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1.  Joint effects of mitochondrial DNA 5178 C/A polymorphism and coffee consumption or alcohol consumption on clustering of cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged Japanese men: a cross-sectional study 
Background
Longevity-associated mitochondrial DNA 5178 (Mt5178) C/A reportedly modulates the effects of coffee consumption on the risk of hypertension, dyslipidemia and abnormal glucose tolerance, and those of alcohol consumption on the risk of hypertension, dyslipidemia and hyperuricemia in middle-aged Japanese men. However, there has been no research examining whether Mt5178 C/A polymorphism influences the effects of coffee consumption or alcohol consumption on the clustering of cardiovascular risk factors (CRFs).
Methods
A total of 332 male subjects (mean age ± SD, 52.8 ± 7.8 years) were selected from among individuals visiting the hospital for regular medical check-ups. After Mt5178 C/A genotyping, a cross-sectional study assessing the joint effects of Mt5178 C/A polymorphism and coffee consumption or alcohol consumption on the clustering of CRFs, namely hypertension, abnormal glucose tolerance, hyper-low-density lipoprotein cholesterolemia, hypo-high density lipoprotein cholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia and hyperuricemia, was then conducted.
Results
After adjustment for confounding factors, significant and negative associations were observed between coffee consumption and clustering of ≥2 CRFs in subjects with Mt5178C. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for the clustering of ≥2 or ≥3 CRFs was significantly lower in subjects who consumed 1–3 cups of coffee per day than in those who consumed <1 cup of coffee per day (OR = 0.496, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.249–0.989, and OR = 0.369, 95% CI: 0.165–0.826, respectively). On the other hand, after adjustment, positive associations between coffee consumption and clustering of ≥2 CRFs were observed in subjects with Mt5178A. However, these associations did not reach a significant level. For Mt5178C genotypic men, the adjusted OR for the clustering of ≥2 or ≥3 CRFs was significantly higher in daily drinkers than in occasional drinkers (OR = 2.737, 95% CI: 1.361–5.502, and OR = 3.024, 95% CI: 1.269–7.210, respectively). On the other hand, the association between Mt5178A genotype and the clustering of ≥2 or ≥3 CRFs did not appear to depend on alcohol consumption.
Conclusions
The present results suggest that Mt5178 C/A polymorphism modifies the effects of coffee consumption or alcohol consumption on the clustering of CRFs in middle-aged Japanese men.
doi:10.1186/2251-6581-13-4
PMCID: PMC3923557  PMID: 24393210
Alcohol consumption; Cardiovascular risk factor; Coffee consumption; Mitochondrial DNA polymorphism; Personalized prevention
2.  Difference in effects of cigarette smoking or alcohol consumption on serum non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels is related to mitochondrial DNA 5178 C/A polymorphism in middle-aged Japanese men: a cross-sectional study 
Background
Mitochondrial DNA 5178 cytosine/adenosine (Mt5178 C/A) polymorphism is associated with longevity in the Japanese. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether Mt5178 C/A polymorphism modifies the effects of habitual smoking or habitual drinking on serum non-high-density lipoprotein (non-HDL) cholesterol levels in middle-aged Japanese men.
Methods
A total of 394 male subjects (age 53.9 ± 7.9 years; mean ± SD) were selected from among individuals visiting the hospital for regular medical check-ups. After Mt5178 C/A genotyping, a cross-sectional study assessing the joint effects of Mt5178 C/A polymorphism and cigarette smoking or alcohol drinking on serum non-HDL cholesterol levels was conducted. High levels of serum non-HDL cholesterol were defined as serum non-HDL cholesterol levels ≥160 mg/dl or ≥190 mg/dl.
Results
For men with Mt5178A, cigarette smoking may increase serum non-HDL cholesterol levels (P for trend < 0.001), as well as the risk of high levels of non-HDL cholesterol (serum non-HDL cholesterol levels ≥160 mg/dl, P for trend < 0.001; serum non-HDL cholesterol levels ≥190 mg/dl, P for trend = 0.004). On the other hand, for men with Mt5178C, after adjusting for age and body mass index, alcohol consumption may decrease serum non-HDL cholesterol levels (P for trend = 0.043) and the risk of high levels of non-HDL cholesterol (serum non-HDL cholesterol level ≥160 mg/dl, P for trend = 0.005).
