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1.  Pain and stress assessment after retinopathy of prematurity screening examination: Indirect ophthalmoscopy versus digital retinal imaging 
BMC Pediatrics  2012;12:132.
Increasingly, neonatal clinics seek to minimize painful experiences and stress for premature infants. Fundoscopy performed with a binocular indirect ophthalmoscope is the reference examination technique for screening of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), and it is associated with pain and stress. Wide-field digital retinal imaging is a recent technique that should be evaluated for minimizing infant pain and stress.
The purpose of the study was to assess and compare the impact of using a binocular indirect ophthalmoscope (BIO), or wide-field digital retinal imaging (WFDRI) on pain and stress in infants undergoing ROP screening examination. This was a comparative evaluation study of two screening procedures. Ophthalmologic examinations (N = 70) were performed on 24 infants with both BIO and WFDRI. Pain assessments were performed with two specific neonatal scales (Crying, requires oxygen, increased vital signs, expression and sleeplessness, CRIES and, Premature infant pain profile, PIPP) just prior to the examination, and 30 seconds, 1 hour, and 24 hours later after ending the examination.
Changes over time were significantly different between BIO and WFDRI with both scales (PIPP score, p = .007, and CRIES score, p = .001). Median PIPP score (interquartile interval) at baseline was 4 (3–5). At 30 seconds the score was 8 (6–9) for BIO and 6 (5–7) for WFDRI, respectively. The increase in PIPP score between baseline and 30 seconds was significantly lower with WFDRI (p = .006). The median increase in CRIES score from baseline to 30 seconds was 1 point lower for WFDRI than for BIO (p < .001). No significant difference in response remained at 1 hour or 24 hour assessments.
A transient short-term pain and stress response occurs with both BIO and WFDRI. Infants examined for screening of ROP with digital retinal imaging present less pain and stress at 30 seconds following completion of the exam when compared with binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy.
PMCID: PMC3469398  PMID: 22928523
Diagnostic techniques; Pain measurement; Retinopathy of prematurity; Telemedicine
2.  Does opening a milk bank in a neonatal unit change infant feeding practices? A before and after study 
Donor human milk banks are much more than simple centers for collection, storage, processing, and distribution of donor human milk, as they cover other aspects and represent a real opportunity to promote and support breastfeeding. The aim of our study is to assess the impact that opening a human milk bank has had on the proportion of infants receiving exclusive breast milk at discharge and other aspects related to feeding children with birth weight < or = 1500 g or < 32 weeks gestation admitted to the neonatal unit.
The study included babies of < or = 1500 g or < 32 weeks gestation. Fifty infants born from February to July in 2006, before the opening of the human milk bank, and 54 born from February to July in 2008, after its opening, met inclusive criteria. We collected data about days of hospital stay, hours of life when feeding was started, hours of life when full enteral feeding was attained, the type of milk received during admission, and the type of feeding on discharge.
Children born in 2008 commenced feeding 16 hours earlier than those born in 2006 (p = 0.00). The proportion of infants receiving exclusive breast milk at discharge was 54% in 2006 and 56% in 2008 (p = 0.87). The number of days they received their mother's own milk during the first 28 days of life was 24.2 days in 2006, compared to 23.7 days in 2008 (p = 0.70). In 2006, 60% of infants received infant formula at least once in the first 28 days of life, compared to 37% in 2008 (p = 0.01).
The opening of a donor human milk bank in a neonatal unit did not reduce the proportion of infants exclusively fed with breast milk at discharge, but did reduce the proportion of infants that received infant formula during the first four weeks of life. Also, having donor human milk available enables commencement of enteral feeding earlier.
PMCID: PMC2852385  PMID: 20211005

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