn) and anthropometric variables among population-based elementary schoolchildren have been too limited, especially in Japan, where blood collection is not usually performed in the annual health examination at elementary schools. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between HMW-adn and anthropometric variables (body mass index [BMI], percent body fat [%BF], waist circumference [WC], and waist-to-height ratio [WHtR]) among population-based elementary schoolchildren in Japan.
Subjects comprised all fourth-grade schoolchildren (9 or 10 years of age) in the town of Ina, Saitama Prefecture, Japan during 2005–2008 (N = 1675). After excluding 21 subjects because of refusal to participate or incomplete data, data from a total of 1654 subjects (846 boys and 808 girls) were analyzed. The height, weight, %BF, and WC of each subject were measured, while blood samples were drawn from the subjects to measure adiponectin levels (HMW-adn and total adiponectin). Childhood obesity was determined according to the age- and sex-specific cut-off points proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. Spearman’s correlation coefficients between adiponectin levels and anthropometric variables were calculated for each sex.
The anthropometric variables were negatively correlated with HMW-adn in both boys and girls. Correlation coefficients of HMW-adn with anthropometric variables in the obesity group were consistently higher than those in the non-obesity group among both boys and girls. In addition, only WHtR was significantly correlated with HMW-adn regardless of sex and physique (obesity or non-obesity); the correlation coefficient was -0.386 among boys and -0.543 among girls in the obesity group, while it was -0.124 among boys and -0.081 among girls in the non-obesity group.
HMW-adn was negatively correlated with anthropometric variables, while the correlation coefficients of HMW-adn with anthropometric variables in the obesity group were consistently higher than those in the non-obesity group. Moreover, only WHtR was significantly associated with HMW-adn regardless of sex and physique. The results of this study suggested that it is useful to monitor WHtR as a surrogate for HMW-adn among elementary school students, especially obese children.
PMCID: PMC3478987  PMID: 22937905
High-molecular-weight adiponectin; Anthropometric variable; Obesity; Waist-to-height ratio; Children
11.  An Exploration of Barriers to Insulin Initiation for Physicians in Japan: Findings from the Diabetes Attitudes, Wishes and Needs (DAWN) JAPAN Study 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(6):e36361.
Insulin is recommended as an appropriate treatment in type 2 diabetes patients with suboptimal glycemic control; however, its initiation is often delayed. We therefore conducted the DAWN (Diabetes Attitudes, Wishes and Needs) JAPAN study in an attempt to identify specific patient- and physician-related factors which contribute to delay of insulin initiation among Japanese patients with diabetes. In this report, we explored barriers for physicians which prevent timely insulin initiation.
The DAWN JAPAN study is a multicenter, questionnaire-based survey, conducted between 2004 and 2005. Participating physicians were categorized as follows based on their expertise: Japan Diabetes Society (JDS) certified specialists (n = 77), JDS-affiliated physicians (n = 30), and non-JDS-affiliated physicians (n = 27). To assess physician barriers to insulin initiation, we have used a newly developed 27- item questionnaire.
The mean age of patients (n = 11,656) treated by participating physicians was 64.1 years. The mean duration of diabetes was 121.6 months, and their mean HbA1c was 7.5%. Insulin was used in 27.4% of total patients. With regard to physician barriers to insulin initiation, the biggest differences in concerns expressed by JDS-certified specialists and non-JDS-affiliated physicians were observed in the following items with statistical significance: “I do not have staff (nurse, pharmacists) who can assist with explanations” (1.3% vs 55.5%, respectively), “I have concerns about the use of insulin therapy in elderly patients” (38.1% vs 81.5%), and “It is difficult to provide guidance and education on insulin injection to patients” (16.9% vs 55.5%). The mean HbA1c at which physicians responded they would recommend insulin to their patients was 8.7%; however, they would reduce this level to 8.2% if they themselves required insulin.
Our results demonstrated that physicians have concerns about insulin use, and suggested that their concerns can lead to delay of insulin initiation.
PMCID: PMC3375282  PMID: 22719830
12.  Mechanisms Underlying Production And Externalization of Oxidized Phosphatidylserine in Apoptosis: Involvement of Mitochondria 
Yonago Acta medica  2012;55(1):11-20.
