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author:("oromo, Uduak")
1.  Sickle cell disease 
Clinical Evidence  2011;2011:2402.
Introduction
Sickle cell disease causes chronic haemolytic anaemia, dactylitis, and painful acute crises. It also increases the risk of stroke, organ damage, bacterial infections, and complications of blood transfusion. In sub-Saharan Africa, up to a third of adults are carriers of the defective sickle cell gene, and 1% to 2% of babies are born with the disease.
Methods and outcomes
We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: what are the effects of pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical interventions to prevent sickle cell crisis and other acute complications in people with sickle cell disease? What are the effects of pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical interventions to treat pain in people with sickle cell crisis? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to March 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).
Results
We found 38 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions.
Conclusions
In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: acupuncture, antibiotic prophylaxis in children <5 years of age, antibiotic prophylaxis in children >5 years of age, aspirin, avoidance of cold environment, blood transfusion, codeine, corticosteroid (with narcotic analgesics), diflunisal, hydration, hydroxyurea, ibuprofen, ketorolac, limiting physical exercise, malaria chemoprophylaxis, morphine (controlled-release oral after initial intravenous bolus, repeated intravenous doses), oxygen, paracetamol, patient-controlled analgesia, pneumococcal vaccines, and rehydration.
Key Points
In sub-Saharan Africa, up to a third of adults are carriers of the defective sickle cell gene, and 1% to 2% of babies are born with the disease. Sickle cell disease causes chronic haemolytic anaemia, dactylitis, and painful acute crises. It also increases the risk of stroke, organ damage, bacterial infections, and complications of blood transfusion.
We don’t know whether avoidance of cold environments, physical exercise, or rehydration can prevent crises or complications in people with sickle cell disease. Blood transfusion (prophylactic) reduces stroke in children at increased risk of stroke, but increases the risks of iron overload, allo-immunisation, hypertensive or circulatory overload, febrile non-haemolytic reactions, allergic reactions, and haemolytic events. Penicillin prophylaxis in children <5 years of age reduces invasive pneumococcal infections regardless of pneumococcal vaccination status. We don’t know whether penicillin prophylaxis is beneficial in older children. Malaria chemoprophylaxis is considered useful in preventing malaria-induced crises, but we found few studies evaluating its benefit.Polyvalent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine does not reduce the incidence of pneumococcal infections in people with sickle cell disease. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines have been reported to have protective efficacy in children <2 years of age, but this protective effect has not been shown in infants with sickle cell disease.
Hydroxyurea may reduce some complications of sickle cell disease, such as painful crises compared with placebo, but long-term effects and safety are unknown.
Morphine is widely used to treat severe pain, but we found no RCT evidence comparing it with placebo in people with sickle cell crises. Controlled-release oral morphine and patient-controlled analgesia may be as effective as repeated intravenous doses of morphine. Oral morphine increases the risk of acute chest syndrome compared with intravenous administration. High-dose corticosteroids may reduce the need for analgesia when added to intravenous morphine in people with a sickle cell crisis, but may increase the risks of adverse effects (such as infections, hypertension, and metabolic problems).
It is still unclear whether acupuncture, blood transfusion, hydration, oxygen, aspirin, codeine, diflunisal, ibuprofen, ketorolac, or paracetamol reduce pain during sickle cell crisis.
PMCID: PMC3217656  PMID: 21718552
2.  Mortality and loss to programme before antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected children eligible for treatment in The Gambia, West Africa 
Background
HIV infection among children, particularly those under 24 months of age, is often rapidly progressive; as a result guidelines recommend earlier access to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) for HIV infected children. Losses to follow-up (LTFU) and death in the interval between diagnosis and initiation of ART profoundly limit this strategy. This study explores correlates of LTFU and death prior to ART initiation among children.
Methods
The study is based on 337 HIV-infected children enrolled into care at an urban centre in The Gambia, including those alive and in care when antiretroviral therapy became available and those who enrolled later. Children were followed until they started ART, died, transferred to another facility, or were LTFU. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to determine the hazard of death or LTFU according to the baseline characteristics of the children.