Conclusions
These gene-environment interactions on serum non-HDL cholesterol levels may contribute to the establishment of individualized prevention of the risk of high levels of serum non-HDL cholesterol.
doi:10.1186/1880-6805-33-1
PMCID: PMC3905964  PMID: 24383671
Alcohol consumption; Cigarette smoking; Longevity; Mitochondrial DNA polymorphism; Non-HDL cholesterol
3.  Unexpected combined effects of NADH dehydrogenase subunit-2 237 Leu/Met polymorphism and green tea consumption on renal function in male Japanese health check-up examinees: a cross-sectional study 
Background
NADH dehydrogenase subunit-2 237 leucine/methionine (ND2-237 Leu/Met) polymorphism is associated with longevity in Japanese. A previous study has shown that ND2-237 Leu/Met polymorphism modulates the effects of green tea consumption on risk of hypertension. For men with ND2-237Leu, habitual green tea consumption may reduce the risk of hypertension. Moreover, there is a combined effect of ND2-237 Leu/Met polymorphism and alcohol consumption on risk of mildly decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (<90 ml/min/1.73 m2). Several beneficial effects of green tea on the kidney have been reported. The objective of this study was to investigate whether ND2-237 Leu/Met polymorphism modifies the effects of green tea consumption on risk of mildly decreased eGFR in male Japanese health check-up examinees.
Results
For ND2-237Leu genotypic men, after adjustment for confounding factors, green tea consumption may increase the risk of mildly decreased eGFR (P for trend = 0.016). The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for mildly decreased eGFR was significantly higher in subjects with ND2-237Leu who consume ≥6 cups of green tea per day than those who consume ≤1 cup of green tea per day (adjusted OR = 5.647, 95% confidence interval: 1.528-20.88, P = 0.009). On the other hand, for ND2-237Met genotypic men, green tea consumption does not appear to determine the risk of mildly decreased eGFR.
Conclusion
The present results suggest that ND2-237 Leu/Met polymorphism unexpectedly modifies the effects of green tea consumption on eGFR and the risk of mildly decreased eGFR in male Japanese subjects.
doi:10.1186/1477-5751-12-17
PMCID: PMC3842666  PMID: 24252463
Chronic kidney disease; Estimated glomerular filtration rate; Green tea consumption; NADH dehydrogenase; Polymorphism
4.  Eating Behaviors and Overweight among Adolescents: A Population-Based Survey in Japan 
Journal of Obesity  2013;2013:717942.
Objectives. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between eating behaviors and overweight among population-based adolescents in Japan. Methods. Study subjects comprised adolescents in the seventh grade (age range, 12–13 years) from Ina, a town in Saitama Prefecture, Japan, between 1999 and 2008. The height and weight of the subjects were measured, and information concerning eating behaviors (eating speed and eating until full) was obtained using a self-administered questionnaire. Results. Among boys (n = 1586), fast eating speed significantly increased the odds ratio (OR) for overweight when compared with medium eating speed, regardless of eating until full or not; moreover, a more marked increase in the OR was observed among boys eating until full (OR: 2.78, 95% confidence interval: 1.76–4.38) than among those not eating until full (2.43, 1.41–4.20). Among girls (n = 1542), fast eating speed led to a significant increase in the OR in those eating until full; however, no significant increases were observed in the OR in those eating quickly and not until full. Conclusions. Among adolescents, fast eating speed was associated with overweight; furthermore, the combination of both fast eating speed and eating until full may have a significant effect on overweight.
doi:10.1155/2013/717942
PMCID: PMC3730185  PMID: 23956845
5.  LDL-cholesterol and body mass index among Japanese schoolchildren: a population-based cross-sectional study 
Background
Serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is one of the most important risk factors for coronary heart disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between LDL-C and body mass index (BMI) in population-based Japanese schoolchildren.
Methods
The subjects comprised all fourth graders and seventh graders in Ina Town, Saitama Prefecture, Japan, during 2002-2009. Information about each subject’s age, sex, and family history of hypercholesterolemia was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. The body height, weight, and LDL-C were measured for each child. LDL-C was measured using the direct method. According to the LDL-C criteria of the Japan Atherosclerosis Society, LDL-C level was categorized into three subgroups: acceptable, < 110 mg/dL; borderline, 110-139 mg/dL; and high, ≥ 140 mg/dL. Children with either borderline or high LDL-C level were considered to have high-normal LDL-C (HLDL-C).