The present study was performed by using selective inhibitors of caspase-8 and caspase-3 functioning upstream and downstream from mitochondria, respectively to determine whether mitochondria are involved in the mechanisms underlying production and externalization of oxidized phosphatidylserine (PSox) during Fas-mediated apoptosis. Treatment with anti-Fas antibody induced caspase-3 activation, chromatin condensation, release of cytochrome c (cyt c) from mitochondria into the cytosol as well as production of PSox and its exposure to the cell surface in Jurkat cells. Inhibition of caspase-8 by pretreatment with Z-IETD-FMK, a membrane permeable selective caspase-8 inhibitor reduced mitochondrial cyt c release, the amount of PSox not only within but also on the surface of Jurkat cells, caspase-3 activation, and apoptotic cell number after treatment with anti-Fas antibody. In contrast, Z-DEVD-FMK, a membrane permeable selective caspase-3 inhibitor was unable to inhibit cyt c release, and the amount of PSox both within and on the surface of the cells after anti-Fas antibody, although it suppressed caspase-3 activation and apoptosis. Thus, these results strongly suggest that mitochondria play an important role in production of PSox and subsequent its externalization during apoptosis.
PMCID: PMC3727486  PMID: 24031135
apoptosis; caspase inhibitor; cytochrome c; mitochondria; oxidized phosphatidylserine
13.  Eating Behavior and Childhood Overweight Among Population-Based Elementary Schoolchildren in Japan  
This study investigated the relationship between eating behavior and childhood overweight among population-based elementary schoolchildren in Japan. Data was collected from fourth graders (9 or 10 years of age) from Ina Town, Saitama Prefecture, Japan from 1999 to 2009. Information about subjects’ sex, age, and lifestyle, including eating behaviors (eating until full and chewing thoroughly), was obtained using a self-administered questionnaire, and height and weight were measured directly. Overweight was determined according to the definition established by the International Obesity Task Force. Data from 4027 subjects (2079 boys and 1948 girls) were analyzed. Chewing thoroughly was associated with a significantly decreased odds ratio (OR) for being overweight, whereas eating until full significantly increased the OR for being overweight (OR: 1.50, 95% confidence interval: 1.16–1.94) among boys. However, eating until full was not associated with a significantly increased OR for being overweight among the group that reported chewing thoroughly, whereas it was associated with a significantly increased OR for being overweight (2.02, 1.38–2.94) among boys who did not chew thoroughly. In conclusion, eating until full or not chewing thoroughly was associated with being overweight among elementary schoolchildren. Results of this study suggest that chewing thoroughly may be an avenue to explore childhood overweight prevention efforts.
PMCID: PMC3366619  PMID: 22690201
eating behavior; overweight; children; eating until full; chewing
14.  Sitagliptin added to treatment with ongoing pioglitazone for up to 52 weeks improves glycemic control in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes 
Aims/Introduction:  Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus often require treatment with more than one oral antihyperglycemic agent to achieve their glycemic goal. The present study was carried out to assess the efficacy and safety of sitagliptin as add‐on therapy in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus inadequately controlled (HbA1c ≥ 6.9% and <10.4%) on pioglitazone monotherapy (15–45 mg/day).
Materials and Methods:  In the initial 12‐week, double‐blind treatment period, patients were randomized (1:1) to sitagliptin 50 mg/day (n = 66) or placebo (n = 68), followed by a 40‐week open‐label treatment period in which all patients received sitagliptin 50 mg/day that could have been increased to 100 mg/day for patients meeting predefined glycemic parameters.
Results:  After 12 weeks, mean changes from baseline in HbA1c (the primary end‐point), fasting plasma glucose and 2‐h post‐meal glucose were −0.8%, −0.9 mmol/L and −2.7 mmol/L, respectively, in the sitagliptin group compared with placebo (all P < 0.001). The incidence of adverse experiences during the double‐blind treatment period was similar in both treatment groups, and the incidences of hypoglycemia and gastrointestinal adverse experiences were low. In the open‐label period, improvements in glycemic parameters with sitagliptin treatment were maintained and sitagliptin was generally well tolerated.
Conclusions:  Sitagliptin as add‐on therapy provided significant improvements in glycemic parameters and was well tolerated in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus inadequately controlled on pioglitazone monotherapy. This trial was registered with (no. NCT00372060). (J Diabetes Invest, doi: 10.1111/j.2040‐1124.2011.00120.x, 2011)
PMCID: PMC4019307  PMID: 24843518
Dipeptidyl peptidase‐4 inhibitor; Incretins; Sitagliptin
15.  Management of Elevated Cholesterol in the primary prevention Group of Adult Japanese (MEGA) Study assists the view that a fasting plasma glucose level ≥100 mg/dL increases cardiovascular risk 
Aims/Introduction:  To evaluate the relationship between fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level and cardiovascular disease in patients with hypercholesterolemia, and to evaluate the effect of pravastatin on risk reduction in a post‐hoc analysis of the large‐scale Management of Elevated Cholesterol in the primary prevention Group of Adult Japanese (MEGA) Study.