Results
Overall, 223 children were assessed as eligible for ART based on their clinical and/or immunological status among whom 73 (32.7%) started treatment, 15 (6.7%) requested transfer to another health facility, 105 (47.1%) and 30 (13.5%) were lost to follow-up and died respectively without starting ART. The median survival following eligibility for children who died without starting treatment was 2.8 months (IQR: 0.9 - 5.8) with over half (60%) of all deaths occurring at home. ART-eligible children less than 2 years of age and those in WHO stage 3 or 4 were significantly more likely to be LTFU when compared with their respective comparison groups. The overall pre-treatment mortality rate was 25.7 per 100 child-years of follow-up (95% CI 19.9 - 36.8) and the loss to programme rate was 115.7 per 100 child-years of follow-up (95% CI 98.8 - 137). In the multivariable Cox proportional hazard model, significant independent predictors of loss to programme were being less than 2 years of age and WHO stage 3 or 4. The Adjusted Hazard Ratio (AHR) for loss to programme was 2.06 (95% CI 1.12 – 3.83) for being aged less than 2 years relative to being 5 years of age or older and 1.92 (95% CI 1.05 - 3.53) for being in WHO stage 3 or 4 relative to WHO stage 1 or 2.
Conclusions
Earlier enrolment into HIV care is key to achieving better outcomes for HIV infected children in developing countries. Developing strategies to ensure early diagnosis, elimination of obstacles to prompt initiation of therapy and instituting measures to reduce losses to follow-up, will improve the overall outcomes of HIV-infected children.
doi:10.1186/1742-6405-9-28
PMCID: PMC3505473  PMID: 23031736
Paediatrics; HIV; Pre-antiretroviral therapy; Loss to follow-up; Mortality; Retention; Sub-Saharan Africa
3.  Treatment outcomes among HIV-1 and HIV-2 infected children initiating antiretroviral therapy in a concentrated low prevalence setting in West Africa 
BMC Pediatrics  2012;12:95.
Background
There is little data on responses to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) among HIV-infected children in the West African region. We describe treatment outcomes among HIV-1 and HIV-2 infected children initiating cART in a research clinic in The Gambia, West Africa.
Methods
All treatment naive HIV-infected children who initiated cART according to the WHO ART guidelines for children between October 2004 and December 2009 were included in the analysis. Kaplan-Meir estimates and sign-rank test were used to investigate the responses to treatment.
Results
65 HIV-1 and five HIV-2 infected children aged < 15 years were initiated on cART over this time period. HIV-1 infected children were treated with a combination of Zidovudine or Stavudine + Lamivudine + Nevirapine or Efavirenz while children with HIV-2 were treated with Zidovudine + Lamivudine + ritonavir-boosted Lopinavir. HIV-1 infected children were followed-up for a median (IQR) duration of 20.1 months (6.9 – 34.3), with their median (IQR) age at treatment initiation, CD4% and plasma viral load at baseline found to be 4.9 years (2.1 – 9.1), 13.0% (7.0 – 16.0) and 5.4 log10 copies/ml (4.4 – 6.0) respectively. The median age at treatment initiation of the five HIV-2 infected children was 12 years (range: 4.6 – 14.0) while their median baseline CD4+ T cell count and HIV-2 viral load were 140 cells/mm3 (Range: 40 – 570 cells/mm3) and 4.5 log10copies/mL (Range: 3.1 - 4.9 log10copies/mL) respectively.
Among HIV-1 infected children <5 years of age at ART initiation, the median (IQR) increases in CD4% from baseline to 12, 24 and 36 months were 14% (8 – 19; P = 0.0004), 21% (15 – 22; P = 0.005) and 15% (15 – 25; P = 0.0422) respectively, while the median (IQR) increase in absolute CD4 T cell count from baseline to 12, 24 and 36 months for those ≥5 years at ART initiation were 470 cells/mm3 (270 – 650; P = 0.0005), 230 cells/mm3 (30 – 610; P = 0.0196) and 615 cells/mm3 (250 – 1060; P = 0.0180) respectively. The proportions of children achieving undetectable HIV-1 viral load at 6-, 12-, 24- and 36 months of treatment were 24/38 (63.2%), 20/36 (55.6%), 8/22 (36.4%) and 7/12 (58.3%) respectively. The probability of survival among HIV-1 infected children after 12 months on ART was 89.9% (95% CI 78.8 – 95.3). CD4 T cell recovery was sub-optimal in all the HIV-2 infected children and none achieved virologic suppression. Two of the HIV-2 infected children died within 6 months of starting treatment while the remaining three were lost to follow-up.
