Longevity-associated mitochondrial DNA 5178 (Mt5178) C/A reportedly modulates the effects of coffee consumption on the risk of hypertension, dyslipidemia and abnormal glucose tolerance, and those of alcohol consumption on the risk of hypertension, dyslipidemia and hyperuricemia in middle-aged Japanese men. However, there has been no research examining whether Mt5178 C/A polymorphism influences the effects of coffee consumption or alcohol consumption on the clustering of cardiovascular risk factors (CRFs).
A total of 332 male subjects (mean age ± SD, 52.8 ± 7.8 years) were selected from among individuals visiting the hospital for regular medical check-ups. After Mt5178 C/A genotyping, a cross-sectional study assessing the joint effects of Mt5178 C/A polymorphism and coffee consumption or alcohol consumption on the clustering of CRFs, namely hypertension, abnormal glucose tolerance, hyper-low-density lipoprotein cholesterolemia, hypo-high density lipoprotein cholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia and hyperuricemia, was then conducted.
After adjustment for confounding factors, significant and negative associations were observed between coffee consumption and clustering of ≥2 CRFs in subjects with Mt5178C. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for the clustering of ≥2 or ≥3 CRFs was significantly lower in subjects who consumed 1–3 cups of coffee per day than in those who consumed <1 cup of coffee per day (OR = 0.496, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.249–0.989, and OR = 0.369, 95% CI: 0.165–0.826, respectively). On the other hand, after adjustment, positive associations between coffee consumption and clustering of ≥2 CRFs were observed in subjects with Mt5178A. However, these associations did not reach a significant level. For Mt5178C genotypic men, the adjusted OR for the clustering of ≥2 or ≥3 CRFs was significantly higher in daily drinkers than in occasional drinkers (OR = 2.737, 95% CI: 1.361–5.502, and OR = 3.024, 95% CI: 1.269–7.210, respectively). On the other hand, the association between Mt5178A genotype and the clustering of ≥2 or ≥3 CRFs did not appear to depend on alcohol consumption.
The present results suggest that Mt5178 C/A polymorphism modifies the effects of coffee consumption or alcohol consumption on the clustering of CRFs in middle-aged Japanese men.