Materials and Methods:  A total of 7832 patients were randomized to diet alone or diet plus low‐dose pravastatin (10–20 mg/day, average 8.3 mg during follow‐up periods) and followed for >5 years. In this analysis, the relationship between FPG and risk of cardiovascular disease events over 5 years were studied in 6673 patients with recorded baseline FPG levels by using the multivariable Cox proportional hazards model with the restricted quadratic spline based on three knots for FPG quartiles.
Results:  The spline curve showed an obvious sharp increased risk from a FPG of ≥100 mg/dL. The spline curve in the diet plus pravastatin group was consistently lower than in the diet group, regardless of the FPG level.
Conclusions:  The risk of cardiovascular disease appears to increase when FPG is ≥100 mg/dL, with a sharp increased risk found above this level in patients with hypercholesterolemia. Statin treatment seems to be beneficial to reduce cardiovascular disease risk in this population. This trial was registered with (no. NCT00211705). (J Diabetes Invest, doi: 10.1111/j.2040‐1124.2011.00121.x, 2011)
PMCID: PMC4019309  PMID: 24843520
Fasting plasma glucose; Cardiovascular risk; Randomized controlled trial
16.  Relationship between hemoglobin A1c and cardiovascular disease in mild-to-moderate hypercholesterolemic Japanese individuals: subanalysis of a large-scale randomized controlled trial 
Although the ADA/EASD/IDF International Expert Committee recommends using hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) to define diabetes, the relation between HbA1c and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has not been thoroughly investigated. We analyzed this relation using clinical data on Japanese individuals with hypercholesterolemia.
In the large-scale MEGA Study 7832 patients aged 40 to 70 years old with mild-to-moderate hypercholesterolemia without CVD were randomized to diet alone or diet plus pravastatin and followed for >5 years. In the present subanalysis of that study a total of 4002 patients with baseline and follow-up HbA1c data were stratified according to having an average HbA1c during the first year of follow-up <6.0%, 6.0%-<6.5%, or ≥6.5% and their subsequent 5-year incidence rates of CVD compared according to sex, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and treatment arm.
Overall, risk of CVD was significantly 2.4 times higher in individuals with HbA1c ≥6.5% versus <6.0%. A similar relation was noted in men and women (hazard ratio [HR], 2.1; p <0.01 and HR, 3.0; p <0.01, respectively) and was regardless of treatment arm (diet alone group: HR, 2.2; p <0.001; diet plus pravastatin group: HR, 1.8; p = 0.02). Spline curves showed a continuous risk increase according to HbA1c level in all subpopulations studied.
In hypercholesterolemic individuals the risk of CVD increases linearly with HbA1c level. This significant contribution by elevated HbA1c to increased CVD is independent of pravastatin therapy, and thus requires appropriate HbA1c management in addition to lipids reduction.
PMCID: PMC3150244  PMID: 21714932
Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c); cardiovascular disease (CVD); hypercholesterolemia; HMG CoA reductase inhibitor; pravastatin, MEGA Study
17.  Cost‐effectiveness analysis of voglibose for prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Japanese patients with impaired glucose tolerance 
Aims/Introduction:  The objective of this study was to estimate the cost‐effectiveness of administering voglibose, in addition to standard care of diet and exercise, compared with standard care alone for high‐risk Japanese patients with impaired glucose tolerance.
Materials and Methods:  A Markov model was constructed to estimate the long‐term prognosis of individuals with impaired glucose tolerance, in terms of expected medical costs and life expectancy. Transition probabilities were derived from the results of a clinical trial of voglibose, as well as the epidemiological information. Effectiveness was evaluated by life expectancy and only direct costs were considered. The future costs and effectiveness were discounted by 3% per year.
Results:  Estimated expected lifetime costs for the voglibose administration group and the standard care group was JPY718,724 ($US7598) and JPY1,365,405 ($US14,433), respectively, with voglibose administration resulting in saving of JPY646,681 ($US6836). Estimated life expectancy was 18.672 and 18.073 years, respectively, with life expectancy prolonged by 0.599 years when voglibose was administered together with the standard care.