Conclusions
The beneficial effects of cART among HIV-1 infected children in our setting are sustained in the first 24 months of treatment with a significant improvement in survival experience up to 36 months; however the outcome was poor in the few HIV-2 infected children initiated on cART.
doi:10.1186/1471-2431-12-95
PMCID: PMC3407729  PMID: 22770231
4.  Pre-treatment mortality and loss-to-follow-up in HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1/HIV-2 dually infected patients eligible for antiretroviral therapy in The Gambia, West Africa 
Background
High early mortality rate among HIV infected patients following initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource limited settings may indicate high pre-treatment mortality among ART-eligible patients. There is dearth of data on pre-treatment mortality in ART programmes in sub-Sahara Africa. This study aims to determine pre-treatment mortality rate and predictors of pre-treatment mortality among ART-eligible adult patients in a West Africa clinic-based cohort.
Methods
All HIV-infected patients aged 15 years or older eligible for ART between June 2004 and September 2009 were included in the analysis. Assessment for eligibility was based on the Gambia ART guideline. Survival following ART-eligibility was determined by Kaplan-Meier estimates and predictors of pre-treatment mortality determined by Cox proportional hazard models.
Result
Overall, 790 patients were assessed as eligible for ART based on their clinical and/or immunological status among whom 510 (64.6%) started treatment, 26 (3.3%) requested transfer to another health facility, 136 (17.2%) and 118 (14.9%) were lost to follow-up and died respectively without starting ART. ART-eligible patients who died or were lost to follow-up were more likely to be male or to have a CD4 T-cell count < 100 cells/μL, while patients in WHO clinical stage 3 or 4 were more likely to die without starting treatment. The overall pre-treatment mortality rate was 21.9 deaths per 100 person-years (95% CI 18.3 - 26.2) and the rate for the composite end point of death or loss to follow-up was 47.1 per 100 person-years (95% CI 41.6 - 53.2). Independent predictors of pre-treatment mortality were CD4 T-cell count <100 cells/μL (adjusted Hazard ratio [AHR] 3.71; 95%CI 2.54 - 5.41) and WHO stage 3 or 4 disease (AHR 1.91; 95% CI 1.12 - 3.23). Forty percent of ART-eligible patients lost to follow-up seen alive at field visit cited difficulty with the requirement of disclosing their HIV status as reason for not starting ART.
Conclusion
Approximately one third of ART-eligible patients did not start ART and pre-treatment mortality rate was found high among HIV infected patients in our cohort. CD4 T-cell count <100 cells/μL is the strongest independent predictor of pre-treatment mortality. The requirement to disclose HIV status as part of ART preparation counselling constitutes a huge barrier for eligible patients to access treatment.
doi:10.1186/1742-6405-8-24
PMCID: PMC3152879  PMID: 21774813
5.  Bacterial Isolates and Antibiotic Sensitivity among Gambian Children with Severe Acute Malnutrition 
Background. Establishing the pattern of infection and antimicrobial sensitivities in the local environment is critical to rational use of antibiotics and the development of management algorithms. Methods. Morbidity history and physical examination of 140 children with severe acute malnutrition were recorded. Their blood, stool, and urine samples were cultured and antibiotic sensitivity patterns determined for any bacterial pathogens isolated. Results. Thirty-eight children had a pathogen isolated from blood culture, 60% of which were considered contaminants. Coagulase negative staphylococcus was the predominant contaminant, while the major causes of bacteraemia were nontyphoidal Salmonella (13%), S. pneumoniae (10%), and E. coli (8%). E. coli accounted for 58% of the urinary isolates. No pathogen was isolated from stool. In vitro sensitivity by disk diffusion showed that 87.5% of the isolates were sensitive to ampicillin and/or gentamicin and 84.4% (27/32) to penicillin and/or gentamicin. Conclusions. A combination of ampicillin and gentamicin provides adequate antibiotic cover for severely malnourished children in The Gambia.