Results
Data from a total of 5869 subjects were analyzed. A higher BMI category was associated with a higher prevalence of HLDL-C regardless of sex or grade level (P < 0.05). When compared with the <50th percentile BMI category, the odds ratio (OR) for HLDL-C was statistically significant in the 75th to 84th percentile category of fourth-grade boys (OR: 1.95, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.28-2.97), the 85th to 94th percentile of fourth-grade girls (2.52, 1.74-3.64), and the 85th to 94th percentile of seventh-grade boys (2.04, 1.31-3.20) and girls (1.90, 1.24-2.91).
Conclusion
A statistically significant association between LDL-C levels and BMI was observed in Japanese school children.
doi:10.1186/1476-511X-12-77
PMCID: PMC3680021  PMID: 23705977
Serum low-density lipoprotein; Body mass index; Schoolchildren
6.  Combined effect of mitochondrial DNA 5178 C/A polymorphism and alcohol consumption on estimated glomerular filtration rate in male Japanese health check-up examinees: a cross-sectional study 
BMC Nephrology  2013;14:35.
Background
Prevention of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major public health issue. Although several studies have been performed on the association between alcohol consumption and CKD or renal function, it remains controversial. Numerous genetic polymorphisms have been reported to be associated with CKD and kidney function. Mitochondrial DNA cytosine/adenine (Mt5178 C/A) polymorphism is associated with longevity in Japanese. This polymorphism modifies the effects of alcohol consumption on blood pressure, risk of hypertension, serum triglyceride levels, risk of hyper-LDL cholesterolemia and serum uric acid levels. The objective of this study was to investigate whether Mt5178 C/A polymorphism modifies the effects of alcohol consumption on renal function in male Japanese health check-up examinees.
Methods
A total of 394 male subjects aged 29–76 years were selected from among individuals visiting the hospital for regular medical check-ups. After Mt5178 C/A genotyping, a cross-sectional study assessing the combined effects of Mt5178 C/A polymorphism and habitual drinking on the risk of mildly decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (<90 ml/min/1.73 m2) was conducted.
Results
For Mt5178A genotypic men, habitual drinking may increase eGFR (P for trend = 0.003) or reduce the risk of mildly decreased eGFR (P for trend = 0.003). Daily drinkers had a significantly higher eGFR than non-drinkers (P = 0.005). The crude odds ratio for decreased eGFR was significantly lower in daily drinkers than in non-drinkers (odds ratio = 0.092, 95% confidence interval: 0.012-0.727, P = 0.024). On the other hand, for Mt5178C genotypic men, habitual drinking does not appear to affect eGFR.
Conclusion
The present results suggest a joint effect of Mt5178 C/A polymorphism and alcohol consumption on eGFR and the risk of mildly decreased eGFR in male Japanese subjects.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-14-35
PMCID: PMC3575228  PMID: 23402433
Alcohol; Chronic kidney disease; Estimated glomerular filtration rate; Mitochondrial DNA polymorphism
7.  Childhood Mortality Due to Unintentional Injuries in Japan, 2000–2009 
This study examined deaths due to unintentional injuries among children in Japan to identify the age groups and sexes at most risk, and the types of injuries, so that effective forms of targeted intervention can be devised. Among children aged 0–14 years, deaths whose underlying causes had been classified under code V01-X59 of the ICD-10 were defined as deaths of children caused by unintentional injuries. Using data from the Vital Statistics 2000–2009 for analysis, we examined the changes in mortality and trends in terms of sex, age, and cause of death. Mortality decreased by 46.2%, from 933 in 2000 to 502 in 2009. The mortality rate among children aged 1–4 years decreased by almost half. The total number of deaths during this decade was 7,362 (boys: 4,690, girls: 2,672). Among the causes of death, the majority were due to “transport accidents”, followed by “other accidental threats to breathing”, and “accidental drowning and submersion”. The characteristics observed in terms of sex, age, and cause of death—that is, deaths from suffocation among infants aged less than 1 year, drowning deaths among boys, and transport accidents involving pedestrians and cyclists—must be addressed as targets for future intervention.
doi:10.3390/ijerph10020528
PMCID: PMC3635160  PMID: 23364538
unintentional injury; childhood mortality; cause of death; Japan
8.  Number of siblings, birth order, and childhood overweight: a population-based cross-sectional study in Japan 
BMC Public Health  2012;12:766.