Conclusions:  In order to prevent type 2 diabetes among Japanese patients with impaired glucose tolerance, voglibose with standard care resulted in cost‐saving, as well as prolongation of life expectancy, compared with standard care alone. (J Diabetes Invest, doi: 10.1111/j.2040‐1124.2010.0052.x, 2010)
PMCID: PMC4014888  PMID: 24843440
Cost effectiveness; Diabetes mellitus; Voglibose
18.  Report of the Committee on the Classification and Diagnostic Criteria of Diabetes Mellitus 
Concept of Diabetes Mellitus:
Diabetes mellitus is a group of diseases associated with various metabolic disorders, the main feature of which is chronic hyperglycemia due to insufficient insulin action. Its pathogenesis involves both genetic and environmental factors. The long‐term persistence of metabolic disorders can cause susceptibility to specific complications and also foster arteriosclerosis. Diabetes mellitus is associated with a broad range of clinical presentations, from being asymptomatic to ketoacidosis or coma, depending on the degree of metabolic disorder.
Classification (Tables 1 and 2, and Figure 1):
 Etiological classification of diabetes mellitus and glucose metabolism disorders
Note: Those that cannot at present be classified as any of the above are called unclassifiable.
The occurrence of diabetes‐specific complications has not been confirmed in some of these conditions.
 Diabetes mellitus and glucose metabolism disorders due to other specific mechanisms and diseases
The occurrence of diabetes‐specific complications has not been confirmed in some of these conditions.
 A scheme of the relationship between etiology (mechanism) and patho‐physiological stages (states) of diabetes mellitus. Arrows pointing right represent worsening of glucose metabolism disorders (including onset of diabetes mellitus). Among the arrow lines, indicates the condition classified as ‘diabetes mellitus’. Arrows pointing left represent improvement in the glucose metabolism disorder. The broken lines indicate events of low frequency. For example, in type 2 diabetes mellitus, infection can lead to ketoacidosis and require temporary insulin treatment for survival. Also, once diabetes mellitus has developed, it is treated as diabetes mellitus regardless of improvement in glucose metabolism, therefore, the arrow lines pointing left are filled in black. In such cases, a broken line is used, because complete normalization of glucose metabolism is rare.
The classification of glucose metabolism disorders is principally derived from etiology, and includes staging of pathophysiology based on the degree of deficiency of insulin action. These disorders are classified into four groups: (i) type 1 diabetes mellitus; (ii) type 2 diabetes mellitus; (iii) diabetes mellitus due to other specific mechanisms or diseases; and (iv) gestational diabetes mellitus. Type 1 diabetes is characterized by destruction of pancreatic β‐cells. Type 2 diabetes is characterized by combinations of decreased insulin secretion and decreased insulin sensitivity (insulin resistance). Glucose metabolism disorders in category (iii) are divided into two subgroups; subgroup A is diabetes in which a genetic abnormality has been identified, and subgroup B is diabetes associated with other pathologic disorders or clinical conditions. The staging of glucose metabolism includes normal, borderline and diabetic stages depending on the degree of hyperglycemia occurring as a result of the lack of insulin action or clinical condition. The diabetic stage is then subdivided into three substages: non‐insulin‐ requiring, insulin‐requiring for glycemic control, and insulin‐dependent for survival. The two former conditions are called non‐insulin‐dependent diabetes and the latter is known as insulin‐dependent diabetes. In each individual, these stages may vary according to the deterioration or the improvement of the metabolic state, either spontaneously or by treatment.
Diagnosis (Tables 3–7 and Figure 2):
 Criteria of fasting plasma glucose levels and 75 g oral glucose tolerance test 2‐h value
*Casual plasma glucose ≥200 mg/dL (≥11.1 mmol/L) and HbA1c≥6.5% are also regarded as to indicate diabetic type.
Even for normal type, if 1‐h value is 180 mg/dL (10.0 mmol/L), the risk of progression to diabetes mellitus is greater than for <180 mg/dL (10.0 mmol/L) and should be treated as with borderline type (follow‐up observation, etc.). Fasting plasma glucose level of 100–109 mg/dL (5.5–6.0 mmol/L) is called ‘high‐normal’: within the range of normal fasting plasma glucose.
Plasma glucose level after glucose load in oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is not included in casual plasma glucose levels. The value for HbA1c (%) is indicated with 0.4% added to HbA1c (JDS) (%).
