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1.  Suboptimal management of central nervous system infections in children: a multi-centre retrospective study 
BMC Pediatrics  2012;12:145.
Objective
We aimed to audit the regional management of central nervous system (CNS) infection in children.
Methods
The study was undertaken in five district general hospitals and one tertiary paediatric hospital in the Mersey region of the UK. Children admitted to hospital with a suspected CNS infection over a three month period were identified. Children were aged between 4 weeks and 16 years old. Details were recorded from the case notes and electronic records. We measured the appropriateness of management pathways as outlined by national and local guidelines.
Results
Sixty-five children were identified with a median age of 6 months (range 1 month to 15 years). Ten had a CNS infection: 4 aseptic meningitis, 3 purulent meningitis, 3 encephalitis [2 with herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1]. A lumbar puncture (LP) was attempted in 50 (77%) cases but only 43 had cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) available for analysis. Of these 24 (57%) had a complete standard set of tests performed. Fifty eight (89%) received a third generation cephalosporin. Seventeen (26%) also received aciclovir with no obvious indication in 9 (53%). Only 11 (65%) of those receiving aciclovir had CSF herpes virus PCR. Seventeen had cranial imaging and it was the first management step in 14. Treatment lengths of both antibiotics and aciclovir were highly variable: one child with HSV encephalitis was only treated with aciclovir for 7 days.
Conclusions
The clinical management of children with suspected CNS infections across the Mersey region is heterogeneous and often sub-optimal, particularly for the investigation and treatment of viral encephalitis. National guidelines for the management of viral encephalitis are needed.
doi:10.1186/1471-2431-12-145
PMCID: PMC3443041  PMID: 22958329
Encephalitis; Meningitis; Central nervous system infection; Aciclovir; Lumbar puncture
2.  Successful treatment with azithromycin and rifampicin of penicillin and cephalosporin insensitive pneumococcal osteomyelitis in a child with HIV infection: a case report 
Cases Journal  2008;1:283.
Pneumococcal infection is common in children with HIV infection, but osteomyelits is unusual. The best treatment for bone and joint infection due to antibiotic resistant pneumococci is not known, especially in immunocompromised children.
A 6 month old girl, infected with HIV by mother to child transmission, had recently started combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). She presented with osteomyelitis of the left radius confirmed on bone scan. Blood cultures grew Streptococcus pneumoniae 9S resistant to penicillin, with reduced susceptibility to ceftriaxone.
Osteomyelitis was treated with parenteral teicoplanin, oral rifampicin and azithromycin. After two weeks of treatment she developed rash and fever. These were thought to be a drug eruption and resolved when teicoplanin was stopped. She completed a 3 month course of rifampicin and azithromycin and continued on cART. She has normal function of her left wrist 18 months after treatment. She remains on her original cART regimen with an undetectable viral load and normal CD4 count (34%; 1398 × 106/l).
The combination of rifampicin and azithromycin was well tolerated, simple to administer and effective. This combination deserves further study in bone and joint infection caused by antibiotic resistant Gram positive bacteria.
doi:10.1186/1757-1626-1-283
PMCID: PMC2584080  PMID: 18959805

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