Background
Although several studies have investigated the relationship between the number of siblings or birth order and childhood overweight, the results are inconsistent. In addition, little is known about the impact of having older or younger siblings on overweight among elementary schoolchildren. The present population-based study investigated the relationship of the number of siblings and birth order with childhood overweight and evaluated the impact of having younger or older siblings on childhood overweight among elementary schoolchildren in Japan.
Methods
Subjects comprised fourth-grade schoolchildren (age, 9–10 years) in Ina Town during 1999–2009. Information about subjects’ sex, age, birth weight, birth order, number of siblings, lifestyle, and parents’ age, height, and weight was collected by a self-administered questionnaire, while measurements of subjects’ height and weight were done at school. Childhood overweight was defined according to age- and sex-specific cut-off points proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. A logistic regression model was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of "number of siblings" or "birth order" for overweight.
Results
Data from 4026 children were analyzed. Only children (OR: 2.13, 95% CI: 1.45-3.14) and youngest children (1.56, 1.13-2.16) significantly increased ORs for overweight compared with middle children. A larger number of siblings decreased the OR for overweight (P for trend < 0.001). Although there was no statistically significant relationship between a larger number of older siblings and overweight, a larger number of younger siblings resulted in a lower OR for overweight (P for trend < 0.001).
Conclusions
Being an only or youngest child was associated with childhood overweight, and having a larger number of younger siblings was negatively associated with overweight. The present study suggests that public health interventions to prevent childhood overweight need to focus on children from these family backgrounds.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-766
PMCID: PMC3509397  PMID: 22966779
Sibling; Birth-order; Childhood overweight; Public health
9.  High-molecular-weight adiponectin and anthropometric variables among elementary schoolchildren: a population-based cross-sectional study in Japan 
BMC Pediatrics  2012;12:139.
Background
Studies about the relationship between high-molecular-weight adiponectin (HMW-adn) and anthropometric variables among population-based elementary schoolchildren have been too limited, especially in Japan, where blood collection is not usually performed in the annual health examination at elementary schools. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between HMW-adn and anthropometric variables (body mass index [BMI], percent body fat [%BF], waist circumference [WC], and waist-to-height ratio [WHtR]) among population-based elementary schoolchildren in Japan.
Methods
Subjects comprised all fourth-grade schoolchildren (9 or 10 years of age) in the town of Ina, Saitama Prefecture, Japan during 2005–2008 (N = 1675). After excluding 21 subjects because of refusal to participate or incomplete data, data from a total of 1654 subjects (846 boys and 808 girls) were analyzed. The height, weight, %BF, and WC of each subject were measured, while blood samples were drawn from the subjects to measure adiponectin levels (HMW-adn and total adiponectin). Childhood obesity was determined according to the age- and sex-specific cut-off points proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. Spearman’s correlation coefficients between adiponectin levels and anthropometric variables were calculated for each sex.
Results
The anthropometric variables were negatively correlated with HMW-adn in both boys and girls. Correlation coefficients of HMW-adn with anthropometric variables in the obesity group were consistently higher than those in the non-obesity group among both boys and girls. In addition, only WHtR was significantly correlated with HMW-adn regardless of sex and physique (obesity or non-obesity); the correlation coefficient was -0.386 among boys and -0.543 among girls in the obesity group, while it was -0.124 among boys and -0.081 among girls in the non-obesity group.
Conclusions
HMW-adn was negatively correlated with anthropometric variables, while the correlation coefficients of HMW-adn with anthropometric variables in the obesity group were consistently higher than those in the non-obesity group. Moreover, only WHtR was significantly associated with HMW-adn regardless of sex and physique. The results of this study suggested that it is useful to monitor WHtR as a surrogate for HMW-adn among elementary school students, especially obese children.
doi:10.1186/1471-2431-12-139
PMCID: PMC3478987  PMID: 22937905
High-molecular-weight adiponectin; Anthropometric variable; Obesity; Waist-to-height ratio; Children
10.  Mitochondrial DNA 5178 C/A polymorphism influences the effects of habitual smoking on the risk of dyslipidemia in middle-aged Japanese men 
Background
Several genetic polymorphisms have been reported to modify the effects of smoking on serum lipid levels. The objective of this study was to investigate whether longevity-associated mitochondrial DNA 5178 (Mt5178) C/A polymorphism modifies the effects of habitual smoking on the risk of dyslipidemia in middle-aged Japanese subjects.