 Procedures for diagnosing diabetes mellitus
*The value for HbA1c (%) is indicated with 0.4% added to HbA1c (JDS) (%). **Hyperglycemia must be confirmed in a non‐stressful condition. OGTT, oral glucose tolerance test.
 Disorders and conditions associated with low HbA1c values
 Situations where a 75‐g oral glucose tolerance test is recommended
*The value for HbA1c (%) is indicated with 0.4% added to HbA1c (JDS) (%).
 Definition and diagnostic criteria of gestational diabetes mellitus
(IADPSG Consensus Panel, Reference 42, partly modified with permission of Diabetes Care).
 Flow chart outlining steps in the clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. *The value for HbA1c (%) is indicated with 0.4% added to HbA1c (JDS) (%).
Categories of the State of Glycemia:  Confirmation of chronic hyperglycemia is essential for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. When plasma glucose levels are used to determine the categories of glycemia, patients are classified as having a diabetic type if they meet one of the following criteria: (i) fasting plasma glucose level of ≥126 mg/dL (≥7.0 mmol/L); (ii) 2‐h value of ≥200 mg/dL (≥11.1 mmol/L) in 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT); or (iii) casual plasma glucose level of ≥200 mg/dL (≥11.1 mmol/L). Normal type is defined as fasting plasma glucose level of <110 mg/dL (<6.1 mmol/L) and 2‐h value of <140 mg/dL (<7.8 mmol/L) in OGTT. Borderline type (neither diabetic nor normal type) is defined as falling between the diabetic and normal values. According to the current revision, in addition to the earlier listed plasma glucose values, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) has been given a more prominent position as one of the diagnostic criteria. That is, (iv) HbA1c≥6.5% is now also considered to indicate diabetic type. The value of HbA1c, which is equivalent to the internationally used HbA1c (%) (HbA1c [NGSP]) defined by the NGSP (National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program), is expressed by adding 0.4% to the HbA1c (JDS) (%) defined by the Japan Diabetes Society (JDS).
Subjects with borderline type have a high rate of developing diabetes mellitus, and correspond to the combination of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) noted by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and WHO. Although borderline cases show few of the specific complications of diabetes mellitus, the risk of arteriosclerosis is higher than those of normal type. When HbA1c is 6.0–6.4%, suspected diabetes mellitus cannot be excluded, and when HbA1c of 5.6–5.9% is included, it forms a group with a high risk for developing diabetes mellitus in the future, even if they do not have it currently.
Clinical Diagnosis:  1 If any of the criteria for diabetic type (i) through to (iv) is observed at the initial examination, the patient is judged to be ‘diabetic type’. Re‐examination is conducted on another day, and if ‘diabetic type’ is reconfirmed, diabetes mellitus is diagnosed. However, a diagnosis cannot be made only by the re‐examination of HbA1c alone. Moreover, if the plasma glucose values (any of criteria [i], [ii], or [iii]) and the HbA1c (criterion [iv]) in the same blood sample both indicate diabetic type, diabetes mellitus is diagnosed based on the initial examination alone. If HbA1c is used, it is essential that the plasma glucose level (criteria [i], [ii] or [iii]) also indicates diabetic type for a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. When diabetes mellitus is suspected, HbA1c should be measured at the same time as examination for plasma glucose.2 If the plasma glucose level indicates diabetic type (any of [i], [ii], or [iii]) and either of the following conditions exists, diabetes mellitus can be diagnosed immediately at the initial examination.• The presence of typical symptoms of diabetes mellitus (thirst, polydipsia, polyuria, weight loss)• The presence of definite diabetic retinopathy3 If it can be confirmed that the above conditions 1 or 2 existed in the past, diabetes mellitus can be diagnosed or suspected regardless of the current test results.4 If the diagnosis of diabetes cannot be established by these procedures, the patient is followed up and re‐examined after an appropriate interval.5 The physician should assess not only the presence or absence of diabetes, but also its etiology and glycemic stage, and the presence and absence of diabetic complications or associated conditions.
Epidemiological Study:  For the purpose of estimating the frequency of diabetes mellitus, ‘diabetes mellitus’ can be substituted for the determination of ‘diabetic type’ from a single examination. In this case, HbA1c≥6.5% alone can be defined as ‘diabetes mellitus’.
Health Screening:  It is important not to misdiagnose diabetes mellitus, and thus clinical information such as family history and obesity should be referred to at the time of screening in addition to an index for plasma glucose level.
