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1.  Examining the educational value of a CanMEDS roles framework in pediatric morbidity and mortality rounds 
BMC Medical Education  2014;14(1):262.
In order to determine whether the CanMEDS roles could be helpful in solidifying knowledge during clinical training, we examined quality of care issues identified during morbidity and mortality (M&M) rounds.
During the M&M rounds, following the case presentation, there was a pause and attendees were asked to identify quality of care issues that were present in the case. The attendees were assigned to a CanMEDS prompted group or non-prompted group. Following the rounds, the issues were identified, coded according to CanMEDS role, and compared between groups.
A total of 111 individuals identified a total of 350 issues; 57 individuals were in the CanMEDS-prompted group and 54 were in the unprompted group. The mean number of issues identified was significantly higher in the CanMEDS-prompted group compared to the unprompted group (3.7 versus 2.6, p = 0.039). There were significantly more issues raised in the prompted group for the roles of communicator, collaborator, scholar and professional.
Using CanMEDS roles as prompts, attendees at M&M rounds identify more quality of care issues than if not given a prompt. Use of the CanMEDS framework may assist learners to consolidate the linkage between expected training objectives and the complexities of clinical practice.
PMCID: PMC4271321  PMID: 25511475
Morbidity and mortality; CanMEDS; Quality of care
2.  Oral health care for children – a call for action 
Paediatrics & Child Health  2013;18(1):37-43.
Oral health is a fundamental component of overall health. All children and youth should have access to preventive and treatment-based dental care. Canadian children continue to have a high rate of dental disease, and this burden of illness is disproportionately represented by children of lower socioeconomic status, those in Aboriginal communities and new immigrants. In Canada, the proportion of public funding for dental care has been decreasing. This financial pressure has most affected low-income families, who are also less likely to have dental insurance. Publicly funded provincial/territorial dental plans for Canadian children are limited and show significant variability in their coverage. There is sound evidence that preventive dental visits improve oral health and reduce later costs, and good evidence that fluoridation therapy decreases the rate of dental caries, particularly in high-risk populations. Paediatricians and family physicians play an important role in identifying children at high risk for dental disease and in advocating for more comprehensive and universal dental care for children.
PMCID: PMC3680273  PMID: 24381493
Aboriginal communities; Early childhood caries; Flouride; Immigrants; Oral health; Prevention; Public health policy; Social determinants
4.  Managing functional constipation in children 
Paediatrics & Child Health  2011;16(10):661-665.
Constipation is a common childhood problem, with both somatic and psychological effects. The etiology of paediatric constipation is likely multifactorial, and seldom due to organic pathology. Children benefit from prompt and thorough management of this disorder. The goal of treatment is to produce soft, painless stools and to prevent reaccumulation of feces. Education, behavioural modification, daily maintenance stool softeners and dietary modification are all important components of therapy. Fecal disimpaction may be necessary at the outset of treatment. Investigations are rarely necessary. Polyethylene glycol is a safe, effective and well-tolerated long-term treatment for constipation. Regular follow-up for children with constipation is important. Referral to a gastroenterologist should be made in refractory cases or when there is a suspicion of organic pathology.
PMCID: PMC3225480  PMID: 23204909
Constipation; Encopresis; Laxative; Paediatric
6.  Community-acquired lobar pneumonia in children in the era of universal 7-valent pneumococcal vaccination: a review of clinical presentations and antimicrobial treatment from a Canadian pediatric hospital 
BMC Pediatrics  2012;12:133.
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common cause of pediatric admission to hospital. The objectives of this study were twofold: 1) to describe the clinical characteristics of CAP in children admitted to a tertiary care pediatric hospital in the pneumococcal vaccination era and, 2) to examine the antimicrobial selection in hospital and on discharge.
A retrospective review of healthy immunocompetent children admitted to a tertiary pediatric hospital from January 2007 to December 2008 with clinical features consistent with pneumonia and a radiographically-confirmed consolidation was performed. Clinical, microbiological and antimicrobial data were collected.
One hundred and thirty-five hospitalized children with pneumonia were evaluated. Mean age at admission was 4.8 years (range 0–17 years). Two thirds of patients had been seen by a physician in the 24 hours prior to presentation; 56 (41.5%) were on antimicrobials at admission. 52 (38.5%) of patients developed an effusion, and 22/52 (42.3%) had pleural fluid sampled. Of 117 children who had specimens (blood/pleural fluid) cultured, 9 (7.7%) had pathogens identified (7 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 1 Group A Streptococcus, and 1 Rhodococcus). 55% of patients received 2 or more antimicrobials in hospital. Cephalosporins were given to 130 patients (96.1%) in hospital. Only 21/126 patients (16.7%) were discharged on amoxicillin. The median length of stay was 3 days (IQR 2–4) for those without effusion and 9 (IQR 5–13) for those with effusion. No deaths were related to pneumonia.
This study provides comprehensive data on the clinical characteristics of hospitalized children with CAP in the pneumococcal 7-valent vaccine era. Empiric antimicrobial choice at our institution is variable, highlighting a need for heightened antimicrobial stewardship.
PMCID: PMC3477073  PMID: 22928588

Results 1-6 (6)