Methods
A total of 394 male subjects (age, 53.9 ± 7.9 years; mean ± SD) were selected from among individuals visiting the hospital for regular medical check-ups. After Mt5178 C/A genotyping, a cross-sectional study assessing the joint effect of Mt5178 C/A polymorphism and cigarette smoking on the risk of hypo-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterolemia, hyper-low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterolemia or hypertriglyceridemia was conducted.
Results
For subjects with Mt5178C, the risk of hypo-HDL cholesterolemia increased with the number of cigarettes smoked daily (P for trend = 0.001). On the other hand, the association between Mt5178A genotype and the risk of hypo-HDL cholesterolemia did not appear to depend on the number of cigarettes smoked daily. For those with Mt5178A, the risk of hyper-LDL cholesterolemia or hypertriglyceridemia increased with cigarettes smoked daily (P for trend = 0.017 and P for trend = 0.002, respectively). However, the association between Mt5178C genotype and the risk of hyper-LDL cholesterolemia or hypertriglyceridemia did not depend on the number of cigarettes smoked daily.
Conclusions
The present results suggest that Mt5178 C/A polymorphism modulates the effects of habitual smoking on the risk of dyslipidemia in middle-aged Japanese men.
doi:10.1186/1476-511X-11-97
PMCID: PMC3459723  PMID: 22857129
Cigarette smoking; Hypo-HDL cholesterolemia; Hyper-LDL cholesterolemia; Hypertriglyceridemia; Mitochondrial DNA polymorphism; Personalized preventive medicine
11.  Eating Behavior and Childhood Overweight Among Population-Based Elementary Schoolchildren in Japan  
This study investigated the relationship between eating behavior and childhood overweight among population-based elementary schoolchildren in Japan. Data was collected from fourth graders (9 or 10 years of age) from Ina Town, Saitama Prefecture, Japan from 1999 to 2009. Information about subjects’ sex, age, and lifestyle, including eating behaviors (eating until full and chewing thoroughly), was obtained using a self-administered questionnaire, and height and weight were measured directly. Overweight was determined according to the definition established by the International Obesity Task Force. Data from 4027 subjects (2079 boys and 1948 girls) were analyzed. Chewing thoroughly was associated with a significantly decreased odds ratio (OR) for being overweight, whereas eating until full significantly increased the OR for being overweight (OR: 1.50, 95% confidence interval: 1.16–1.94) among boys. However, eating until full was not associated with a significantly increased OR for being overweight among the group that reported chewing thoroughly, whereas it was associated with a significantly increased OR for being overweight (2.02, 1.38–2.94) among boys who did not chew thoroughly. In conclusion, eating until full or not chewing thoroughly was associated with being overweight among elementary schoolchildren. Results of this study suggest that chewing thoroughly may be an avenue to explore childhood overweight prevention efforts.
doi:10.3390/ijerph9041398
PMCID: PMC3366619  PMID: 22690201
eating behavior; overweight; children; eating until full; chewing
12.  Joint effect of longevity-associated mitochondrial DNA 5178 C/A polymorphism and alcohol consumption on risk of hyper-LDL cholesterolemia in middle-aged Japanese men 
Background
Combined effects between mitochondrial DNA 5178 (Mt5178) C/A polymorphism and alcohol consumption on the risk of hypertension or hyperuricemia have been reported. The objective of this study was to investigate whether Mt5178 C/A polymorphism modulates the effects of alcohol consumption on the risk of dyslipidemia.
Methods
A total of 394 male subjects were selected from among individuals visiting the hospital for regular medical check-ups. After Mt5178 C/A genotyping, a cross-sectional study assessing the combined effect of Mt5178 polymorphism and alcohol consumption on the risk of dyslipidemia was conducted.
Results
For men with Mt5178C, alcohol consumption was significantly and negatively associated with the risk of hyper-low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterolemia (serum LDL cholesterol ≥ 140 mg/dl) (P for trend = 0.015). After adjustment for age, body mass index (BMI), habitual smoking, coffee consumption and use of antihypertensive medicine, the odds ratio (OR) for hyper-LDL cholesterolemia was significantly lower in daily drinkers with Mt5178C than non-drinkers with Mt5178C (OR = 0.360, 95% confidence intervals: 0.153-0.847). A significant and negative association between alcohol consumption and serum LDL cholesterol levels was also observed in Mt5178C genotypic men (P for trend < 0.01). On the other hand, the association between Mt5178A genotype and risk of hyper-LDL cholesterolemia does not appear to depend on alcohol consumption.