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus:  There are two hyperglycemic disorders in pregnancy: (i) gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM); and (ii) diabetes mellitus. GDM is diagnosed if one or more of the following criteria is met in a 75 g OGTT during pregnancy:
1 Fasting plasma glucose level of ≥92 mg/dL (5.1 mmol/L)2 1‐h value of ≥180 mg/dL (10.0 mmol/L)3 2‐h value of ≥153 mg/dL (8.5 mmol/L)
However, diabetes mellitus that is diagnosed by the clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus defined earlier is excluded from GDM. (J Diabetes Invest, doi: 10.1111/j.2040‐1124.2010.00074.x, 2010)
PMCID: PMC4020724  PMID: 24843435
Diabetes mellitus; Clinical diagnosis; HbA1c
19.  High Blood Pressure in Obese and Nonobese Japanese Children: Blood Pressure Measurement is Necessary Even in Nonobese Japanese Children 
Journal of Epidemiology  2010;20(5):408-412.
Although the prevalences of obesity and hypertension (HT) are increasing in children, there have been few epidemiological studies of HT in Japanese children. We evaluated the prevalences of HT and high-normal blood pressure (HNBP), and examined the relationship between blood pressure (BP) and body mass index (BMI), in Japanese children.
The subjects of this study were 2420 children living in the town of Ina, Saitama Prefecture, Japan during the period from 2006 through 2008. Body height, weight, and BP were measured. HT and HNBP were defined according to the HT criteria for Japanese children. Children with HNBP or HT were defined as having high blood pressure (HBP).
The prevalences of HBP were 15.9% and 15.8% in fourth-grade boys and girls, respectively, and 11.1% and 10.8% in seventh-grade boys and girls, respectively. Irrespective of sex or grade level, a higher BMI was associated with a higher prevalence of HBP (P < 0.001). When compared with the <50th percentile BMI category, the crude odds ratios (ORs) were statistically significant for the 75th to 84th percentile category in fourth-grade boys (OR: 4.54, 95% CI: 2.36–8.76), the ≥95th percentile in fourth-grade girls (13.29, 5.93–29.77), the 85th to 94th percentile (3.16, 1.46–6.84) in seventh-grade boys, and the ≥95th percentile (7.96, 3.18–19.93) in seventh-grade girls.
BMI was associated with HBP in Japanese school children. In addition, some children in the lower BMI categories also had HBP.
PMCID: PMC3900836  PMID: 20699600
high blood pressure; children; BMI; hypertensive family history
20.  Relationship of body mass index to percent body fat and waist circumference among schoolchildren in Japan - the influence of gender and obesity: a population-based cross-sectional study 
BMC Public Health  2010;10:493.
Although the correlation coefficient between body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat (%BF) or waist circumference (WC) has been reported, studies conducted among population-based schoolchildren to date have been limited in Japan, where %BF and WC are not usually measured in annual health examinations at elementary schools or junior high schools. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship of BMI to %BF and WC and to examine the influence of gender and obesity on these relationships among Japanese schoolchildren.
Subjects included 3,750 schoolchildren from the fourth and seventh grade in Ina-town, Saitama Prefecture, Japan between 2004 and 2008. Information about subject's age, sex, height, weight, %BF, and WC was collected from annual physical examinations. %BF was measured with a bipedal biometrical impedance analysis device. Obesity was defined by the following two criteria: the obese definition of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the definition of obesity for Japanese children. Pearson's correlation coefficients between BMI and %BF or WC were calculated separately for sex.
Among fourth graders, the correlation coefficients between BMI and %BF were 0.74 for boys and 0.97 for girls, whereas those between BMI and WC were 0.94 for boys and 0.90 for girls. Similar results were observed in the analysis of seventh graders. The correlation coefficient between BMI and %BF varied by physique (obese or non-obese), with weaker correlations among the obese regardless of the definition of obesity; most correlation coefficients among obese boys were less than 0.5, whereas most correlations among obese girls were more than 0.7. On the other hand, the correlation coefficients between BMI and WC were more than 0.8 among boys and almost all coefficients were more than 0.7 among girls, regardless of physique.
BMI was positively correlated with %BF and WC among Japanese schoolchildren. The correlations could be influenced by obesity as well as by gender. Accordingly, it is essential to consider gender and obesity when using BMI as a surrogate for %BF and WC for epidemiological use.