doi:10.1155/2011/825123
PMCID: PMC3139120  PMID: 21785610
6.  Oral Activated Charcoal Prevents Experimental Cerebral Malaria in Mice and in a Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial in Man Did Not Interfere with the Pharmacokinetics of Parenteral Artesunate 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(4):e9867.
Background
Safe, cheap and effective adjunct therapies preventing the development of, or reducing the mortality from, severe malaria could have considerable and rapid public health impact. Oral activated charcoal (oAC) is a safe and well tolerated treatment for acute poisoning, more recently shown to have significant immunomodulatory effects in man. In preparation for possible efficacy trials in human malaria, we sought to determine whether oAC would i) reduce mortality due to experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) in mice, ii) modulate immune and inflammatory responses associated with ECM, and iii) affect the pharmacokinetics of parenteral artesunate in human volunteers.
Methods/Principal Findings
We found that oAC provided significant protection against P. berghei ANKA-induced ECM, increasing overall survival time compared to untreated mice (p<0.0001; hazard ratio 16.4; 95% CI 6.73 to 40.1). Protection from ECM by oAC was associated with reduced numbers of splenic TNF+ CD4+ T cells and multifunctional IFNγ+TNF+ CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Furthermore, we identified a whole blood gene expression signature (68 genes) associated with protection from ECM. To evaluate whether oAC might affect current best available anti-malarial treatment, we conducted a randomized controlled open label trial in 52 human volunteers (ISRCTN NR. 64793756), administering artesunate (AS) in the presence or absence of oAC. We demonstrated that co-administration of oAC was safe and well-tolerated. In the 26 subjects further analyzed, we found no interference with the pharmacokinetics of parenteral AS or its pharmacologically active metabolite dihydroartemisinin.
Conclusions/Significance
oAC protects against ECM in mice, and does not interfere with the pharmacokinetics of parenteral artesunate. If future studies succeed in establishing the efficacy of oAC in human malaria, then the characteristics of being inexpensive, well-tolerated at high doses and requiring no sophisticated storage would make oAC a relevant candidate for adjunct therapy to reduce mortality from severe malaria, or for immediate treatment of suspected severe malaria in a rural setting.
Trial Registration
Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN64793756
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0009867
PMCID: PMC2855344  PMID: 20419161
7.  Antimalarial drug prescribing practice in private and public health facilities in South-east Nigeria: a descriptive study 
Malaria Journal  2007;6:55.
Background
Nigeria's national standard has recently moved to artemisinin combination treatments for malaria. As clinicians in the private sector are responsible for attending a large proportion of the population ill with malaria, this study compared prescribing in the private and public sector in one State in Nigeria prior to promoting ACTs.
Objective
To assess prescribing for uncomplicated malaria in government and private health facilities in Cross River State.
Method
Audit of 665 patient records at six private and seven government health facilities in 2003.
Results
Clinicians in the private sector were less likely to record history or physical examination than those in public facilities, but otherwise practice and prescribing were similar. Overall, 45% of patients had a diagnostic blood slides; 77% were prescribed monotherapy, either chloroquine (30.2%), sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (22.7%) or artemisinin derivatives alone (15.8%). Some 20.8% were prescribed combination therapy; the commonest was chloroquine with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine. A few patients (3.5%) were prescribed sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine-mefloquine in the private sector, and only 3.0% patients were prescribed artemisinin combination treatments.
Conclusion
Malaria treatments were varied, but there were not large differences between the public and private sector. Very few are following current WHO guidelines. Monotherapy with artemisinin derivatives is relatively common.
doi:10.1186/1475-2875-6-55
PMCID: PMC1867820  PMID: 17480216

Results 1-7 (7)