Conclusions
For Mt5178C genotypic men, alcohol consumption may reduce the risk of hyper-LDL cholesterolemia.
doi:10.1186/1476-511X-10-105
PMCID: PMC3134423  PMID: 21702983
13.  High Blood Pressure in Obese and Nonobese Japanese Children: Blood Pressure Measurement is Necessary Even in Nonobese Japanese Children 
Journal of Epidemiology  2010;20(5):408-412.
Background
Although the prevalences of obesity and hypertension (HT) are increasing in children, there have been few epidemiological studies of HT in Japanese children. We evaluated the prevalences of HT and high-normal blood pressure (HNBP), and examined the relationship between blood pressure (BP) and body mass index (BMI), in Japanese children.
Methods
The subjects of this study were 2420 children living in the town of Ina, Saitama Prefecture, Japan during the period from 2006 through 2008. Body height, weight, and BP were measured. HT and HNBP were defined according to the HT criteria for Japanese children. Children with HNBP or HT were defined as having high blood pressure (HBP).
Results
The prevalences of HBP were 15.9% and 15.8% in fourth-grade boys and girls, respectively, and 11.1% and 10.8% in seventh-grade boys and girls, respectively. Irrespective of sex or grade level, a higher BMI was associated with a higher prevalence of HBP (P < 0.001). When compared with the <50th percentile BMI category, the crude odds ratios (ORs) were statistically significant for the 75th to 84th percentile category in fourth-grade boys (OR: 4.54, 95% CI: 2.36–8.76), the ≥95th percentile in fourth-grade girls (13.29, 5.93–29.77), the 85th to 94th percentile (3.16, 1.46–6.84) in seventh-grade boys, and the ≥95th percentile (7.96, 3.18–19.93) in seventh-grade girls.
Conclusions
BMI was associated with HBP in Japanese school children. In addition, some children in the lower BMI categories also had HBP.
doi:10.2188/jea.JE20090207
PMCID: PMC3900836  PMID: 20699600
high blood pressure; children; BMI; hypertensive family history
14.  Relationship of body mass index to percent body fat and waist circumference among schoolchildren in Japan - the influence of gender and obesity: a population-based cross-sectional study 
BMC Public Health  2010;10:493.
Background
Although the correlation coefficient between body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat (%BF) or waist circumference (WC) has been reported, studies conducted among population-based schoolchildren to date have been limited in Japan, where %BF and WC are not usually measured in annual health examinations at elementary schools or junior high schools. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship of BMI to %BF and WC and to examine the influence of gender and obesity on these relationships among Japanese schoolchildren.
Methods
Subjects included 3,750 schoolchildren from the fourth and seventh grade in Ina-town, Saitama Prefecture, Japan between 2004 and 2008. Information about subject's age, sex, height, weight, %BF, and WC was collected from annual physical examinations. %BF was measured with a bipedal biometrical impedance analysis device. Obesity was defined by the following two criteria: the obese definition of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the definition of obesity for Japanese children. Pearson's correlation coefficients between BMI and %BF or WC were calculated separately for sex.
Results
Among fourth graders, the correlation coefficients between BMI and %BF were 0.74 for boys and 0.97 for girls, whereas those between BMI and WC were 0.94 for boys and 0.90 for girls. Similar results were observed in the analysis of seventh graders. The correlation coefficient between BMI and %BF varied by physique (obese or non-obese), with weaker correlations among the obese regardless of the definition of obesity; most correlation coefficients among obese boys were less than 0.5, whereas most correlations among obese girls were more than 0.7. On the other hand, the correlation coefficients between BMI and WC were more than 0.8 among boys and almost all coefficients were more than 0.7 among girls, regardless of physique.