PMCID: PMC2933721  PMID: 20716379
21.  Continuous glucose monitoring with Humalog Mix 25 versus Humalog Mix 50, twice daily: A comparative pilot study -Results from the Jikei-EValuation of insulin Lispro mixture on pharmacodynamics and glycemic VariancE (J-EVOLVE) study 
To evaluate glycemic variability associated with two different premixed insulin analogue formulations when used in a twice-daily regimen.
Patients and Methods
Subjects comprised type 2 diabetic patients aged 20-79 years, treated with twice daily premixed insulin or insulin analogue formulations. All subjects were hospitalized for 6 days and randomized to receive either Humalog Mix 25 (Mix 25) or Humalog Mix 50 (Mix 50). They were then crossed over to the other arm between day 3 and day 4 of the study. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) was performed on all subjects to examine the differences in glycemic variability.
Eleven type 2 diabetic patients were enrolled. No significant difference was found in 24-hour mean glucose values and their SDs, pre-meal glucose values, increases from pre-meal to peak glucose values, or time to peak glucose levels between either group. However, the mean glucose values observed during 0-8 hrs were significantly lower with Mix 25 compared to Mix 50 (128 vs. 147 mg/dL; p = 0.024).
The twice-daily Mix 25 regimen provided superior overnight glycemic control compared to the Mix 50 regimen in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. However, both twice-daily regimens with either Mix 25 or Mix 50 provided inadequate post-lunch glycemic control.
Trial Registration
Current Controlled Trials UMIN000001327
PMCID: PMC2885326  PMID: 20438630
22.  Changes in body mass index, leptin and adiponectin in Japanese children during a three-year follow-up period: a population-based cohort study 
The study examined changes in and relationship between body mass index (BMI), leptin and adiponectin levels over a 3-year period in a pediatric population-based cohort.
Study design
A 3-year prospective cohort study of 268 boys and 251 girls aged 9–10 in Ina, Saitama, Japan.
Median body mass index (BMI) significantly increased from baseline (age 9–10) to follow up (age 12–13) in boys from 17.1 to 18.3 kg/m2 (P < 0.001) and in girls from 16.5 to 18.5 kg/m2 (P < 0.001), respectively. Adiponectin values significantly decreased from baseline to follow up in boys (13.5 to 8.9 μg/ml, respectively) (P < 0.001) and in girls (12.4 to 9.5 μg/ml, respectively) (P < 0.001). Leptin values at follow up significantly decreased from baseline in boys (4.9 to 2.3 ng/dl, respectively) (P < 0.001) and also in girls (5.3 to 5.1 ng/dl, respectively) (P = 0.049).
A relatively strong correlation was seen in BMI (Spearman's correlation coefficient, r = 0.864, P < 0.001 in boys; r = 0.873, P < 0.001 in girls), adiponectin (r = 0.705, P < 0.001 in boys; r = 0.695, P < 0.001 in girls), and leptin (r = 0.449, P < 0.001 in boys; r = 0.610, P < 0.001 in girls) before and after the three-year period.
The ratio of follow up to baseline BMI was negatively correlated with that for adiponectin (r = -0.224, P < 0.001 in boys; r = -0.165, P = 0.001 in girls) and positively correlated with that for leptin (r = 0.518, P < 0.001 in boys; r = 0.609, P < 0.001 in girls).
This study demonstrated that baseline adiponectin, leptin and BMI values measured at ages 9–10 correlated with those measured three years later. However, adiponectin values decreased and leptin values increased in those subjects whose BMI increased during over this period.
PMCID: PMC2701411  PMID: 19490650
23.  Prospective randomized study for optimal insulin therapy in type 2 diabetic patients with secondary failure 
The large clinical trials proved that Basal-Bolus (BB) insulin therapy was effective in the prevention of diabetic complications and their progression. However, BB therapy needs multiple insulin injections per a day. In this regard, a biphasic insulin analogue needs only twice-daily injections, and is able to correct postprandial hyperglycemia. Therefore it may achieve the blood glucose control as same as that of BB therapy and prevent the diabetic complications including macroangiopathy.
In PROBE (Prospective, Randomized, Open, Blinded-Endpoint) design, forty-two type 2 diabetic patients (male: 73.8%, median(inter quartile range) age: 64.5(56.8~71.0)years) with secondary failure of sulfonylurea (SU) were randomly assigned to BB therapy with a thrice-daily insulin aspart and once-daily basal insulin (BB group) or to conventional therapy with a twice-daily biphasic insulin analogue (30 Mix group), and were followed up for 6 months to compare changes in HbA1c, daily glycemic profile, intima-media thickness (IMT) of carotid artery, adiponectin levels, amounts of insulin used, and QOL between the two groups.