Conclusions
BMI was positively correlated with %BF and WC among Japanese schoolchildren. The correlations could be influenced by obesity as well as by gender. Accordingly, it is essential to consider gender and obesity when using BMI as a surrogate for %BF and WC for epidemiological use.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-10-493
PMCID: PMC2933721  PMID: 20716379
15.  NADH Dehydrogenase Subunit-2 237 Leu/Met Polymorphism Modulates the Effects of Coffee Consumption on the Risk of Hypertension in Middle-Aged Japanese Men 
Journal of Epidemiology  2009;19(5):231-236.
Background
Habitual coffee consumption has been reported to lower blood pressure in the Japanese population. The NADH dehydrogenase subunit-2 237 leucine/methionine (ND2-237 Leu/Met) polymorphism is associated with longevity and modifies the effects of alcohol consumption on blood pressure in the Japanese population. The objective of this study was to determine whether this polymorphism also modifies the effects of coffee consumption on blood pressure or the risk of hypertension in middle-aged Japanese men.
Methods
A total of 398 men (mean age ± standard deviation, 53.8 ± 7.8 years) were selected from among individuals visiting the hospital for regular medical check-ups. Hypertension was defined as a systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg, or antihypertensive drug treatment. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism using the restriction enzyme AluI was performed to determine ND2-237 Leu/Met genotype.
Results
In subjects with ND2-237Leu, coffee consumption was significantly and negatively associated with diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.007). The odds ratio (OR) for hypertension was significantly lower in subjects with ND2-237Leu who consumed 2 or 3 cups of coffee per day than in those who consumed less than 1 cup of coffee per day (OR, 0.517; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.276 to 0.968; P = 0.039). After adjustment, the OR remained significant (OR = 0.399; 95% CI, 0.184 to 0.869; P = 0.020). Moreover, after adjustment, the OR was significantly lower in subjects with ND2-237Leu who consumed more than 4 cups of coffee per day than in those who consumed less than 1 cup of coffee per day (OR, 0.246; 95% CI, 0.062 to 0.975; P = 0.046). However, the association between ND2-237Met genotype and hypertension did not depend on coffee consumption.
Conclusions
The present results suggest that the ND2-237 Leu/Met polymorphism modulates the effects of coffee consumption on hypertension risk in middle-aged Japanese men.
doi:10.2188/jea.JE20081040
PMCID: PMC3924125  PMID: 19667492
coffee consumption; hypertension; NADH dehydrogenase; polymorphism; personalized preventive medicine
16.  Changes in body mass index, leptin and adiponectin in Japanese children during a three-year follow-up period: a population-based cohort study 
Objective
The study examined changes in and relationship between body mass index (BMI), leptin and adiponectin levels over a 3-year period in a pediatric population-based cohort.
Study design
A 3-year prospective cohort study of 268 boys and 251 girls aged 9–10 in Ina, Saitama, Japan.
Results
Median body mass index (BMI) significantly increased from baseline (age 9–10) to follow up (age 12–13) in boys from 17.1 to 18.3 kg/m2 (P < 0.001) and in girls from 16.5 to 18.5 kg/m2 (P < 0.001), respectively. Adiponectin values significantly decreased from baseline to follow up in boys (13.5 to 8.9 μg/ml, respectively) (P < 0.001) and in girls (12.4 to 9.5 μg/ml, respectively) (P < 0.001). Leptin values at follow up significantly decreased from baseline in boys (4.9 to 2.3 ng/dl, respectively) (P < 0.001) and also in girls (5.3 to 5.1 ng/dl, respectively) (P = 0.049).
A relatively strong correlation was seen in BMI (Spearman's correlation coefficient, r = 0.864, P < 0.001 in boys; r = 0.873, P < 0.001 in girls), adiponectin (r = 0.705, P < 0.001 in boys; r = 0.695, P < 0.001 in girls), and leptin (r = 0.449, P < 0.001 in boys; r = 0.610, P < 0.001 in girls) before and after the three-year period.
The ratio of follow up to baseline BMI was negatively correlated with that for adiponectin (r = -0.224, P < 0.001 in boys; r = -0.165, P = 0.001 in girls) and positively correlated with that for leptin (r = 0.518, P < 0.001 in boys; r = 0.609, P < 0.001 in girls).
Conclusion
This study demonstrated that baseline adiponectin, leptin and BMI values measured at ages 9–10 correlated with those measured three years later. However, adiponectin values decreased and leptin values increased in those subjects whose BMI increased during over this period.
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-8-30
PMCID: PMC2701411  PMID: 19490650

Results 1-16 (16)