After 6 months, HbA1c was significantly reduced in both groups compared to baseline (30 Mix; 9.3(8.1~11.3) → 7.4(6.9~8.7)%, p < 0.01, vs BB;8.9(7.7~10.0) → 6.9(6.2~7.3)%, p < 0.01), with no significant difference between the groups in percentage change in HbA1c (30 Mix; -14.7(-32.5~-7.5)% vs BB -17.8(-30.1~-11.1)%, p = 0.32). There was a significant decrease in daily glycemic profile at all points except dinner time in both groups compared to baseline. There was a significant increase in the amount of insulin used in the 30 Mix group after treatment compared to baseline (30 Mix;0.30(0.17~0.44) → 0.39(0.31~0.42) IU/kg, p = 0.01). There was no significant difference in IMT, BMI, QOL or adiponectin levels in either group compared to baseline.
Both BB and 30 mix group produced comparable reductions in HbA1c in type 2 diabetic patients with secondary failure. There was no significant change in IMT as an indicator of early atherosclerotic changes between the two groups. The basal-bolus insulin therapy may not be necessarily needed if the type 2 diabetic patients have become secondary failure.
Trial registration
Current Controlled Trials number, NCT00348231
PMCID: PMC2442047  PMID: 18507868
24.  Genetic association of glutathione peroxidase-1 with coronary artery calcification in type 2 diabetes: a case control study with multi-slice computed tomography 
Although oxidative stress by accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in diabetes has become evident, it remains unclear what genes, involved in redox balance, would determine susceptibility for development of atherosclerosis in diabetes. This study evaluated the effect of genetic polymorphism of enzymes producing or responsible for reducing ROS on coronary artery calcification in type 2 diabetes (T2D).
An index for coronary-arteriosclerosis, coronary artery calcium score (CACS) was evaluated in 91 T2D patients using a multi-slice computed tomography. Patients were genotyped for ROS-scavenging enzymes, Glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1), Catalase, Mn-SOD, Cu/Zn-SOD, as well as SNPs of NADPH oxidase as ROS-promoting elements, genes related to onset of T2D (CAPN10, ADRB3, PPAR gamma, FATP4). Age, blood pressure, BMI, HbA1c, lipid and duration of diabetes were evaluated for a multivariate regression analysis.
CACS with Pro/Leu genotype of the GPx-1 gene was significantly higher than in those with Pro/Pro (744 ± 1,291 vs. 245 ± 399, respectively, p = 0.006). In addition, genotype frequency of Pro/Leu in those with CACS ≥ 1000 was significantly higher than in those with CACS < 1000 (45.5% vs. 18.8%; OR = 3.61, CI = 0.97–13.42; p = 0.045) when tested for deviation from Hardy-Weinberg's equilibrium. Multivariate regression analyses revealed that CACS significantly correlated with GPx-1 genotypes and age.
The presence of Pro197Leu substitution of the GPx-1 gene may play a crucial role in determining genetic susceptibility to coronary-arteriosclerosis in T2D. The mechanism may be associated with a decreased ability to scavenge ROS with the variant GPx-1.
PMCID: PMC2041944  PMID: 17825092
25.  New trends for practice in telecommunication applied to preventive and environmental medicine 
This paper presents survey results of connectivity to the Internet from preventive and environmental medicine-related departments in medical schools and other institutions in Japan and propose means to establish connectivity among them. Of 191 facilities surveyed, 134 (70%) responded by March 31, 1996. The data presented here are from 132 facilities. One hundred seventeen facilities (89%) answered that they were connected to the Internet. More than 80% of them got access to the Internet in the past two years. One hundred three facilities (78%) answered that e-mail was available. Despite the large percentage being connected, only 11 facilities (8%) had their own homepages. However, just 6 months later more than 25 facilities could be found by their own homepages. The Global Health Network (GHNet) has been developed in the USA based upon the concept that the best means to produce improved health is a better surveillance and information system applying the latest telecommunication technology to public health. The GHNet will offer an initial homepage for Preventive and Environmental Medicine related facilities in Japan to promote and establish sustainable connectivity among them.
PMCID: PMC2723330  PMID: 21432450
Telecommunication; Internet; Connectivity; Homepage; Network

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